Missions True Christianity is essentially missionary in character. The Gospel having been designed for all nations, and its field being the world, it was from the first associated with means for its own extension. In a highly important sense, the Lord Jesus may be considered the first missionary. He was sent by the Eternal Father to set up his own kingdom upon the earth. The patriarchs, and all faithful priests and prophets among the Jews, were agents preparatory to the introduction of that kingdom. Having called disciples and established a Church, the risen Saviour, before his ascension, commissioned his chosen apostles, in the presence of the great body of the disciples, the then existing Church. To them, as the leaders and representatives of the actual and the prospective Church, he addressed the great missionary command, "Go ye into all, the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature." Christ's mission had been to the Jews. He said, "I am not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." The apostles were sent to the Jews and Gentiles. " The Acts of the Apostles" is the first official missionary, report- the first volume of missionary history; unless, indeed, it rank second, as it is subsequent to the Gospel history of him "who went about doing good." So vast has been the expansion of the missionary enterprise since the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, and so voluminous have become its records, that this article is of necessity limited to a very brief sketch of the subject as a whole. Nevertheless, the design of the article is to give, in the briefest practicable space, a just and duly proportioned view of the principal missionary agencies of successive periods, and some indication of their results, together with references to the sources of more detailed information.
There are two leading modes of studying the subject of missions. The first regards primarily the agencies employed, following them to their different fields of action. The second contemplates in succession the several fields, where necessarily it gives attention to the different agencies employed upon them. Each mode has some peculiar advantages, as well as defects or difficulties, and both are essential to a full comprehension of the subject. They will consequently be followed in the order named. As a natural guide to study and help to memory, the order of time will be followed in the survey of missionary agencies.
I. Apostolic Missions. — It is safe to affirm that no just or adequate comprehension of the New-Testament history can be gained by any one who does not read or study it from a missionary point of view. But when, in the light of their' great commission, the apostles are regarded as Christian missionaries going forth to evangelize the nations, not only the narrative of their Acts or doings, but their epistles to the churches which they planted and trained, become instructive, both as to their modes of proceeding, their difficulties, and their successes.
Paul, as the apostle to the, Gentiles, stands forth in deserved prominence as a model missionary. Although originally a relentless persecutor of the Christians, he experienced a thorough spiritual conversion, and thus became "a new man in Christ Jesus." Having been called of God to be an apostle or missionary of Jesus Christ, he "conferred not with flesh and blood," he "counted not his life dear unto him," but went forth preaching the everlasting Gospel wherever he could find hearers, encountering perils of robbers, perils by his own countrymen, perils by the heathen, perils in the city, perils in the wilderness, and perils among false brethren (2Co 11:26); nevertheless winning souls to Christ, rescuing communities from paganism, founding churches, training ministers, and at length finishing his course with joy, having won both the martyr's crown and the crown of eternal life. Until the consummation of all things, the study of Paul's missionary character, travels, and labors, will be a standard and profitable topic for all who desire to comprehend the true principles, agencies, and measures of Christian propagandism. In the subsequent history of the Church it will be found that all departures from the spirit of his example have been aberrations from the line of true success; whereas efforts put forth from similar, motives and in a like spirit have been invariably attended by the divine blessing and the salvation of men.
But although prominent as the founder of the infant Church in the principal cities of the Roman empire, and although, for some wise but not easily comprehended reason, his successive missionary journeys chiefly occupy the sacred narrative, yet Paul was only one of the noble band of apostolic missionaries. Peter was the acknowledged leader of the opening mission of the infant Church to Jerusalem, and afterwards of missionary efforts in behalf of Jews throughout the world. Not only was he the chief actor in the scenes of the Pentecost, but he laid the foundation for missions to the Gentiles by baptizing the centurion Cornelius and other Gentiles at Caesarea. According to Origen and Eusebius, he preached to the Jews scattered in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. Many scholars have become satisfied that his mission extended to Babylon, on the Euphrates, while the general voice of antiquity ascribes to him a martyr's death at Rome. Whatever may have been true as to his actual presence at those extreme points of the East and the West, his general epistles sufficiently demonstrate his personal acquaintance, as well as ministerial authority, in vast regions intermediate.
Next to that of Peter we recognise the prominence of the apostle John, who, after protracted labors among the Jews in Palestine, took up his abode at Ephesus, from which centre he exercised supervision of the churches of Asia Minor till the period of his exile to Patmos, whence he yet speaks to the churches.
As to the other apostles, neither Scripture nor history gives definite information, but early and uncontradicted tradition assigns them severally to important and widespread mission fields. According to the general voice of antiquity, James the Just. remained at Jerusalem. Andrew preached in Scythia, Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Achaia; Philip in Upper Asia, Scythia, and Phrygia, where he suffered, martyrdom. Bartholomew penetrated India. Thomas visited Media and Persia, and possibly the coast of Coromandel and the island of Ceylon. Matthew went to Ethiopia, Parthia, and Abyssinia; Simon Zelotes to Egypt, Cyrene, Lybia, and Mauritania; and Jude to Galilee, Samaria, Idumea, and Mesopotamia. Whatever of literal truth is embodied in the traditions quoted, they at least show that the grand missionary idea was associated with the history of the several apostles from the earliest period; and, taken in connection with known results, they leave no doubt that the lives of those chosen men were spent in zealous and self-sacrificing efforts for the spread of the Gospel. Nor was this true only of the apostles, but also of the Christian believers of that period generally, who, when even scattered by persecution, "went everywhere preaching the word" (Ac 8:4). On no other hypothesis than that of universal missionary activity on the part of both ministers and members of the Church of the apostles and their immediate successors, attended also by the divine blessing, is it possible to account for the extensive spread ,of early Christianity. During the last sixty years of the 1st century the new religion became diffused, to a greater or less extent, throughout the numerous countries embraced in the Roman empire, inclusive of Egypt, Northern Africa, Spain, Gaul, and Britain. As a direct result of the apostolic missions, the Christian Church is supposed to have contained in the year 100 half a million of living members, those of the first and second generations having mostly gone forward to join the Church triumphant.
The churches of the present and the future will find the most important lessons as to their responsibilities and duties in the history of apostolic missions. It may also be said that modern missions, and the comparatively recent development of the missionary spirit, have thrown much light upon the instrumentalities by which Christianity was first established in the earth, and by which it was designed to become universal. From both classes of events it appears that consecrated men and consecrated means are the active agencies to be employed for the establishment of Christ's kingdom upon the earth; and that these combined, under the guidance and blessing of the Head of the Church, may be expected to triumph over the most frigid indifference and the most violent opposition.
In the penury, the obscurity, and the lack of facilities of the, early Church, the work of promoting the salvation of men, and of extending the truth, was one of individual and personal exertion, supplemented, of course, by the influence of the Holy Spirit. At first there were no churches for public assembly, no books for auxiliary influence, no organizations for the support of missionaries, home or foreign. Nevertheless, regenerated men went everywhere preaching the word. They founded churches wherever the word was received by believers, and the members of the churches were taught to sustain those who labored among them in the Lord, and also to let the riches of their liberality abound, even out of their deep poverty, for the furtherance of the Gospel. They were also taught the duty of constant prayer, not only for one another, but especially that the word of God might have free course and be glorified, and that God would open to his servants a door of utterance to speak the mystery of Christ (2Th 3:1; Col 4:3). Thus the whole Apostolic Church was an agency for self-extension, and for the propagation of the truth. Though public preaching was practiced to the greatest extent practicable, yet the inference is inevitable that the extension of Christian truth was accomplished largely by means .of personal influence in conversation, example, and private persuasion. In this way all could be "helpers of the truth." And by public and private means, united and in constant action, Christianity was diffused, notwithstanding the apparently insuperable obstacles that confronted it on every hand. There is good reason to believe that had the true character of the Apostolic Church been preserved, and its singleness of missionary aim and action been maintained, the development of Christianity in the world would have been constant, if not rapid, and that long ere this the remotest nations would have been evangelized.
II. Ancient Missions. — Under this head, allusion will be made to the aggressive movements of the Church between the apostolic and mediaeval periods. That the 2d and 3d centuries witnessed great missionary activity on the part of Christians in the countries to which access could be secured, is proved not only by the multiplication of their numbers and influence, but by the bloody persecutions that were waged against them under successive Roman emperors. Owing to various causes there have come down to us but few details of the precise work that was done, or of the modes in which it was done. It is, however, but reasonable to suppose that apostolic measures and usages were, during the earlier parts of this period, quite in the ascendant. Eusebius says that "the followers of the apostles imitated their example in distributing their worldly goods among necessitous believers, and, quitting their own country, went forth into distant lands to propagate the Gospel." It was at the beginning of the 2d century that the younger Pliny, governor of Bithynia, after official investigation, made to the emperor Trajan his celebrated report concerning the customs and prevalence of the Christians. Said he, "Many persons, of all ages, of every rank, and of both sexes. likewise are accused, and will be accused [of Christianity]. Nor has the contagion of this superstition pervaded cities only, but the villages and open country." The allegations of this persecutor of Christians, in respect to the numbers accused of Christianity, are corroborated by various statements of Christians themselves. Justin Martyr, writing about one hundred and six years after the ascension says, "There is not a nation, either of Greek or barbarian, or of any other name, even of those who wander in tribes and live in tents, among whom prayers and thanksgivings are not offered to the Father and Creator of the universe in the name of the crucified Jesus." Tertullian, in his Apology, written fifty years later, says, "Though of yesterday, we have filled every sphere of life: cities, castles, islands, towns; the exchange, the very camps, the plebeian populace, the seats of judges, the imperial palace, and the forum." When it is remembered that these results had been attained in the face of persecution, and in spite of tortures and martyrdom, no other comment is needed upon the missionary diligence and devotedness of those who were the agents of such wide-spread and effective evangelization. In harmony with measures of this character was the translation of the Scriptures into several important languages, as the Latin. the Syriac, the Ethiopian, and the Egyptian. In the absence of statistics, which were then impossible, all attempts to estimate numbers must be-chiefly based upon probabilities. Yet some have estimated that the number of Christians at the end of the 2d century was not less than two millions, and increased during the 3d century to perhaps twice that number.
The opening of the 4th century, A.D. 313, witnessed the issue of Constantine's edict of toleration, an event which shows about as conclusively as figures could the continuous growth of Christian influence and numbers. That edict was proclaimed in immediate sequence of the Era Martyrium, the Diocletian persecution — the tenth in the series of those fierce attacks upon the non-offending and non-resisting followers of Christ, which successively proved that "the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." As the edict referred to suppressed official persecution in all parts of the empire, it may be regarded as in itself an unmingled blessing, a recognition of an indefeasible right of humanity, and all that Christianity needed on the part of the world for further advancement and complete success. When the way of the Lord had been thus prepared, through so much toil and suffering, it was to be expected that thenceforward the cause of Christian truth would be advanced with accumulated moral and spiritual power. It is, however, a sad, but, in the history of missions, a usually overlooked fact, that the very period at which so much had been gained, and from which so much was to be hoped in the legitimate extension of Christianity, witnessed the development of agencies and influences that antagonized the peculiar aims of the Gospel and marred its missionary character, sowing throughout the extended field of its influence the seeds of premature and almost fatal decay. The circumstance of these influences being more or less antagonistic to each other did not relieve their evil effect, but rather increased their power, as multiplied diseases sooner reduce the vital energies of the human system. Had there been no previous departures from the true spirit of the Gospel, and had the Christians of the 4th century been content to rely on spiritual agencies for the promotion of Christianity, the advantages which followed the professed conversion of Constantine might in all probability have tended to extend and consolidate a pure type of Christianity. But, unhappily, insidious influences had already been initiated, which, in the sunshine of apparent prosperity, grew with the rankness and rapidity of noxious weeds. Of these influences, allusion can only be made summarily to doctrinal errors, monasticism, and worldly conformity. It was not merely that Docetism, Ebionism, Gnosticism, Montanism, Arianism, and other heresies induced bitter and protracted controversies, thus dividing the Church with partisan strife, but they absorbed the thought and energies of thousands of professed Christian ministers, who ought to have been exclusively engaged in preaching the Gospel. So when, in the 2d century, the doctrine of a Christian priesthood began to be developed with an attempted imitation of the Jewish, the evil was not merely the diversion of ministerial talent from the one work of preaching and teaching in the name of Christ to a burdensome routine of ritual ceremonies, but a direct step towards conformity with certain pagan theories and practices which in later periods were put forward as elements of Christianity itself.
As it has often been asserted, and indeed extensively believed. that the world owes something to monasticism in consideration of certain missionary labors conducted by members of monastic orders, it seems proper to set forth the true bearing of that subject, from which it will appear that monasticism was, in fact, one of the earliest and greatest hindrances to the missionary development of the Church, and that whatever good was subsequently done by missionaries who were monks was done by force of Christian impulse or character, in direct contravention of the spirit and intent of monasticism. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the historic fact that monasticism existed in the far East as a heathen practice anterior to the Christian aera. The first strictly ascetic sect in the Church was that of the Montanists, which arose in Phrygia about A.D. 150, from Montanus, who had been previously a priest of the heathen deity Cybele. During the 2d and 3d centuries a growing disposition manifested itself in the Church to exaggerate the virtue of fasting, and to attach special merit to celibacy, specially among the clergy. Vows of celibacy began to be taken by persons of both sexes, in the idea that such a life was more holy than that of wedlock. About the year A.D. 250 the Decian persecution raged with extreme severity in Upper Egypt, causing many to flee for their lives to deserts and secluded places. Already the minds of many Christians in Egypt had been predisposed to asceticism by the writings of Clement, Origen, and Dionysius of Alexandria. Under a combination of these and similar influences, many persons who ought to have been contending earnestly for "the faith once delivered to the saints" withdrew themselves from society, and wasted their lives in idleness, and in useless struggles with the phantoms of their own excited imaginations. The true spirit of Christianity would have given them courage to face danger, and doubtless have enabled them in many cases to win even their persecutors to the faith. But the impulse of cowardice, whether moral or physical, is contagious; hence multitudes of well-meaning but weak persons abandoned scenes of Christian conflict, and betook themselves to desert solituaes and caves of the mountains. At first they lived as hermits, and sought by means of labor to provide for themselves, and to devote a surplus of their earnings to charitable objects. By degrees the austerities of some won for them notoriety, and caused them to become objects of charity, and even of superstitious reverence, among the ignorant. Thus such men as Anthony of Egypt, Paul of Thebes, Hilarion of Palestine, and others, became severally the centres of great communities of men, who might at their homes or in mission fields have been very useful, but who now wasted their lives in idleness and self-mortifications, to the disgrace of the Christianity which they professed. Pachomius, originally a soldier, but afterwards an anchoret, developed a certain organizing power by gathering his imitators out of their individual huts into a coenobium, or community residence, thus founding the first Christian monastery. It was at Tabenna, an island of the Nile. Pachomius also founded cloisters for nuns; and the members of his community, during his lifetime, reached the large number of 3000. By the middle of the 5th century this order of monks alone, and there were various others, had attained the great number of 50,000. From this brief statement as an index let the mind of the reader survey the vast expansion of the monastic idea and of monastic ambition as orders of monks became multiplied and powerful, spreading themselves throughout Europe and the East during the long period of fifteen centuries. SEE BENEDICTINES; SEE CARMELITES; SEE CARTHUSIANS; SEE DOMINICANS; SEE JESUITS; SEE MONASTICISM; SEE MONKS; etc. Considering the hundreds of thousands, and even millions, of persons whose lives were by this unscriptural and unnatural system withdrawn from spheres of Christian usefulness in society and in mission fields' to profitless and often degrading austerities, to say nothing of worse excesses that sometimes followed in its train, it is easy to perceive that monasticism acted as a gigantic and wide- spread antagonism to the evangelization of the world. It may be assumed that the persons embraced within its influence meant well. and as a rule lived up to the theories of which they were the victims. But how different might have been the position and influence of the Christian Church had the lives and sacrifices of all those persons been applied in accordance with the Saviour's precept, "Go teach all nations." While, therefore, monasticism was decimating the Church by the profitless seclusion of thousands if its best members, worldly conformity, on the other hand, came into the Church like a flood, with the elevation of many of the clergy to imperial favor. Thus the ancient Church, instead of remaining a unit in its zeal and efforts for the conversion of the world, became embarrassed by two opposite and equally injurious systems of error and practice, both alike fatal to its missionary faithfulness and progress. To this day the Greek Church remains under the incubus of the monastic system fastened upon it at that early period, while the Latin Church soon after became so closely identified with secular power that, although it resumed propagandism, it practiced it with motives and measures often highly exceptionable, and thus contaminated and enfeebled the Christianity it disseminated. "In regard to missions, the inaction of the Eastern churches is well known. As a general rule, they have remained content with the maintenance of their own customs." "The preaching of Ulphilas to the Goths, of the Nestorian missions in Asia, of Russia in Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, are but striking exceptions. The conversion of the Russian nation was effected, not by the preaching of the Byzantine clergy, but by the marriage of a Byzantine princess. In the midst of the Mohammedan Ehst the Greek populations remain like islands in the barren sea, and the Bedouin tribes have wandered for twelve centuries round the Greek convent of Mount Sinai, probably without one instance of conversion to the creed of men whom they yet acknowledge with almost religious veneration as beings from a higher world" (Stanley, Eastern Ch.).
In taking a historical view, however brief, of the Christian missions of successive ages, it seems desirable to exercise charity in the largest degree consistent with truth. And, in fact, great allowance must be made for the ignorance and difficulties of ancient and mediaeval times. Nevertheless, in the light of the Saviour's rule "by their fruits shall ye know them," it is necessary to concede that much in ecclesiastical history that has passed for Christianity is scarcely less than a caricature of the reality. So of missionary propagandism and the conversion of nations, it must be confessed that many familiar and comprehensive phrases, such as the " conversion of the Roman empire," "the conversion of the Northern nations," "the conversion of Germany," "of Poland," "of Norway," etc., can only signify nominal conversion, and such 'outward changes as might take place wholly apart from the influence of that true faith which "works by love and purifies the heart." While, therefore, facts may be mentioned as they are represented to us in history, a careful judgment will discriminate as to their true moral or evangelical significance. Nor must the important consideration be overlooked that God, who can make the wrath of man praise him, and overrule the most untoward events to the accomplishment of his own glory, could, and doubtless did, overrule much that was imperfect, and even censurable, in the mode of promoting a nominal Christianity for the ultimate furtherance of the truth.
III. Period and Elements of Transition. — There is no positive line of demarcation between the ancient and the mediaeval churches. Indeed writers never cease to differ in regard to the limits assigned to each. In point of fact, the former gradually and almost insensibly blended into the latter; but, in a missionary, point of view, we are forced to consider the ancient Church as coming to a close when her purity and her aggressiveness began simultaneously to decline. During the first three centuries Christianity maintained a complete antagonism to false religions and pagan worship in all its forms. Conversions to Christianity were individual, not national; the new faith made its way upward from the humbler strata of society to the higher, from the Catacombs to the palace, till at length the number of converts became too great and too influential to be ignored either by emperors or by senates. In the 4th century we have the example of the emperor Constantine, as yet unbaptized, taking an active part in preaching and in .the councils of the Church; and subsequently the leading missionary efforts were specially addressed to kings and princes, to whose determination their subjects were expected to conform.
One of the saddest aspects of the closing period of the ancient Church appeared in the growing tendency on the part of the clergy to accept nominal instead of real conversions, outward conformity instead of actual faith. Many bishops encouraged this tendency, wishing to make what they called conversion as easy as possible. Hence they baptized even those who lived in open sin, and who plainly indicated their purpose to continue in it. Perhaps they imagined that such persons, when once introduced to the Church, would be more easily and certainly reformed, although, for the most part, they merely told them what they would have to believe in order to be Christians, without insisting on the obligations of a holy life, lest the candidates should decline baptism. "These corrupt modes of procedure originated partly in the erroneous notions of worth attached to a barely outward baptism and outward Church fellowship, and partly in the false notions of what constituted faith, and of the relation of the doctrines of faith and of morals in Christianity to each other" (Neander, Church Hist. 2:100). Against such views and measures there were not wanting remonstrances on the part of such men as Chrysostom and Augustine. The former, reprobating bishops animated by a false zeal for increasing the numbers of nominal Christians, says: "Our Lord utters it as a precept, 'Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine.' But, through foolish vanity and ambition, we have subverted this command too by admitting those corrupt, unbelieving men, who are full of evil, before they have given us any satisfactory evidence of a change of mind, to partake of the sacraments. It is on this account many of those who were thus baptized have fallen away and occasioned much scandal." Augustine complained: "How many seek Jesus only that he may benefit them in earthly matters! One man has a lawsuit, so he seeks the intercession of the clergy; another is oppressed by his superior, so he takes refuge in the Church; and still another that he may secure the wife of his choice. The Church is full of such persons. Seldom is Jesus sought for Jesus's sake." Nor were worldly motives the only agencies which led to spurious and hypocritical conversions, Many were awakened by outward impressions: some supposed they had seen miraculous effects produced by the sign of the cross; others were affected by dreams, and did little more than exchange one superstition for another. Against these insidious and contagious errors Augustine uttered faithful exhortations and warnings in his tract De Catechizandis Rudibus and other writings, but the current of things, and the swelling tide of barbarian invasion, greatly antagonized his influence. Some were doubtless led from poor beginnings to better results, becoming in the end true Christians, although they entered the Church from unworthy motives; but far earlier, and more extensively than is generally supposed, the true spiritual character of the ancient Church, as a whole, had lamentably declined, and with it all genuine zeal for the spiritual conversion of men.
IV. Mediaeval Missions. — It is not to be denied that the mediaeval period was one of revolution, and therefore unfavorable to the propagation of true religion; but it is by no means conceded, as is argued by some Protestant writers, including Milman, Guizot, and others of high reputation, that a defective development of Christianity was therefore inevitable, or that the semi-monastic and secular measures employed to civilize and Christianize the barbarians of Europe were "adapted as a transitionary stage for the childhood of those races." On the other hand, it is claimed, in the light of Scripture and experience, both among ancient and modern heathen, that the grand desideratum for those times, as for all others, was the unadulterated Gospel of Christ and his apostles, which not only would have availed tenfold more than did all worldly and semi-secular expedients, but would have remained as a pure, instead of a corrupting, leaven to work in after ages. It is pleasing to observe that in some of the earlier missions, of which brief sketches will now be submitted, there was no inconsiderable mixture of just and appropriate evangelical agencies, such as the translation and circulation of the Scriptures, and self-denying examples of missionary life. Instead of attempting, as has often been done, to sum up by centuries what was done, or said to have been done, to extend Christianity, it is thought better to present from historic sources a few sample missionary events and characters from successive periods of mediaeval .Church history, illustrating the actual introduction of the Church into different countries and among various races.
1. The Mission of Ulphilas to the Goths. — "When we proceed to inquire in what way a knowledge of Christianity was diffused among the nations which thus established themselves on the ruins of the Roman empire, we find, at least at the outset, that ecclesiastical history can give us but scanty information. 'We know as little in detail,' remarks Schlegel, 'of the circumstances under which Christianity became so universally spread in a short space of time among all the Gothic nations as of the establishment, step by step, of their great kingdom on the Black Sea.' The rapid and universal diffusion, indeed, of the new faith is a proof of their capacity for civilization, and of the national connection of the whole race; but where shall we find the details of their conversion? We have not a record, not even a legend, of the way in which the Visigoths in France, the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, the Suevians in Spain, the Gepidae, the Vandals, the followers of Odoacer, and the fiery Lombards, were converted to the Christian faith. We may trace this, in part, to the terrible desolation which at this period reigned everywhere, while nation warred against nation, and tribe against tribe; we may trace it, still more, to the fact that every one of the tribes above mentioned was converted to the Arian form of Christianity, a sufficient reason in the eyes of Catholic historians for ignoring altogether the efforts of heretics to spread the knowledge of the faith. And till the close of the 6th, and the opening of the 7th century, we must be content with the slenderest details, if we wish to Know anything of the early diffusion of Christianity on the European continent.
"The record, however, of one early missionary has forced its way into the Catholic histories.' In the reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, the Goths, descending from the north and east, began, from their new settlements on the Danube, to threaten the safety of the southern provinces of the empire. Establishing themselves in the Ukraine and on the shores of the Bosphorus, they spread terror throughout Pontus, Bithynia, and Cappadocia. In one of these inroads they carried off from the latter country a multitude of captives, some belonging to the clergy, and located them in their settlements along the northern bank of the Danube. Here the captives did not forget their Christian duties towards their heathen masters, nor did the latter scorn to receive from them the gentle doctrines of Christianity. The work, indeed, went on in silence, but from time to time we have proofs that the seed had not been sown in vain. Among the 318 bishops at the Council of Nice, the light complexion of the Gothic bishop Theophilus must have attracted notice, as contrasted 'with the dark hair and tawny hue of almost all the rest.' But Theophilus was the predecessor and teacher of a still greater missionary. Among the involuntary slaves carried off in the reign of Gallienus were the parents or ancestors of Ulphilas, who has won for himself the title of 'Apostle of the Goths.' Born, probably, in the year 318, he was, at a comparatively early age, sent on a mission to Constantinople, and there Constantine caused him to be consecrated bishop by his own chaplain, Eusebius of Nicomedia. From this time he devoted himself heart and soul to the conversion of his countrymen, and the Goths were the first of the barbarians among whom we see Christianity advancing general civilization, as well as teaching a purer faith.
"But his lot was cast in troublous times: the threatened irruption of a barbarous horde, and the animosity of the heathen Goths, induced him to cross the Danube, where the emperor Constantine assigned to his flock a district of country, and here he continued to labor with success. The influence he had already gained, and the natural sense of gratitude for the benefits he had bestowed upon the tribes by procuring for them a more peaceful settlement, rendered his efforts comparatively easy. Rejoicing in the woodlands and pastures of their new home, where they could to advantage tend their numerous flocks and herds, and purchase corn and wine of the richer provinces around them, they listened obediently to the voice of their bishop, whom they likened to a second Moses. And the conduct of Ulphilas justified their confidence. With singular wisdom he did not confine his efforts to the oral instruction of his people; he sought to restore to them the art of writing, which probably had been lost during their migration from the east to the north of Germany. Composing an alphabet of twenty-five letters, some of which he was fain to invent, in order to give expression to sounds unknown to Greek and Latin pronunciation, he translated the Scriptures into the native language of his flock, omitting only the four books of Kings, a precaution he adopted from a fear that their contents might tend to rouse the martial ardor and fierce spirit of a people who, in this matter, to use the quaint language of the historian, 'required the bit rather than the spur.'" "After a while he was constrained to act the part of mediator between the Visigothic nation and the Roman emperor Valens. In the year A.D. 374 the barbarous horde of the Huns burst upon the kingdom of the Ostrotgoths, and, having subdued it, turned their eyes to the lands and possessions of the Visigoths. Unable to defend the line of the Dniester, the latter fell back upon the Pruth, hoping for safety amid the inaccessible defiles of the Carpathian mountains. But, sensible that even here they were not secure, a considerable party began to long for an asylum within the Roman dominions, and it was agreed that ambassadors, with Ulphilas among their number, should repair to the court of Valens, and endeavor to obtain a new settlement.
"Valens was an Arian and a controversialist. At this very time he was enforcing at Antioch, 'by other weapons than those of reason and eloquence,' a belief in the Arian theology; and when the poor bishop presented himself, and requested aid in the dire necessity of his people, the emperor is reported to have persecuted him with discussions on the hypostatic union, and to have pressed upon him the necessity of repudiating the Confession of Nice, and adopting that of Rimini. Ulphilas was in a great strait, but, being a simple-minded man, and considering the question one of words, and involving only metaphysical subtleties, not worthy of consideration in comparison with the sufferings of his people, he assented to the emperor's proposal, and promised that the Gothic nation should adopt the Arian Confession. The emperor, on his part, consented to give up certain lands in Moesia, but annexed to this concession two harsh and rigorous conditions: that before they crossed the Danube the Goths should give up their arms, and suffer their children to be taken from them as hostages for their own fidelity, with the prospect of being educated in the different provinces of Asia.
"On these hard terms instructions were issued to the military governors of the Thracian diocese, bidding them make preparations for the reception of the new settlers. But it was found no easy matter to transport across a river more than a mile in breadth, and swelled by incessant rains, upwards of a million of both sexes and of all ages. For days and nights they passed and repassed in boats and canoes, and before they landed not a few had been carried away and drowned by the violence of the current. But, besides the disciples of Ulphilas, thousands of Goths, crossed the river who still continued faithful to their own heathen priests and priestesses. Disguising, it is even said, their priests in the garb of Christian bishops and fictitious ascetics, they deceived the credulous Romans; and only when on the Roman side of the river did they throw off the mask, and make it clear that Valens was not easily to have his wish gratified, and see them converted to Arianism. One of the hereditary chiefs, Fritigern, a disciple of Ulphilas, adopted the creed of the empire, the other, Athanaric, headed the numerous party which still continued devoted to the altars and rites of Woden. The latter faction, placing their chief god on a lofty wagon, dragged it through the Gothic camp; all who refused to bow down, they burned, with their wives and children; nor did they spare the rude church they had erected, or the confused crowd of women and children who had fled to it for protection. But while the great bulk of the Gothic nation were involved in constant wars with the Roman armies, and, under the two great divisions of Ostrogoths and Visigoths, were gradually spreading themselves over Gaul, Italy, and Spain, Ulphilas continued, till the year 388, to superintend the temporal and spiritual necessities of the peaceful and populous colony of shepherds and herdsmen which, as in another Goshen, he had formed on the slopes of Mount Hoemus, and to whom he had presented the Gothic Bible in their own tongue.
"The zeal he had displayed found an imitator in the great Chrysostom. What was the measure of his success we have no means of judging, but it is certain that he founded in Constantinople an institution in which Goths might be trained and qualified to preach the Gospel to their fellow- countrymen. Even during the three years of his banishment to the remote and wretched little town of Cucusus, among the ridges of Mount Taiurus, amid the want of provisions, frequent sickness without the possibility of obtaining medicines, and the ravages of Isaurian robbers, his active mind, invigorated by misfortunes, found relief not only in corresponding with churches in all quarters, but in directing missionary operations in Phoenicia, Persia, and among the Goths. In several extant epistles we find him advising the despatch of missionaries, one to this point, another to that, consoling some under persecution, animating all by the example of the great apostle Paul,: and the hope of an eternal reward. And in answer to his appeals, his friends at a distance supplied him with funds so ample that he was enabled to support missions and redeem captives, and even had to beg of them that their abundant liberality might be directed into other channels. How far his exertions prevailed to win over any portion of the Gothic nation to the Catholic communion we have no means of judging. Certain it is that from the Western Goths the Arian form of Christianity extended to the Eastern Goths, to the Gepidae, the Alans, the Vandals, and the Suevi; and it has been justly remarked that we ought not to forget 'that when Augustine, in his great work on the "city of God," celebrates the charity and clemency of Alaric during the sack of Rome, these Christian graces were entirely due to the teaching of Oriental missionaries' "(Maclear's Missions in the Middle Ages, pages 37-43).
2. The Conversion of Clovis and the Frankes. — In the year 481 Clovis succeeded to the chieftaincy of the Salian Franks. In 493 he married Clotilda, the daughter of the king of Burgundy, who professed Christianity, and sought to persuade her husband to embrace it also; but her efforts for a time were without success. "At length, on the battle-field of Tolbiac, his incredulity came to an end. The fierce and dreadful Alemanni, fresh from their native forests, had burst upon the kingdom of his Ripuarian allies; Clovis, with his Franks, had rushed to the rescue, and the two fiercest nations of Germany were to decide between them the supremacy of Gaul. The battle was long and bloody; the Franks, after an obstinate struggle, wavered, and seemed on the point of flying, and in vain Clovis implored the aid of his own deities. At length he bethought him of the vaunted omnipotence of Clotilda's God, and he vowed that if victorious he would abjure his pagan creed arid be baptized as a Christian. Thereupon the tide of battle turned; the last king of the Allemanni fell, and his troops fled in disorder, purchasing safety by submission to the Frankish chief. On his return Clovis recounted to his queen the story of the fight, the success of his prayer, and the vow he had made. Overwhelmed with joy, she sent without delay for Remigius, the venerable bishop of Rheims, and on his arrival the victorious chief listened attentively to his arguments. Still he hesitated, and said he would consult his warriors. These rough soldiers evinced no unwillingness; with, perhaps, the same indifference that he himself had permitted the baptism of his children, they declared themselves nothing loth to accept the creed of their chief. Clovis therefore yielded, and the baptism was fixed to take place at the approaching festival of Christmas. The greatest pains were taken to lend as -much solemnity as possible to the scene. The church was hung with embroidered tapestry and white curtains, and blazed with a thousand lights, while odors of incense, 'like airs of paradise,' in the words of the excited chronicler, 'filled the place.' The new Constantine, as he entered, was struck with awe. 'Is this the heaven thou didst promise me?' said he to the bishop. 'Not heaven itself, but the beginning of the way thither,' replied the bishop. The service proceeded. As he knelt before the font to wash away the leprosy of his heathenism, 'Sicambrian,' said Remigius, 'gently bow thy neck, bur that thou didst adore, adore that which thou didst burn.' Thus together with three thousand of his followers, Clovis espoused Clotilda's creed, and became the single sovereign of the West who adhered to the Confession of Nicaea. Everywhere else Arianism was triumphant. The Ostrogoth Theodoric in Italy, the successors of Euric in Visigothic France, the king of Burgundy, the Suevian princes in Spain, the Vandal in Africa — all were Arians.
"The conversion of Clovis, like that of Constantine, is open to much discussion. It certainly had no effect upon his moral character. The same
'untutored savage' he was, the same he remained. But the services he rendered to Catholicism were great, and they were appreciated. 'God daily prostrated his enemies before him, because he walked before him with an upright heart, and did what was pleasing in his eyes.' In these words Gregory of Tours expresses the feelings of the Gallic clergy, who rallied round Clovis to a man, and excused all faults in one who could wield the sword so strenuously in behalf of the orthodox faith. His subsequent career was a succession of triumphs: Gundebald, the Burgundian king, felt the vengeance of Clotilda's lord on the bloody field of Dijon on the Ousche, and the cities on the Saone and the Rhone were added to the Frankish kingdom. A few more years and the Visigothic kingdom in the south felt the same iron hand. The orthodox prelates did not disguise the fact that this was a religious war, and that the supremacy of the Arian or the Catholic Creed in Western Europe was now to be decided. Clovis himself entered fully into the spirit of the crusade: on approaching Tours, he made death the penalty of injuring the territory of the holy St. Martin; in the church of the saint he publicly performed his devotions, and listened to the voices of the priests as they chanted the 18th Psalm: 'Thou hast girded me, O Lord, with strength unto the battle; thou hast subdued unto me those which rose up against me. Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies, that I might destroy them that hate me.' Whether he understood the words or not, they seemed prophetic of the subsequent, career of the new champion of Catholicism. The orthodox historians exhaust the treasury of legends to adorn his progress. A 'kind of wonderful magnitude' guided him through the swollen waters of the River Vienne; a pillar of fire blazed forth from the cathedral as he drew nigh Poitiers, to assure him of success. At last the bloody plains of Vougle witnessed the utter defeat of the Arian Goths, and Alaric, their king, was mingled with the crowd of fugitives. Bordeaux, Auvergne, Rovergne, Toulouse, Angoulame, successively fell into the hands of the Frankish king, and then before the shrine of St. Martin the 'eldest son of the Church' was invested with the titles of Roman Patricius and Consul, conferred by the Greek emperor Anastasius." "We have thus sketched the rise of the Frankish monarchy because it has an important connection with the history of Christian-missions. Orthodoxy advanced side by side with the Frankish domination. The rude warriors of Clovis, once beyond the local boundaries of their ancestral faith, found themselves in the presence of a Church which was the only stable institution in the country, and bowed before a creed which, while it offered infinitely more to the soul and intellect than their own superstitions, presented everything that could excite the fancy or captivate the sense. Willingly, therefore, did they follow the example of their king; and for. one that embraced the faith from genuine — a thousand adopted it from lower motives. And while they had their reward, the Frankish bishops had theirs too, in constant gifts of land for the foundation of churches and monasteries, and in a speedy admission to wealth and power." "But the Frankish Church was not destined to evangelize the rude nations of Europe. The internal dissensions and constant wars of the successors of Clovis were not favorable to the development of Christian civilization at home or its propagation abroad. Avitus of Vienne, Caesarius of Aries, and Faustus of Riez, proved what might be done by energy and self-devotion. But the rapid accession of wealth more and more tempted the Frankish bishops and abbots to live as mere laymen, and so the clergy degenerated, and the light of the Frankish Church grew dim. Not only were the masses of heathendom lying outside her territory neglected, but within it she saw her own members tainted with the old leaven of heathenism, and relapsing, in some instances, into the old idolatries. A new influence, therefore, was required, if the light of the Frankish Church was to be rekindled, and the German tribes evangelized, And this new influence was at hand. But to trace its origin, we must leave the scenes of the labors of Ulphilas and Severinus for two sister isles high up in the Northern Sea, almost forgotten amid the desolating contest which was breaking up the Roman world. We must glance first at the origin of the Celtic Church in Ireland and the Scottish highlands, whose humble oratories of timber and rude domes of rough stone might, indeed, contrast unfavorably with the prouder structures of the West, but whose missionary zeal burned with a far steadier flame. We must then turn to the shores of Kent, where the story of Clovis and Clotilda was to be re-enacted, and a Teutonic Church was destined to arise, and send forth, in its turn, missionary heroes among their kindred on the Continent" (Maclear's Missions in the Middle Ages, pages 54-58).
3. Patrick and the Irish Missionaries. — The Gospel was planted in Ireland by a single missionary, self-moved — or, rather, divinely moved — and self-supported. His historic name was Patrick, and the Roman Catholics (claiming him, without reason, as their own) call him St. Patrick. He was born about the year 410, and most probably in some part of Scotland. His parents were Christians, and instructed him in the Gospel. Patrick's first visit to the field of his future mission was in his youth, as a captive of pirates, who carried him away, with many others, as a prisoner. Patrick was sold to a chieftain, who placed him in charge of his cattle. His own statement is that his heart was turned to the Lord during the hardships of his captivity. 'I prayed many times a day,' he says. 'The fear of God and love to him were increasingly kindled in me. Faith grew in me, so that in one day I offered a hundred prayers, and at night almost as many; and when I passed the night in the woods or on the mountains, I rose up to pray in the snow, ice, and rain before daybreak. Yet I felt no pain. There was no sluggishness in me, such as I now find in myself, for then the spirit glowed within me.' This is extracted from what is called the 'Confession' of Patrick, written in his old age.
"Some years later he was again taken by the pirates, but soon regained his liberty, and returned home. His parents urged him to remain with them, but he felt an irresistible call to carry the Gospel to those among whom he had passed his youth as a bondman. 'Many opposed my going,' he says in his 'Confession,' 'and said behind my back, "Why does this man rush into danger among the heathen, who do not know the Lord?" It was not badly intended on their part, but they could not comprehend the matter on account of my uncouth disposition. Many gifts were offered me with tears if I would remain. But, according to God's guidance, I did not yield to them; not by my own power — it was God who conquered in me, and I withstood them all; so that I went to the people of Ireland to publish the Gospel to them, and suffered many insults from unbelievers, and many persecutions, even unto bonds, resigning my liberty for the good of others. And if I am found worthy, I am ready to give up my life with joy for his sake.' In such a spirit did this apostle to Ireland commence his mission, about the year 440; not far from the time when Britain was finally evacuated by the Romans...
"Patrick being acquainted with the language and customs of the Irish people, as a consequence of his early captivity, gathered them about him in large assemblies at the beat of a kettle-drums and told the story of Christ so as to move their hearts. Having taught them to read, he encouraged the importation of useful books from England and France. He established cloisters after the fashion of the times, which were really missionary schools for educating the people in the knowledge of the Gospel, and for training a native ministry and missionaries; and he claims to have baptized many thousands of people...
"'The people may not have adopted the outward profession of Christianity, which was all that, perhaps, in the first instance they adopted, from any clear or intellectual appreciation of its superiority to their former religion; but to obtain from the people even an outward profession of Christianity was an important step to ultimate success. It secured toleration, at least, for Christian institutions. It enabled Patrick to plant in every tribe his churches, schools, and monasteries. He was permitted, without opposition, to establish among the half-pagan inhabitants of the country societies of holy men, whose devotion, usefulness, and piety soon produced an effect upon the most barbarous and savage hearts. This was the secret of the rapid success attributed to Patrick's preaching in Ireland. The chieftains were at first the real converts. The baptism of the chieftain was immediately followed by the adhesion of the clan. The clansmen pressed eagerly around the missionary who had baptized the chief, anxious to receive that mysterious initiation into the new faith to which their chieftain and father had submitted. The requirements preparatory to baptism do not seem to have been very rigorous; and it is, therefore, not improbable that in Tirawley, and other remote districts, where the spirit of clanship was strong, Patrick, as he himself tells us he did, may have baptized some thousands of men.'
"When this zealous missionary died, about the year 493, his disciples, who seem all to have been natives of Ireland — a native ministry — continued his work inn the same spirit. The monasteries became at length so numerous and famous that Ireland was called Insula Sanctorum, the 'Island of Saints.' It gives a wrong idea of these institutions to call them monasteries, or to call their inmates monks. 'They were schools of learning and abodes of piety, uniting the instruction of the college, the labors of the workshop, the charities of the hospital, and the worship of the Church. They originated partly in a mistaken view of the Christian life, and partly out of the necessity of the case, which drove Christians to live together for mutual protection. The missionary spirit, and consequent religious activity, prevailing in the Irish monasteries, preserved them for a long time from the asceticism and mysticism incidental to the monastic life, and made them a source of blessing to the world.' The celibacy of the clergy was not enjoined in those times. Married men were connected with the cloisters, living, however, in single houses. The Scriptures were read, and ancient books were collected and studied. The missions which went forth from these institutions, as also those from England and Wales, are frequently called 'Culdee' missions. SEE CULDEES and SEE IONA.
"The names of Columba and Columbanus are familiar to the readers of ecclesiastical history. Both were Irish missionaries, and both were from the institution at Bangor, in Ireland. Columba's mission was to the Picts of Scotland, and was entered upon at the age of forty-two, in the year 563. This was thirteen hundred years ago, and about seventy years after the time of Patrick. He was accompanied by twelve associates, and was the founder of the celebrated monastery on Iona, an island situated on the north of Scotland, now reckoned one of the Hebrides. This school, which had an enduring fame, became one of the chief lights of that age. Continuing thirty-five years under Columba's management, it attained a high reputation for Biblical studies and other sciences; and missionaries went from it to the northern and southern Picts of Scotland, and into England, along the eastern coast to the Thames, and to the European continent. Columbanus entered on his mission to the partially Christianized, but more especially to the pagan portions of Europe, in the year 589. That he was an evangelical missionary may be confidently inferred from the tenor of his life, and from the records of his Christian experience. He thus writes: 'O Lord, give: me, I beseech thee, in the name of Jesus Christ, thy Son, my God, that love which can never cease, that will kindle my lamp but not extinguish it, that it may burn in me and enlighten others. Do thou, O Christ, our dearest Saviour, thyself kindle our lamps, that they may evermore shine in thy temple; that they may receive unquenchable light from thee that will enlighten our darkness and lessen the darkness of the world. My Jesus, I pray thee, give thy light to my lamp, that in its light the most holy place may be revealed to me in which thou dwellest as the eternal Priest, that I may always behold thee, desire thee, look upon thee in love, and long after thee.' Columbauus went first to France, taking with him twelve young men, as Columba had done, to be his co-laborers-men who had been trained under his special guidance. Here, as a consequence of continual wars, political disturbances, and the remissness of worldly- minded ecclesiastics, the greatest confusion and irregularity prevailed, and there was great degeneracy in the monastic orders. Columbanus preferred casting his lot among the pagans of Burgundy, and chose for his settlement the ruins of an ancient castle in the midst of an immense wilderness, at the foot of the Vosges Mountains. There they often suffered hunger, until the wilderness had been in some measure subdued and the earth brought under cultivation. The mission then became self-supporting, but we are not informed by what means the previous expenses were defrayed. Preaching was a part of their duty, though there is less said of this than of their efforts to impart the benefits of a Christian education to the children of the higher classes. The surrounding poor were taught gratuitously. All the pupils joined in tilling the fields, and such was their success in education that the Frankish nobles were forward to place their sons under their care. It was the most famous school in Burgundy, and there was not room in the abbey for all who pressed to gain admittance; so that it became necessary to erect other buildings, and to bring a large number of teachers over from Ireland to meet the demand. Here the eminent missionary pursued his labors for a score of years. As he represents himself to have buried as many as seventeen of his associates during twelve years, the number of his co- laborers must have been large. The discipline which Columbanus imposed on the monastic life was severe, but perhaps scarcely more so than was required by the rude spirit of the age; and he took pains to avoid the error, so prevalent in the Romish Church, of making the essence of piety consist in externals. The drift of his teaching was that everything depended on the state of the heart. Both by precept and example he sought to combine the contemplative with the useful. At the same time he adhered, with a free and independent spirit, to the peculiar religious usages of his native land. As these differed in some important respects from what were then prevalent among the degenerate Frankish clergy, he had many enemies among them, who sought to drive him from the country. This they at length effected, with the aid of the wicked mother of the reigning prince. Columbanus was ordered to return to Ireland, and to take his countrymen with him. This he did not do, but repaired first to Germany, and then to Switzerland. He spent a year near the eastern extremity of the Lake Constance, laboring among the Suevi, a heathen people in that neighborhood. This territory coming at length under the dominion of his enemies, he crossed the Alps, in the year 612, into Lombardy, and founded a monastery near Pavia; and there this apostle to Franks, Swabians, Bavarians, and other nations of Germany, passed the remainder of his days, and breathed out his life November 21, 615, aged seventy-two years. Gallus, a favorite pupil and follower of Columbanus, remained behind in consequence of illness, and became the apostle of Switzerland. He also was an Irishman. and was characterized, as was his master, by love for the sacred volume. In what was then a wilderness he founded a monastery, 'which led to the clearing up of the forest, and the conversion of the land into cultivable soil, and it afterwards became celebrated under his name, St. Gall.' Here he labored for the Swiss and Swabian population till his death, in the year 640. This monastery was pre-eminent for the number and beauty of the manuscripts prepared by its monks; many of which, and, among others, some fragments of a translation of the Scriptures into the Allemanni language, about the year 700, are said to be preserved in the libraries of Germany.
"Neander is of the opinion that the number of missionaries who passed over from Ireland to the continent of Europe must have been great, though of very few is there any exact information. Wherever they went, cloisters were founded, and the wilderness soon gave place to cultivated fields. According to Ebrard, there were more than forty cloisters in the vicinity of the Loire and Rhone, which were governed according to the rules of Columbanus, and to which emigrants came from Ireland as late as the close of the 7th century. He also affirms that Germany was almost wholly heathen when that missionary entered it. But before the year 720 the Gospel had been proclaimed by himself and his countrymen from the mountains of Switzerland down to the islands in the delta of the Rhine, and eastward from that river to the River Inn, and the Bohemian forest, and the borders of Saxony, and still farther on the seacoast; and all the really German tribes within those borders were in subjection to the Christian faith as it had been taught by the Irish missionaries. Ebrard's earnest testimony to the evangelical nature of the Irish missions should not be overlooked. He declares that they read the Scriptures in the original text, translated them wherever they went, expounded them to the congregations, recommended the regular and diligent perusal of them, and held them to be the living Word of Christ. The Scriptures were their only rule of faith. They preached the inherited depravity of man, the atoning death of Christ, justification without the merit of works, regeneration as the life in him who died for us, and the sacraments as signs and seals of grace in Christ. They held to no transubstantiation, no purgatory, no prayers to saints, and their worship was in the native language. But, though they used neither pictures nor images, they seem to have been attached to the use of the simple cross; and Gallus, the distinguished champion of Columbanus, is said, when marking out a place on which to erect a monastery, to have done it by means of a cross, from which he had suspended a capsule of relics. Complete exemption from superstition was perhaps among the impossibilities of that age" (Anderson's Foreign Missions, pages 69-82).
4. Similar in interest, though varied in detail, are the stories of Augustine's mission to England, A.D. 596; that of Boniface to Germany, A.D. 715; and that of Anksgar to Scandinavia, A.D. 826; together with that of many of their associates and successors. Nor were the missions among the Sclavonic races during the 9th and 10th centuries without many incidents of great interest. See Maclear's Missions in the Middles Ages; Milman's Latin Christianity; Merivale's Conversion of the Northern Nations; Guizot's History of Civilization etc.; S.F. Smith, Medieval Missions.
5. A period has now been reached when it is necessary to take note of another important element in the history and character of missions, viz., papal influence. Gregory the Great, A.D. 568-604, was the first of the bishops of Rome who exerted any decided official influence on the' propagation of Christianity by means of missions. "His project of sending missionaries to England, formed before his attaining the pontifical dignity, was among the first to be carried into execution. In the year 596 he despatched Augustine, with forty assistant monks, to effect the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons. Conversion, in the dialect of Rome, signified nothing more than proselytism; and it was sanguinely hoped that by influencing the chiefs to renounce idolatry their subjects would soon be converted in a mass... The success of Augustine and his brethren was even beyond their expectation. Landing on the Isle of Thanet, they applied to Ethelbert, the king of Kent, for permission to preach in his kingdom. Ethelbert had married a Christian princess, and was therefore not unfavorably disposed towards his uninvited guests. Yet so ignorant was he of the nature of their errand that he insisted that their first interview with him should take place in the open air, lest he should fall a victim to their magical arts. Augustine's eloquence, however, soon inspired the king with confidence, and Ethelbert then granted to the missionaries an old, ruinous church at Canterbury, dedicated to St. Martin, and which had existed from the time of the Romans, as their first station for preaching the Gospel. Ere long the king yielded to the arguments of Augustine or the persuasions of his wife, and his baptism was followed by that of many of his subjects, no fewer than ten thousand being thus nominally received into the Church on a single occasion... Gregory was overjoyed at the success of his mission and needed no solicitations to send a re-enforcement of preachers, all of whom were monks. He next divided the whole island into two archbishoprics, appointing Augustine to be archbishop of London, and constituting York the metropolitan city of the north when Christianity should have penetrated so far. As London had not yet, however, embraced the new religion, and was not within the domains of Ethelbert, Augustine made Canterbury his abode and see. In the true spirit of Roman arrogance, Augustine assumed. to himself the right of governing all the churches in Britain, whether planted by the recent laborers or existing from earlier times. But the ancient British churches were indignant at such an encroachment on their independence and liberties. 'We are all prepared,' said Deynoch, abbot of Bangor, on one occasion, 'to hearken to the Church of God, to the pope of Rome, and to every pious Christian, so as to manifest to all, according to their several stations, perfect charity, and to uphold and aid them both byword and deed. What other duty we can owe to him whom you call pope, or father of fathers, we do not know; but this we are ready to exercise towards him and every other Christian.' This independence by no means pleased Augustine; and he was heard to say to his Anglo-Saxon followers, 'Well, then, since they will not own the Anglo-Saxons as brethren, or allow us to make known to them the way of life, they must regard them as enemies, and look for revenge.' The horrible spirit which dictated such a speech is too apparent to need comment, and shows how little of real Christianity the Roman missionaries mingled with their zeal for the papal see. In the contests which the new Church thus waged with the old, the influence of Augustine and his followers with the Saxon kings generally enabled them to triumph; and although the British churches long persevered in maintaining their freedom, they gradually became absorbed in the Anglican hierarchy; and, long before the Norman invasion, those who ventured to dissent from the Roman forms of worship were only to be found in the extreme parts of the island.
"During the pontificate of Gregory, the Spanish Church also became subject to the primacy of Rome. Before this period the Goths, who had established their power in Spain, were of the Arian party; but on their king, Reckared, professing his belief in the doctrine of the Trinity, the bishops in a body requested the pope to undertake the supervision of their affairs — a request with which Gregory was only too happy to comply. He attempted, moreover, to obtain the subjection of the French clergy, but in this he could only partly succeed. Nevertheless, he formed alliances with the French princes, nobles, and bishops; and, considering their Church as subject to his inspection, did not hesitate to interfere on many occasions both with advice and with admonition.
"It was, perhaps, the zeal of Gregory for multiplying nominal converts to Christianity that led him to introduce alterations in the forms of worship, which were so exaggerated by succeeding pontiffs as to change the solemn service of God into a ridiculous show. Observing the influence which the harmonies of music and the beauties of painting and sculpture exerted upon the minds of the Lombards and other half-civilized tribes, he resolved to employ the arts as handmaids to religion" (Lives of the Popes, pages 78- 81).
For more than one hundred years following, although the papacy was constantly making advances towards temporal sovereignty, no one of the popes possessed the character of Gregory. In 715 Gregory It came to the papal chair. It was he that sent Corbinian as missionary to France and Boniface to Germany. Gregory III, about 741, sent the first ambassador of Rome to France. From the middle of the 8th century the popedom laid claim to a temporal sovereignty, and from A.D. 800 when pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as emperor of the West, that monarch assumed the protectorate of Christendom, and stood ready to the extent of his power to promote the interests of the Roman see, which he chiefly did by means of conquest. From that time, more than before, missions were made an agency for the propagandism not merely of a ceremonial Christianity, but of the power of the popes. Monasticism, already widely extended, became an auxiliary of great power, that could be wielded for any special object contemplated by the Roman see. The popes wielded the prerogative of establishing and controlling the various orders of monks, and, by granting them exemption from the local supervision of bishops, were able always to hold them in the most direct subservience to their own ambitions. From the middle of the 9th century onward there was a vast increase of monasteries in various parts of Europe. The Benedictine order was in the ascendency, but, notwithstanding repeated reforms of its rule aid practice, many of the monks were dissolute, and, as the clergy of various countries were chiefly taken from the monasteries, anarchy, simony, and concubinage largely prevailed. This was the saeculum obscurum, the darkest of the dark ages; and, in the general stagnation which prevailed, there was but little activity in any form of missionary effort. Europe was considered Christian, and there were no elements at work to improve the type of Christianity it had received, while, on the contrary, many germs of evil that had been sowed as tares were springing up to choke whatever of wheat was left to grow.
6. The Crusades. — About this period rumors of violence and insult to Christian pilgrims in the East began. to excite attention, and the certainty that Christians were greatly oppressed by the Moslems at Jerusalem and throughout Palestine became the pretext for the crusades. The idea of rescuing by force the Holy Sepulchre from the pollution of the infidels was first developed as a duty of the Church under pope Sylvester II, A.D. 999- 1003. It took form and action in eight successive crusades or wars of the cross, extending through two centuries and a half. These so-called holy wars scarcely differed in principle from the wars of Clovis, Charlemagne, and others, by which the Church had been extended among the nations and tribes of Northern Europe; and also of Cortez and Pizarro, made after the discovery of the New World, to Christianize (?) the nations of Mexico and Central and South America. The peculiarity of the crusades consisted in the remoteness of the land they aimed to conquer, the resistance offered by the Moslem races, and the defeats which overwhelmed in one form or another the. armies of eight successive crusades, until, by the loss of millions of men and treasure, all Europe was exhausted.
The only proper view to take of these wars is to regard them as grand but mistaken missionary expeditions. As such they were sanctioned by the popes, preached by the monks, sustained by the people, and enterprised by the warriors, who went forth prepared to sacrifice treasure and life, but confident of winning heaven as a result. Mark the history and language of pope Innocent III, A.D. 1198-1216: "The event of the crusades might have crushed a less lofty and religious mind than that of Innocent to despair. Armies after armies had left their bones to crumble on the plains of Asia Minor or of Galilee; great sovereigns had perished or returned discomfited from the Holy Land. The great German crusade had ended in disgraceful failure. All was dissension, jealousy, hostility. The king of Antioch was at war with the Christian king of Armenia. The two great orders, the only powerful defenders of the land, the Hospitallers and the Templars, were in implacable feud. The Christians of Palestine were in morals, in character, in habits, the most licentious, most treacherous, most ferocious of mankind. But the darker the aspect of affairs the more firmly seemed Innocent to be persuaded that the crusade was the cause of God. In every new disaster, in every discomfiture and loss, the popes had still found unfailing refuge in ascribing them to the sins of the Christians, and their sins were dark enough to justify the strongest language of Innocent. It needed but more perfect faith, more holiness, and one believer would put to flight twelve millions; the miracles of God against Pharaoh and against the Philistines would be renewed in their behalf. For the first two or three years of Innocent's pontificate, address after address, rising one above another in impassioned eloquence, enforced the duty of contributing to the holy war. This was to be the principal, if not the exclusive theme of the preaching of the clergy. In letters to the bishop of Syracuse, to all the bishops of Apulia, Calabria. and Tuscany, he urges them to visit every city, town, and castle; he exhorts not only the nobles, but the citizens, to take up arms for Jesus Christ. Those who cannot assist in person are to assist in other ways, by furnishing ships, provisions, and money. Somewhat later came a more energetic epistle to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, and princes and barons of France, England, Hungary, and Sicily. The vicar of Christ himself would claim no exemption from the universal call; he would, as became him, set the example, and in person and in estate devote himself to the sacred cause. He had therefore himself invested with the cross two cardinals of the Church, who were to precede the army of the Lord, and to be maintained, not by any mendicant support, but at the expense of the holy see. After the pope's example, before the next March, every archbishop, bishop, and prelate was to furnish a certain number of soldiers, according to his means, or a certain rate in money for the support of the crusading army. Whoever refused was to be treated as a violator of God's commandments, threatened with condign punishment, even with suspension. To all who embarked in the war Innocent promised, on their sincere repentance, the remission of all their sins, and eternal life in the great day of retribution. Those who were unable to proceed in person might obtain the same remission in proportion to the bounty of their offerings and the devotion of their hearts. The estates of all who took up the cross were placed under the protection of St. Peter" (Milman, Lat. Christianity, 5:75 sq.). Had such language been used, such influence exerted, and such sacrifices made in harmony with the Savior's plan of evangelizing the world, who can tell what happy and far-reaching results might not have been attained as the issue? But bad efforts in a good cause, no less than well-meant efforts in a bad cause, can only be expected to result disastrously. Hence true Christianity, instead of being promoted, was perverted and antagonized, till the hope of its very existence had well-nigh fled the earth. Nevertheless, some fragments of the true leaven still remained, sometimes in the Church, and sometimes in small and obscure sects. like the Waldenses. A specimen of the higher and better aspirations cherished by individuals is illustrated in the history of Raymond Lull, SEE
LULLY, but the difficulties in their way were insuperable. It need not be denied that the terrible evils of the crusades were in a subsequent period in many respects overruled for the good of humanity. But as it does not enter into the scope of providential action to atone for the crimes of men or the errors of Christians, the world and the Church are destined to suffer perpetual loss as a result of the milito-missionary fanaticisms of the mediaeval Church. What was needed to bring in the light of truth and civilization into the dreary centuries under consideration was the simple, earnest Gospel, accompanied by the pure Word of God, and illustrated by the lives, of its teachers. But a long. period was destined to elapse before that most desirable consummation was to be realized. Indeed, it was only by slow degrees, and through long and painful struggles, that the Church again recovered the apostolic idea of missions.
7. Roman Catholic missions assumed a new and. in some respects, an improved phase during the 13th and 14th centuries, chiefly through the mendicant and preaching orders. of Dominic and Francis d'Assisi. By them a vigorous effort was made to revive the Catholic faith in all the countries of Europe, and even to extend it by peaceful foreign missions among pagans and Mohammedans, in various parts of Asia and Africa. "In one important respect the founders of these new orders absolutely agreed — in their entire identification with the lowest of mankind. At first amicable, afterwards emulous, eventually hostile, they, or rather their orders, rivalled each other in sinking below poverty into beggary. They were to live upon alms; the coarsest imaginable dress, the hardest fare, the narrowest cell, was to keep them down to the level of the humblest. Both the new orders differed in the same manner, and greatly to the advantage of the hierarchical faith, from the old monkish institutions. Their primary object was not the salvation of the individual monk, but the salvation of others through him. Though, therefore, their rules within their monasteries were strictly and severely monastic, bound by the common vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, seclusion was no part of their discipline. Their business was abroad rather than at home; their dwelling was not like that of the old Benedictines, or others, in uncultivated swamps and forests of the North, on the dreary Apennines, or the exhausted soil of Italy, in order to subdue their bodies, and occupy their dangerously unoccupied time, merely as a secondary consequence, to compel the desert into fertile land. Their work was among their fellow-men, in the village, in the town, in the city, in the market, even in the camp. Monastic Christianity would no longer flee the world ; it would subjugate it, or win it by gentle violence" (Milman, Lat. Christianity, 5:238). But, being monastic still, this form of Christianity lacked the vital elements of evangelical power, and soon ran into fearful excesses. Dominic himself personally took part in the bloody crusade against the Albigenses, which ere long was followed by the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition, with Dominican friars as its generals and chief inquisitors. SEE INQUISITION. The pretext in both cases was the conversion of heretics, for which confiscation, torture, and murder were as relentlessly applied to praying and Bible-reading Christians as to Jews and Moors. Thus the world had still to wait long centuries before the apostolic idea of Christian missions returned to the Church.
V. Modern Missions. —
1. Roman Catholic. — Prior to the close of the 15th century, the zeal of the Church of Rome had been roused to a fervid state of excitement by the reported successes of the missionaries of the men-: dicaut orders who had followed in the train of Portuguese discoveries along the coast of Africa and beyond the Cape of Good Hope to India. At that period the New World was discovered, and the grandeur of the fields that as a consequence were opened to conquest and adventure inflamed anew the zeal of propagandism. The idea of planting the cross upon the islands and continents of America was deemed sufficient to justify if not to hallow any violence necessary to subjugate the native idolators. Missionaries sailed in every fleet, and every new discovery was claimed by the Church in the name of some Christian sovereign. About the same period the order of the Jesuits was founded, which by its rapid increase and decisive influence soon rivalled all preceding orders, sending .forth its missionaries to India, China, and Japan. SEE JESUITS. Thus a new and exciting impulse was given to agencies which succeeded in planting Latin Christianity throughout regions of vastly greater extent than it had ever before occupied.
No unprejudiced mind can become acquainted with the vast extent of the missionary operations undertaken and maintained by the missionaries of the Church of Rome during the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries without according to the actors in them the need of high admiration for their devotion and self-sacrifice, however he may lament the defects and errors of the system in connection with which they acted, and the low grade of Christian life they promoted.
"In the East, missions were founded in Hindustan, the East India Islands, Japan, China, Tonquin, Abyssinia; in America, the half-civilized natives of Peru and Mexico were converted, and their descendants now form the mass of the people, and the Church of Rome has enrolled two of Indian blood among her canonized saints. The nomadic tribes from Labrador to Cape Horn were visited; many were completely gained, in other parts reductions were formed, and such as could be persuaded to enter were instructed alike in the truths of Christianity and the usages of civilized life. Close on these discoveries came the religious feuds of the 16th century, and the defection of nearly every prince in Northern Europe from the Roman see. State churches were formed in many of the German states, the Scandinavian kingdoms, Holland, England, and Scotland, based on the doctrines of Luther and Calvin. . This led to a new species of mission: colleges were established in Catholic countries for the education of their fellow-believers in the northern countries, and the training of such as wished to enter the priesthood; and from these seminaries missionaries proceeded to their native country to minister to their brethren, and to gain back such as Seemed to repent the late change. Many suffered the penalty of death; but this, as usually happens, only raised up others to fill their places. From this period the Catholic missions were either home missions for instructing the ignorant and neglected in Catholic countries, or those in which the exercise of religion is permitted (comp. Nitzsch, Praktische Theologie, volume 3 part 1); missions in Protestant countries to supply clergy for the Catholic portion; missions among schismatics to reunite them to Rome ' missions to pagan nations. These missions became at last so important a part of the Church government that Gregory XV (1621-23) instituted the Congregation de Propaganda Fide, SEE PROPAGANDA, which gave a new impulse to the zeal and fervor of missionaries, and all interested in the missionary cause. This congregation or department consisted of thirteen cardinals, two priests, a. religious, and a secretary; and to it exclusively was committed the direction of missions and Church matters in mission countries. Considerable sums were bestowed by public and private munificence on this department, and under Urban VIII a college, usually styled the Urban College, or the Propaganda, was erected and richly endowed. Here candidates for the priesthood and the missions are received from all quarters of the globe, and a printingpress issues devotional works in a great number of languages. Besides this college, there soon rose the Armenian College at Venice, the Germanic, English, Irish, and Scotch colleges at Rome, the English colleges at Rheims and Douay, the Irish and Scotch at Paris, the Irish colleges at Louvain and Valladolid, and some others, all intended to train the missionaries for their own countries; and at a later date the Chinese college at Naples was founded in the same view, and of late years a missionary college has arisen at Drumcondra. Convents and religious houses of various orders were also founded on the Continent for natives of the British Isles, and from these also missionaries annually set out for the missions in the English dominions. Most of these latter have, however, since disappeared, swept away by the French Revolution, or transferred to England or the United States" (Newcomb, Cyclopcedia of Missions, page 299 sq.). See English Review, 16:421 sq. We also extract from Newcomb a detailed account of the results of these missionary operations; for still later particulars we refer the reader to the articles on the several countries in this Cyclopaedia.
I. Missionary Societies. — There are, properly speaking, no missionary societies in the Catholic Church similar to those among Protestants. Three societies, of quite recent origin — the Society for the Preparation of the Faith, centring at Lyons; the Leopoldine Society, at Vienna: and the Society of the Holy Childhood, in France — raise funds by a small weekly contribution, which the directors distribute to various missions, as they think proper, but over the missionaries and stations they exercise no control. The various missions are conducted entirely independent of this aid, relying, in default of it, on other resources. The last-named society is made up of children, and has a special object, the raising of money to save and baptize children exposed to death by their unnatural parents in China and Annam. Besides the aid thus given, some missions have funds established before the present century, and formerly French, Spanish, and Portuguese missionaries received a regular stipened from the government. The great mass of the missions at present are individual efforts, supported by the zeal and sacrifices of the bishops and clergy employed on them.
"II. Receipts. — The amount raised in 1852 by the Society for the Propagation of the Faith was $950,000; by the Society of the Holy Childhood, $117,000; total, $1,067,000.
"III. Missionary Stations. —
A. EUROPE. —
1. Among the Protestant states of Europe, the only countries where the Catholic Church is still a mere mission are Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Here the number of Catholics is very small, and no details are published, as many severe civil penalties are still enforced against members, and especially converts of the Roman Church. The whole number does not probably exceed 150,000.
"2. Turkey. — The United Armenians have an archbishop at Constantinople; the Latins, several bishops and vicars apostolic; the distinct missions are those of the Franciscans in Moldavia, Jesuits in Herzegovine, and Lazarists at Constantinople and Salonica — the latter aided in their labors by the Sisters of Charity. The whole number of Latin Christians is estimated at 613,000, and is constantly on the increase.
"3. Greece. — In this, kingdom there are constant accessions to the Latin and united Greek churches, especially at Athens, Piruns, Patras, Nauplia, Navarino, and Heraclia. There are in this kingdom and the Ionian republic flourishing missions of the Capuchins and Jesuits.
"B. ASIA. —
1. Turkey in Asia. — The Franciscans have had missions in the Holy Land since the crusades, which, more or less active at times, are now pushed with energy. The Jesuits have since their origin had missions among the Eastern Christians, won many back to Rome, established schools, and raised the standard of clerical instruction. At Antioch there are Maronite, United Greek, and Syrian patriarchs, and elsewhere an Armenian and a Chaldeean patriarch, all in communion with Rome; and the number of Christians who acknowledge the supremacy of Pius IX is about a million.
"2. Persia. — In this country there is a mission directed by the Lazarists and protected by France, as well as a United Armenian Church well established and tolerated.
"3. India. — The Hindu mission dates back to the conquest of Goa by the Portuguese in 1510, and was at first conducted by the Franciscans, Dominicans, and zealous secular priests. Its progress was, however, slow, till the arrival of Francis Xavier in 1542. By his labors, and those of other fathers of the Society of Jesus, numbers were converted on the Fishery Coast, the islands of Manar and Ceylon, and Travancore, while the former missionaries renewed their efforts in other parts, and gained to Rome all the Chaldaic Christians who had fallen into Nestorianism. The Jesuit mission is, however, the most celebrated, and, after Xavier, owed its chief progress to.
Robert de Nobili, nephew to pope Marcellus II, who originated the plan of having missionaries for each caste, adopting the life of each. He himself became a Brahminsamassi. The blessed John de Brito converted the Maravas; Aquaviva, at Delhi, won Akbar to the Christian religion; and Goes traversed Thibet and Tartary to Pekin. These missions were affected by the overthrow of the Portuguese and French power in India, by the persecution of the Danes, by the disputes as to the Malabar rites, by the suppression of the Jesuits, and by the troubles of the French Revolution. A large number of converts had, however, been made, and their descendants remained faithful. During the Dutch rule in Ceylon, Catholicity was maintained there by the labors of the Portuguese Oratorians. All Hindustan is now divided into vicariates apostolic for European and native Christians, the most extensive Hindi missions being those of Madura, conducted by the Jesuits of Mysore, conducted by the priests of the Foreign Missions; and of Ceylon, by the priests of the Oratory — all of which are rapidly gaining the ground lost in darker days. Hindustan contains 15 vicariates, 16 bishops, a large number of priests, including 500 native clergymen, and nearly 4,000,000 of Latin and Chaldee Christians. Ceylon contains 2 vicariates, 3 bishops, and 150,000 Catholics.
"4. Farther India. — The Tonquin mission was founded by the Jesuit Alexander Rhodes, who labored in that field from about 1624 to 1648, and gathered a Church of 60,000 Christians. Driven at last from the country, he originated at Paris the Seminary of the Foreign Missions, founded in 1633, and induced the Holy See to appoint bishops to Tonquin. Since then the priests of the Foreign Missions have had the chief direction of the mission in Annam and the neighboring province of Su-Tchuen, in China. The Jesuits also continued their mission, and by the labors of both many native clergy were formed. The Cochin China mission was founded about the same time by F. Rossi, and passed also to the Foreign Missions. Both churches have undergone terrible persecutions, even of late years, under the emperor Minh-Menh, but have steadily increased. Tonquin contains 6 vicariates apostolic, governed by 12 bishops. One of these vicariates in 1847 contained 10 European and 91 native priests, 200 catechists, and about 200,000 Christians. Another, 2 bishops. 3 European and 43 native priests, 60 catechists, and 710,000 Christians. Cochin China contains 3 vicariates apostolic, all directed by clergy of the Seminary of the Foreign Missions and native priests.
"Siam, Laos, and Cambodia. — These missions are also directed by the priests of the Foreign Missions and native clergymen. They have been subjected to repeated persecutions, but are now at peace. Ava, Pegu, and Malacca are vicariates, with 2 bishops and about 10,000 Catholics.
"5. China. — The Chinese mission was attempted in the 13th century by John de Molltecorvino, who founded a metropolitan see at Pekin, which subsisted for over a century. Xavier attempted to restore it in 1552, but died near Canton. After several other attempts, the Jesuits Ruggieri and Paiio founded a mission, which, under the great Matthew Ricci (1584-1610), obtained a permanent footing in the. empire. The early Jesuits adopted the dress of literati, and thus. secured the esteem of the emperors, and would probably have gained them to Christ but for the Tartar invasion. After that change persecutions began, and as differences arose between the Jesuits on the one side, and the Dominicans in Fokieu and the priests of Foreign Missions in Suchuen on the other, as to the use of certain ceremonies, these dissensions formed a pretext for very severe edicts. For many years the blood of the Chinese Christians and their missionaries flowed in torrents. At present the Church enjoys peace, although the insurgents are decidedly hostile to the Chinese Catholics, and treat them with great severity. Among the celebrated Chinese missionaries may be named Ricci, Schall, and Verbiest, mathematicians; Maill, an American, who attempted a mission in 1556; Lopez, a native Chinese priest and bishop; Denis de la Cruz, another Chinese, who died at Carthagena, in South America; Navalrrette, Amlot, Sanz, Perboyre, a recent martyr. The suppression of the Jesuits and the French Revolution seriously affected these missions by cutting off a supply of learned and adventurous missionaries. Since the restoration of peace in Europe, and especially since the establishment of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, the mission has recovered mulch of its former extent. At the present time China contains 21 sees or vicariates, 23 bishops, 628 European and 335 native priests many convents and houses of religious women, and a population of 541,720 Catholics. The great mass of the old Jesuit missions are directed by the French Lazarists; the missions in Suchnen, Yunnan, Quaychoo, and Leaotong, by the priests of the Foreign Missions; those in Chansi, Chensi, and Houquang, by Italian Franciscans; those in Fokien by Spanish bominicans; and those in Chantong and Kiangnan by French Jesuits, who have recently returned.
"6. Corea. — Christianity was introduced here from China about 1632, and has since grown amid persecution of the severest kind. The history of the. Corean Church is written in blood. Her first neophyte was a martyr; her first Chinese apostle, a martyr; her first native priest, a martyr; her first European missionaries, all martyrs. The number of Catholics is about 13,650, directed by a bishop, 18 European priests, if still alive, and some native clergy. This mission is intrusted to the Seminary of the Foreign Missions.
"7. Mongol Tartary. — This is a Lazarist mission, directed by a bishop, 3 European and 10, native priests, a. college seminary, 8 schools, and 5000 Christians.
"8. Ma-stch-iria. — A mission under the priests of the Foreign Missions, with a bishop. and some European clergymen.
"9. Thibet. — Missions were attempted here in the 13th and 14th centuries by Hyacinth of Poland, and Odelic of Fruili; in the 17th century by the Jesuits and Capuchins; but in the interval Buddhism had grown up and expelled all but the traces of Christianity. The mission was restored in 1846 by the Lazarists Huc and Gabet., Others have followed, and a bishop has lately been appointed.
"East India Islands. — Missions exist on some of these of ancient date, but the data are not very full or recent.
"10. Japan. — Christianity was introduced into this empire in 1549 by Francis Xavier, who had converted a Japanese at Goa. During a stay of two years he visited several kingdoms, and founded missions, which he confided to zealous priests of his order. The faith spread rapidly. In 1562 the prince of Omura, and soon after the kings of Bungo and Arima, embraced Christianity, and sent a splendid embassy to pope Gregory XIII. Soon after Taycosoma, a powerful general, usurped the throne, and in 1586 issued a law against Christianity, which his predecessor, Nabunanga, had greatly favored. The number of Christians increased with the persecution, and in 1638 they rose in arms in Arima, but were crushed by Dutch aid. Since then the faith has been almost entirely extinguished. The number of Christians put to death has been estimated at nearly two millions, and the annals of the Jesuits, Franciscans, and Dominicans are filled with narratives of the deaths of members of their orders in Japan. Besides Xavier, the greatest missionaries were Valignani, father John Baptist, a Spanish Franciscan, Philip of Jesus, a Mexican Franciscan, both crucified at Nagasaki, father Charles Spinola, etc. The last Catholic priest who entered Japan was M. Sedotti, who in 1709 found means to land, but he was never again heard of. Within a few years great efforts have been made to reach the forsaken Christians still said to exist in Japan; and a bishop appointed to the mission has already founded stations on the Lew- Chew Islands.
"C. AFRICA. —
1. Congo. — The earliest missions were those of Congo, began by the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits. From 1500 to about 1560 the success was great; thee king and many of his people were converted,. native priests ordained, and one raised to the episcopacy. Catholicity flourished there for many years, but insensibly declined for want of priests. The Carmelites established missions in Guinea, the Jesuits in Angola and Loango; and on these chiefly the Catholics of Congo depended as late as 1622. In 1642 the Capuchins undertook the mission, headed by Fray Francisco de Pampeluna,. once a military officer of high rank. This body and their successors continued the mission till about 1700, when Cistercians took their place. About the middle of the last century the priests of the Foreign Missions established stations in Loango, and converted many. These missions still exist in several parts.
"2. Barbarn. — Missions have from the earliest times been conducted there by Franeuiscans, Dominicans, Trinitarians, and Mercedarians; still later by the Jesuits and Lazarists. The number of Christians is, however, very. small, and the clergy do not number a score.
"3. Egypt. — The Latin mission there is due chiefly to the Jesuits, of whom father Siciard was the leader. Many Copts were recalled to the Latin Church, and are now directed by Lazarist missionaries, aided by brothers of the Christian School.
"4. Abyssinia. — The Portuguese, about 1530, attempted to convert the schismatics of Abyssinia, and revive morality and learning, but the efforts and the zeal of the Jesuits failed; the missionaries were excluded, after a long. persecution. In 1839 the mission was revived by the Lazarists, and a bishop appointed, while the Galla country was allotted to the Capuchins in 1846.
"5. Madagascar. — The first missions among the Malagasies was begun, by the Lazarists in 1648, and continued till 1674, when Louis XIV forbade French vessels to stop at the island. The mission was revived in 1837 by Mr. Dalmond, who founded the station of Nossibe in 1840. Since 1845 this mission has been confided to the Jesuits, who have made rapid progress.
"6. Other Parts. — Missions have been founded at different spots on the eastern and western coast, which have been discontinued, or are not yet firmly established. That of Guinea is the most thriving. A bishop was at first selected for it from among the Catholic clergy in the United States; but on the failure of his health the mission was transferred to the Society of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, who still administer it.
"D. Oceania. — The first Catholic mission in Oceanica was that of Messrs. Bachelot, Armand, and Short, of the 'Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary,' at the Sandwich Islands. They began it in 1826, and continued it till their expulsion by the government in 1832. In the following year vicars apostolic were appointed, and missions begun at Gambier, Tahiti, and, for a second time, at the Sandwich Islands. These missions are chiefly directed by priests of the Society of Picpry and the Marists. Other stations were begun in New Zealand, at Futuna, in the Marquesas, Nukahwa, and elsewhere. These missions extended so rapidly that several new vicariates were formed; and, in spite of martyrdom, disease, and shipwreck, they are still advancing. Oceanica now contains 8 bishops, 10 vicariates, and 300 missionaries.
"E. AMERICA. —
1. Spanish Missions. — Missions were established in all Spanish America, and great numbers were converted, especially in Mexico and Peru, where their descendants are still the majority, mingled with the Spanish race. Even in Cuba the Spanish blood is much mixed with Indian blood. The missions among the wild tribes were of a different character. The most celebrated are those of the Jesuits in Paraguay and California, the missions among the Moxos and Abipones in Chili and New Grenada. Few of these are now properly missions, and they are matter for a history rather than a gazetteer.
"2. Portuguese Missions. — The missions of Brazil were chiefly conducted by Portuguese Jesuits, who converted several tribes, although their numbers were diminished by the cruelty of the savages on land and pirates at sea. Several of these missions still subsist, but - details are not easily accessible as to their numbers and extent..
"3. United States and Canada. — The early Catholic missions in New Mexico, Florida, and California were Spanish. The natives of New Mexico were converted, and, being now Christians, are not considered a mission. In Florida, while a Spanish province, the Indians were converted by Franciscans, and formed villages on the Apalachicola and around the city of St. Augustine. The English drove these Indians from their villages, and their descendants, now called Seminoles, or wanderers, have not all traces of Christianity. The Upper California missions were conducted by Franciscauns, and till a recent period were in a very flourishing state, but are now destroyed. The Canada missions were begun by French Jesuits, in Nova Scotia and Maine, about 1612. The Recollects followed, succeeded again by the Jesuits. This mission converted the Abenaquis of Maine, now forming two villages in the state- of Maine and two in Canada; the Huroin of Upper Canada, a part of whom are Catholics, are still at Lorette, near (Quebec; a part of the Iroquois, or Five Nations, who form the three Catholic villages at Caughnawaga, St. Regis, and the Lake of the Two Mountains; the Algonquins, who, form a mission village with the lastnained band of Iroquois; the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, now attended by the secular clergy; the Montagnais, at Chicoutimi and Red River, under a bishop and missionaries; the Ottawas of Lake Superior, who, with the Ojibwas and Menomonuees, are now under the care of Canadian clergy on the north, and on the south of bishop Baraga, a philologist, whose talents have been acknowledged, by the government; the Illinois and Miamis, whose descendants are now on Indian Territory and in Louisiana; the Arkansas, whose descendants, under the name of Kappas, are also there. The Catholics of Maryland began missions among the neighboring tribes, but tribe and mission have long since disappeared. Since the Revolution and, the establishment of a Catholic hierarchy in the United States, attention has been gradually turned to the Indian missions; 2 vicariates are devoted to them alone. That of Upper Michigan contains I bishop, 5 priests, 5 schools, and a large number of Catholic Ottawas and Ojibwas; that of Indian territory has a bishop, 8 clergymen, 4. schools, 5300 Catholics of the Pottawotamies, Osages, Miamis, Illinois, Kansas, and Kappas. Besides these, there are in the diocese of Milwaukee and Menomonee and an Ojibwa mission; in that of St. Paul's, Minnesota, a Sioux, a Winnebago, and 3 Ojibwa missions; and in Oregon there are missions among the Waskos, Caynsus, Pointed Hearts, and Flatheads — the Indian Catholics of the territory numbering 3100. Besides these, a few hundred converted Indians are to be found in California.
"This is an outline of the widely-extended and much diversified Catholic missions. As to their history, the work of Henrion, Histoire Generale des Missions Catholiques; Wittmanun, Die Herrlichkeiten der Kirche in ihren Missionen (Augsbiurg, 1841); Marshall, Missions, Roman Catholic and Protestant (Loud. 1865); and the annals of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, will give a general idea: but the sources are the accounts of the various religious bodies engaged on the several missions, voluminous works which would alone form a library." See also Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon, 7:157 sq.; (Regensburg) Real-Encyklopadie, volume 9, s.v.
2. The Greek Church. — Movements have recently occurred in Russia, the principal stronghold and promoter of the Greek Church, indicating some slight development of the modern missionary spirit.
A Russian Bible Society has been organized at St. Petersburg, with the sanction of the emperor Alexander. A former society, which had 279 auxiliaries, and had circulated 861,000 copies of the Scriptures, was uppressid by the emperor Nicholas.
The Russian government has also organized the establishment of a missionary society for the spread of the orthodox religion among the heathen Mussulmen and Buddhists within its territory. The operations of the society have primary reference to the conversion of the pagan tribes of the Altai and Trans-Balkan country, the Caucasus being assigned to another society of the same kind. The following is an account of the inauguration of the missionary society first referred to: "In 1870 the Greek Church of Russia organized an institution called 'The Orthodox Society on behalf of Missions,' the object of which was the conversion of the non- Christians of all parts of the Russian empire except the Caucasian and Trans-Caucasian provinces already provided for, and both the spiritual edification and social advancement of the converts thus made. The society was inaugurated at Moscow: under the presidency of Innocent, metropolitan of that city, and therefore known as 'the Apostle of Kamtchatka.' Liturgy and Te Deue were performed, and a sermon preached in the cathedral before a crowded congregation, among whom were present the governor-general of the province and others of the highest officials, although the solemnity had no official character. The society is placed under the patronage of the Russian empress, and the ultimate control of the holy synod. 'The president is the metropolitan of Moscow, and the society's affairs are administered by a council at that place. Committees are also to be formed in every city under the local bishop. The society is annually to observe the day of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, May 11 (O.S.). Any person subscribing at least three 'roubles may be a member of the society. Its council possesses, besides the president, two vice-presidents, chosen for two years, one by the president from his coadjutor bishops, and one by the members of the society from the laity. Of the twelve members of the council, four are biennially nominated by the president, and the rest by the members of the society at a general meeting."
3. Protestant Missions. —
(1.) Beginnings and Gradual Development.— The 16th century covered the period of the great Reformation, in which, by severance from the Church of Rome, an effort was made to escape from the accumulated errors and abuses of more than ten centuries, and to establish Christianity on a Scriptural basis. SEE REFORMATION. On the part of the Reformers, it was for a long time a struggle for existence, and the first and everywhere present necessity was the establishment of churches as the nuclei of future action. Unhappily a lack of unity, combined with the inherited spirit of intolerance, for a time led to strifes among themselves, which greatly retarded the development of the Protestant churches, and postponed the day of their active efforts for the conversion of the world. Nevertheless the Church of Geneva, as early as 1556, inaugurated foreign missions by sending a company of fourteen missionaries to Rio de Janeiro, in hope of being able to introduce the Reformed religion into Brazil; but the mission was defeated by a combination of treachery with religious and political opposition (see Kidder, Sketches of Brazil, volume 1, chapter 1). In 1559 a missionary was sent into Lapland by the celebrated Gustavus Vasa, king of Sweden. Early in the 17th century the Dutch, having obtained possession of Ceylon, attempted to convert the natives to the Christian faith. About the same time, many of the Nonconformists who had settled in New England began to attempt the conversion of the aborigines. Mayhew in 1643, and the laborious Eliot in 1646, devoted themselves to this apostolic service. In 1649, during the protectorate of Cromwell; there was incorporated by act of Parliament the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England." In 1660 the society was dissolved; but, on urgent application, it was soon restored, and the celebrated Robert Boyle was appointed its first governor. The zeal of this distinguished individual for the diffusion of the Gospel in India and America, and among the native Welsh and Irish; his munificent donations for the translations of the sacred Scriptures into Malay and Arabic, Welsh and Irish, and of Eliot's Bible into the Massachusetts Indian language, as well as for the distribution of Grotius de Veritaite Christiance Religionis; and, lastly, his legacy of £5400 for the propagation of Christianity among the heathens, entitle him to distinct attention. Besides these incipient efforts to diffuse the Gospel, glowing sentiments on the subject are to be found scattered through the sermons and epistolary correspondence of the age, which show that many a Christian heart was laboring and swelling with the desire of greater things than these. Still the century closed with witnessing little more than individual and unsustained endeavors. The "Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," which will be noticed hereafter, whose Objects, to a certain extent, embrace the labors of missionaries, was organized in England in 1698; but it was not till the early part of the 18th century that what has been denominated the age of missionary association fairly began to dawn. It opened very faintly 'and slowly, but nevertheless it has since been growing brighter and brighter to the present day.
(2.) Present Extent. — To convey some faint idea of what has subsequently been accomplished, and put in the way of accomplishment, it is deemed proper now to submit a brief sketch of the principal missionary organizations and agencies of the Protestant world. In this exhibit a grouping is adopted which is designed to show primarily the countries in which the several societies originated and have been sustained; secondly, the date of their origin, and a summary view of their character and early history; and, thirdly, the fields of their operation, the amount of their income, and the present condition of their enterprises. For further particulars, consult the articles on each country and society in this Cyclopaedia.
The principal Protestant missionary societies may be classified as —
I. Continental; II. British; III. American.
I. Continental Missionary Societies. — Danish College and Missions. —As early as the year 1714 the Danish Colleae of Missions was opened in Copenhagen by Frederick IV king of Denmark, for the training of missionaries. Danish missions to the heathen had been commenced even before this period, agents having been obtained from the University of Halle, in Saxony. On July 9, 1706, two missionaries arrived from Denmark on the Coromandel coast in India, and settled at Tranquebar. They immediately commenced the study of Tamil, the language spoken in that part of the country. Although they had gone to a part of the Danish empire, and were patronized by royalty, the missionaries encountered great opposition from the prejudices of the natives, and even from the Danish government, who on several occasions arrested and imprisoned the missionaries for months together. Privation, as well as persecution, was the lot of the mission staff at an early period of their labors. The first remittance sent from Europe, which at that time was greatly needed, was lost at sea, but friends were raised up in a manner unexpected, and loans of money were offered them till they could obtain supplies from the society at home. When their borrowed stock was nearly exhausted, remittances reached them, along with three more missionaries, in 1709. This was but the beginning of better times, for shortly afterwards the London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge became a liberal patron of their mission, giving them not only an edition of the Portuguese New Testament for circulation among the people, but also a printing-press, with a stock of types and paper, and a Silesian printer. When opposition to the mission subsided, and the cause expanded somewhat, a type-foundery and paper-
mill were established, and the work of translation and printing was prosecuted with vigor. In 1715 the Tamil New Testament was completed, and eleven years afterwards the Old Testament made its appearance. Several of the elder missionaries were called away by death, but zealous young men were sent out from Europe from time to time, and a native pastorate was raised up as the fruit of missionary labor, which rendered good service to the cause. In 1758 a mission was opened at Calcutta by one of this society's missionaries, but at the expunse of the Society for Promoting Chiristian Knowledge. In 1762 the celebrated missionary Schwartz, who had already been in the idialn field for twelve years, commenced his labor in Trichinopoly, in connection with which he fulfilled a long, honorable; and successful period of labor, and finished his course with joy in 1798. In the year 1835 the principal Danish missions in India, which had been so largely sustained by the Christian Knowledge Society, were transferred to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
"Mission to Greenland. — In 1721 the Danish mission to Greenland was commenced by the Reverend Hans Egede, a zealous Christian pastor of Vogen, in Norway. For thirteen years this good man had prayed and planned for a mission to that dreary region. Having at length obtained the consent and patronage of the king of Denmark to the undertaking, the missionary convened a few friends together, opened a subscription list, and in the face of formidable difficulties pushed forward the work, till a ship was purchased to convey him and a small party of settlers to Greenland. During the voyage, which lasted eight weeks, they suffered much from storms, floating mountains of ice, and a leak in the vessel, which they were obliged to stop with their clothes. On landing at their destination, their first work was to build a house of turf and stone, in which the natives, who appeared friendly, assisted them as best they could, intimating by signs, however, that if they intended to live in it they would be frozen to death. While engaged in these exercises, and in striving to acquire the strange language of the Greenlanders, Mr. Egede encountered innumerable difficulties. His greatest trial was the dissatisfaction of the colonists, several of whom resolved to return home, as they were very uncomfortable, and found the natives unwilling to trade. He was supported by the courage and resolution of his heroic wife, however, and by the arrival of two ships with provisions in the summer of 1722, when their stores were nearly exhausted. The missionary found it extremely difficult to induce the people to attend to receive such instruction as he was able to give, and it was only by offering a fish-hook for every letter of the alphabet they learned that he succeeded in getting a few children to come to school. The following year another missionary came to the assistance of Mr. Egede; and the mission was carried on with praiseworthy perseverance, but with little success for a long time. On the accession of Christian VI to the throne of Denmark, government aid was withdrawn from the mission; but the senior missionary, having the option to remain in the country, nobly stood to his post, and continued his labors amid untold privations, troubles, and sufferings, not the least of which arose from the introduction of small-pox into the settlement, which swept off about 2000 of the natives. In 1734 the mission was re-enforced by the appointment of three new agents, one of whom was the son of the pioneer missionary, Mr. Egede. The following year, his beloved wife having been called away by death, Mr. Egede returned to Denmark, but still exerted himself on behalf of the mission. Through his influence the colony and the mission were re-enforced, his son published a Greenland lexicon, the Scriptures were translated into the native language of the people, and 4000 persons were reported as halving been brought under religious instruction, although it is admitted that very few of them could be regarded as converts to the faith of the Gospel. The Danish mission to Greenland was ultimately transferred to the 'United Brethren.' Here should be mentioned the mission to Lapland (q.v.).
"United Brethren's Missions SEE MORAVIAN. — The missionary spirit of the Moravian Church manifested itself at an early period after the. establishment of the settlement at Hernihut. When falsely accused, and declared an exile from Germany, count Zinzendorf gave a reply which indicated the spirit by which he was actuated, and the genius of the people with whom he had cast in his lot. He said: 'Now we must collect a congregation of pilgrims, and train laborers to go forth into all the world, and preach Christ and his salvation to every creature.' He was led to this by a visit made to the Danish capital in 1731. When the new colony only numbered about 600 persons, all of whom were poor exiles, and when just beginning, to build a church for their own, accommodation in what has lately been a wilderness, they resolved to labor for the conversion of the heathen world. Within ten years from that date, 1732, they sent missionaries to St. Thomas and St. Croix, in the West Indies; to the Indians in North and South America; to Lapland, Tartary, Algiers, Western Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, and Ceylon. Alount the year 1831 an association was formed in London, which raised about £5000 per annum in aid of Moravian missions, and this proved a great help to the cause. Subsequently the United Brethren sent out agents to other West India islands, including Jamaica, Tobago, Antigua, Barbadoes, and St. Christopher's; to South America, Labrador, Greenland; Egypt, Persia, and India. The first missions of the Moravian Brethren were not very successful, but their agents persevered amid numerous difficulties, privations, and sufferings, to which they had been well trained by the painful experience of their previous history, and the ultimate result has been very gratifying.
"Statistics of Moravian Missions. — A recent publication says: 'The Moravian mission statistics for 1889 show 127 stations; 286 missionary' agents; 1663 native assistants Landi overseers; 84,201 communicants; 18,280 non-communicants under regular instruction. l£16,803 are raised from home sources, and £50,000 is the full amount received annually from all sources. A "Leper Home" at Jerusalem is under their care. In the year 1887 five Christian workers were ministering to about 25 sufferers from that terrible disease. Alaska is the scene of their latest missionary enterprise. It was commenced in 1885 and is directed to the Eskimo of the Northwest. Since 1818 the number of members in the entire field has increased from 80,000 to S4,000.
"Netherlands Missionary Society. — This institution was formed at Rotterdam in 1796, mainly through the influence of Dr. Vanderkemp. 'Before the eccentric doctor embarked for his distant sphere of labor in South Africa, to which he had been appointed by the London Missionary Society, he visited Rotterdam to take leave of his friends, and while there he found leisure to publish a Dutch version of an earnest address which had emanated from the London Society, the result of which was the organization of the Netherlands Missionary Society. For some time the financial aid offered to the enterprise was very slender, and no immediate steps were taken towards commencing operations. This interval was wisely employed by the directors in endeavoring to leaven the Dutch mind with the true missionary spirit. When the funds were available, and they contemplated entering upon foreign fields of labor, they were deterred from doing so from the loss of most of the Dutch colonies, which had fallen into the hands of France during the war, The directors therefore made an arrangement with the London Missionary Society to supply men and means for carrying on the work in Africa and India under their auspices and management. In this way they trained and sent out several excellent missionaries to the Cape of Good Hope and the East, where their knowledge of the Dutch language was at once available for carrying on the work. In 1814 Holland rose again to independence, and recovered its colonies, when the Netherlands Society took immediate advantage of the favorable change in national affairs, and sent out five young missionaries from their seminary on their own account, to enter favorable openings which presented themselves in the Eastern Archipelago among the Malays. Other agents followed from year to year, and that part of the world was largely and well occupied by the society.' In 1820 two) missionaries -were sent out to India, and a few years afterwards they were followed by Dr. Gutzlaff, who, finding a number of Chinese at Riosew, his appointed station, was ultimately induced to extend his labors to the 'Celestial Empire.' A mission was also established at Surinam, in Dutch Guiana, and the Netherlands Society was able to report 17 stations and 19 missionaries under their direction, with a goodly number of native converts to the faith of the Gospel united in Church fellowship.
"Other Dutch Missions. — It must not be supposed that the organization of the Netherlands Missionary Society is all that Holland has done for the conversion of the heathen. Long anterior to that event, even as early as 1612, the famous Anthony Walwens planted a seminary at Leyden for the preparation of foreign missionaries, the Dutch East India Company countenancing and approving of the institution. When Ceylon came under the power of Holland, in 1636, a number of missionaries were sent out to propagate the Reformed religion among the idolatrous natives. A very superficial mode of making converts seems to have been adopted, however, for when they were reported as amounting to 400,000 in number, there were only l00 communicants. The sad disproportion reveals a system of action which was not only reprehensible in itself, but greatly prejudicial to all subsequent missionary labor, as has been proved by painful experience. Dutch missionaries were also sent out at an early period to Southern Africa, Java, Formosa, Amboyna, and other places.
"Basle Missionary Society. — In the year 1815 a seminary was established for the training of missionaries at Basle, in Switzerland. It owed its origin to the gratitude of a few pious people. who recognised the providence of God in a violent storm which occurred at a particular juncture, and which proved the means of preserving their town from ruin when the armies of Russia and Hungary were hurling shells into it. The form which the gratitude of these people assumed was a desire to educate pious teachers to send to the heathen, to make them acquainted with the good news of salvation. The school was at first very small, with few scholars, and a slender income of about £50 per annum. In the course of a few years a missionary college was built, and liberal support came from Germany and France, as well as from various parts of Switzerland, so that the income rose to £5000. This result flowed from the formation of auxiliary or branch societies in those countries. The institution was now conducted with vigor, and furnished the English Church Missionary Society with some of its most devoted laborers. In forty years after its commencement it had sent forth nearly 400 missionaries to foreign lands, and 80 were still under training. It was no part of the original plan of this institution to engage in. the support and management of foreign missions, but merely to prepare agents for the work. In 1821, however, a society was formed for this object, and from year to year missionaries were sent to North 'America, Western Africa, India, and China. A society was also organized for the special purpose of disseminating the Gospel among the Jews. The missionaries of the Basle Society are not all ministers.' They send out pious mechanics and agriculturists to teach the natives the arts of civilized life, at the same time that they instruct them in the principles of Christianity by the preaching of the Gospel and the establishment of schools. The Basle Missionary Society is generally conceded to have first awakened. an interest in missions among the Germans. See Ostertag, Enstehungsgesch. der Missionsgesellschaft zu Basel (1865).
"Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. — The origin of this institution is somewhat curious and interesting. In the year 1822 a meeting was convened at the house of an American merchant, S.V.S. Wilder, Esq., then residing in Paris, to take into consideration the best means of propagating the Gospel in heathen lands. There were present the presidents of the Lutheran and Reformed consistories, as well as many of the ministers of these churches, and others of different persuasions then in the French metropolis. The result was the formation of this society, which, in its commencement, contemplated two objects: the one to employ the press as a means to enlighten the public mind on the nature and character of Protestant missions, and the other to educate young men, who had been duly recommended, in a knowledge of the languages of the East. The Rev. Jonas King was then in Paris, and received an invitation to go to the Holy Land with the Reverend Mr. Fisk, the new society charging itself with his support for a certain period. Subsequently the society devoted all its efforts to South Africa, where its agents have labored for many years with great advantage to several scattered tribes of natives. In 1829 three missionaries were sent by the society to the Cape of Good Hope, one of whom settled among the French refugees at Wellington, near Cape Town, and the other two proceeded to the Bechuana country, and commenced a station at Motito. Reenforcements arrived from time to time, which enabled the missionaries to extend their labors to various parts of a country that stood in great need of the light of the Gospel. That part of the interior known as Bassutoland was occupied by the French missionaries. New stations were formed, schools were established, and chapels built at Bethulia, Moljia, Beersheba, Thaha, Bassion, Mekuatling, Friedor, Bethesda, Berea, and Carmel. At several of these places a goodly number of natives were brought to a saving knowledge of the truth, and united in Church fellowship, although the notorious chief Moshesh still adhered to his heathenism, notwithstanding his superior intelligence. The French mission in South Africa has repeatedly suffered from devastating wars among the natives and settlers, but the greatest blow to its prosperity was the war which raged in France in 1870-71, through which the supplies of the missionaries were in a great measure cut off. Providence, however, raised up friends in the time of need, and the work still goes on.
"Rhenish Missionary Society.-The institution now known as the Rhenish Missionary Society was organized in 1828 by the amalgamation of three other associations which had previously maintained a separate existence in Elberfeld, Barmen, and Cologne. The society was afterwards further strengthened by the incorporation of several other small associations in the Rhenish provinces and Westphalia. In 1829 three missionaries were sent out to South Africa. These were followed in after-years by several others, and stations were ultimately established at Stellenbosch, Worcester, Tulbagh, Saron, Schietfontein, Ebenezer, Kamaggas, and other places within the boundaries of the Cape-Colony; and at Bethany, Berseba, Rehoboth, Rood-Volk, Wesley Vale, and Barmen in Namaqualand, and Danlaralaud. Some of these stations were originally commenced by Wesleyan missionaries who had for many years labored on the south- western coast of Africa. But in 1851, an arrangement was made by which they were given over to the Rhenish Society, as was also the station at Nisbett Bath a few years afterwards, the Wesleyans finding it necessary to concentrate their labors in other localities. In 1834 the Berlin Missionary Society sent two agents to Borneo, and others followed at intervals, who were employed in educational labors. In 1846 the work was extended to China, where several baptisms were soon reported as having taken place. Indeed, undue importance appears to have been attached to baptism by the missionaries of this institution, for when this society had been in existence about twenty-two years, nearly 5000 baptisms were reported, when comparatively few of the number could be regarded as communicants, or Church members. Perhaps this and some other peculiarities may be accounted for by the Lutheran type of theology which the agents generally seem to have espoused.
"Berlin Missionary Society. — This society was formally organized in 1824, but it arose out of efforts which had been previously made for missionary objects. As early as the year 1800 an. institution was formed in the Prussian capital by members of the Lutheran Church to educate pious youths for foreign mission service. During the following twenty-five years forty students were so educated. In 1834 the Berlin Missionary Society sent out four missionaries to South Africa. These Were followed by others during successive years, and arrangements were made for carrying on the work on an extensive scale. One of the first stations occupied by this society was. at Beaufort, and thence the missionaries went among the Korannas and Kaffirs. Subsequently the work was extended to Zoar, Bethel, Emmaus, Bethany, Priel, New Germany, and other stations, some of which are situated within the boundaries of the Cape Colony, others in the Orange Free State, the Trians-Vaal Republic. Kaffraria, and in the distant regions of Natal. The last report gives forty-seven stations in South Africa, with sixty-four laborers and 9772 communicants. China was entered in 1883 and now has three stations, ten workers, and 446 communicants. The number of scholars for both missions was 3542; native contributions were £4338.
"Swedish Missionary Society. — The Swedes made vigorous though unsuccessful efforts to propagate the Gospel in heathen lands as early as the year 1559. The sphere of their operations was Lapland, and their work was conducted under royal auspices. Gustavus Vasa headed the missionary movement of his country for the enlightenment of the Laplandese, and succeeding monarchs threw the weight of their influence into the Christian enterprise. In 1775 the New Testament, translated into Laplandese, was published. The mission was far from prosperous, however, and, after years of hoping against hope, it was abandoned. Nor is this to be wondered as if one half of what has been recorded in reference to the drinking and other immoral habits of both priests and people is true. After an interval of nearly three centuries, Lapland again engrossed the attention of the Swedes. In 1835 the Swedish Missionary Society was formed, and sent forth a pious young man, named Carl Ludovic Tellstroem, the fruit of the Wesleyan Mission in Stockholm, as a catechist to Lapland. He had many difficulties to encounter from the migratory and dissipated habits of the people; but by following them to their markets and fairs with his Bible, to instruct them in the truths of the Gospel, there is reason to hope that his labors were productive of some good' results. Schools were afterwards established for the training of the rising generation, and the children were taught, fed, and clothed at the expense of the society, and at the end of two years were sent home with tracts and books to interest and instruct their parents, families, and friends. It also is a mission in Lapland.
"Evangelical Lutheran Mission. — This society was instituted in 1836, with its head-quarters at Dresden. The seat of direction was in 1848 removed to Leipsic. Its efforts have been chiefly turned to Southern- India, to the occupation of those fields of labor which had been previously cultivated by the Danish missionaries. From a report published some time ago, it appears that they had in their employ 24 missionaries, with 12 native candidates, in 22 different stations, counting 14,014 Church members and 3653 scholars under their pastoral care. They have all labored as a society in New South Wales, but the results did not long warrant the continuance of this work.
"North German Missionary Society. — This institution was organized in the year 1836, with its seat first at Hamburg and afterwards at Bremen. The scene of its earliest labors was India, one station being in the Telogoo country, and the other in the Neilgherries. A serious diminution in the financial receipts led to the transference of the mission for some years to the United States Evangelical Lutheran Church. When the finances revived, however, the responsibilities connected with carrying on the work were again assumed by the Bremen Union, and the field of effort has recently called forth a large amount of sympathy in North Germany. 10 missionaries, 409 communicants, and 321 scholars are now reported.
"Norwegian Missionary Society. — This society was formed in 1842, and soon afterwards sent out missionaries to labor among the warlike Zulus in South-eastern Africa. The aim of the institution is to supply agents who are able and willing to instruct the people in the arts of civilized life, as well as in religious knowledge. With this object an estate was purchased in Natal, and an industrial institution established, which has already been productive of much good, reporting 20,660 adherents.
"Swedish (Lund) Mission. — In 1846 this society was established at Lund, and three years afterwards it sent out 2 missionaries to China, who were killed by pirates. Other agents were at length sent out, who were spared to take their share in attempting to evangelize the Chinese with a hopeful prospect of success.
"Berlin Missionary Union for China. — This society was established in the month of June, 1850, during a visit of Dr. Gutzlaff to Berlin. Dr. F.W. Krnmmacher was appointed president, and Prof. Lachs secretary. The object of the society is to send out European laborers, and to aid training institutions. In a field so wide as the vast Chinese empire there is ample room for all, and from the last published accounts it is pleasing to learn that the missionaries of this small but useful association were actively employed in diffusing abroad the light of the Gospel.
"Of minor account is the Evangelical Mission Society, founded in 1858 by Gitzlaff, until then a member of the Berlin Missionary Society. No stress is laid upon the education of the missionary, but the mission field as a life home is insisted upon. This society labors in New South Wales, among the Papuas, and in the South Sea Islands and East India. The Hermannsburg Mission, with head-quarters at Hanover, founded by pastor Harms, labors in East Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. 13,424 native Christians are connected with them.
"Miscellaneous Jewish Societies. — On the continent of Europe there are sundry associations which have for their object the evangelization of the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but their labors are so local and diversified that they cannot well be described separately. The Jewish Society at Berlin was formed in 1822 the Bremenlehe Society in 1839, the Rhenish Westphalia Union in 1843, the Hamburg Altona in 1844, the Hesse-Cassel in 1845, and the Hesse Darmstadt in 1845. These are but a few of the many organizations which exist in connection with Christian churches of various denominations for the special benefit of the Jews, and the interest in the spiritual welfare of Abraham's seed is deepening and widening every year.
"II. British Missionary Societies. — Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. — This is the oldest Protestant missionary society in England, and its origin may be traced to a very remote period: About the year 1644, while the civil wars still continued in that country a petition was presented to Parliament by a clergyman of the Church of England, supported by many English and Scotch divines, urging the duty of attempting to convert the natives of North America to Christianity. This, no doubt, led to the ordinance passed on July 27, 1648, by the Independents of the Commonwealth, by which a corporation was established, entitled 'The President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England.' The preamble recites that the Commons of England assembled in Parliament, having received intelligence that the heathens in New England are beginning to call upon the name of the Lord, feel bound to assist in the work.' They ordered the act to be read in all the churches of the land, and collections to be made in aid of the object. This was the first missionary association formed in England, and may be considered as the parent of the present 'venerable' Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The colonial settlements first attracted public attention to the spiritual wants of their European and heathen populations. The colonists of New England from the commencement displayed great zeal for the conversion of the Indians. The labors of Eliot, Mather, and others will never be forgotten by the Christian Church. After the Restoration in Great Britain, Baxter and Boyle distinguished themselves by their practical sympathy with the work in which these excellent men were engaged. Meanwhile the Church of England became interested in supplying the new colonies with Episcopalian ministers. In 1675 it was found 'that there were scarcely four members of the Church of England in all the vast tracts of North America.' In view of this lamentable state of things, royalty was moved to liberality. Charles II was induced by Compton, bishop of London, to allow £20 for passage money for ministers and schoolmasters willing to go out to supply the deficiency, and the sum of £1200 was also granted to supply American parishes with Bibles and other religious books. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was organized June 16, 1701; when it received a charter from Williams III. The main objects for which it was instituted are stated to be twofold. It was designed 'to provide for the ministrations of the Church of England in the British colonies, and to propagate the Gospel among the native inhabitants of those countries.'
"The income of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts is derived from various sources, embracing Parliamentary grants, collections in churches, schoolrooms, and public halls, in which anniversary sermons are preached and missionary, meetings held, and subscriptions and legacies from individuals. In this way the institution is liberally supported, and a large' amount of agency is brought to bear upon the people where mission stations have been formed.
"During the long period of its existence the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts has gradually extended its labors to various parts of the world, and has been instrumental of much good, especially to British colonists at an early period of their struggles, long before modern missionary societies had commenced their operations. This useful institution now occupies important stations in the British provinces of North America, the Dominion of Canada, British Columbia, the West Indies, Southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, India, and China. To all these places Anglican bishops and clergymen have gone forth, carrying with them their own views of Church order and discipline; and in connection with every important Colony a diocese has been formed, and parishes have been organized after the style of the mother country. The main object of the institution is to supply the services and the ordinances of the Church of England to the tens of thousands of British emigrants who have been annually leaving the shores of their native country from generation to generation, to better their condition in foreign lands. And with much zeal and earnestness have the agents of this society followed their countrymen in all their wanderings, ministering to their spiritual necessities, and bringing home to their recollections the tender associations of the 'old country,' where they were favored in times of yore to listen with pleasure to the sound of the 'church-going bell.' Nor have the dark, benighted heathen population within the boundaries and in the neighborhood of the respective colonies been neglected by this time- honored institution. Many poor wandering Indians in the north-western wilds of America, as well as idolatrous Hindus in the East, and warlike Kaffirs in Southern Africa, to say nothing of the aborigines of other lands, have been favored with the means of grace and religious instruction through its instrumentality, especially of late years, since attention was more particularly directed to this department of the work.
"The Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. — Although not strictly missionary in its primary object, this was at a very early period an auxiliary to Christian missions, and is at this day a most powerful help to the Church of England in her desolate places abroad, as well as at home. It was founded in 1698, mainly by a private clergyman, Dr. Thomas Bray, who, subsequently acting as commissioner in Maryland, and seeing the great necessity for some further effort at home for the advancement of religion in the colonies, happily succeeded in rousing public attention to the matter. Having afterwards been the chief instrument in the formation of the Gospel Propagation Society, Dr. Bray may be fairly considered the founder of both these institutions, and in them of many other noble societies which followed them, by imitation or natural consequence. As early as the year 1709 the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge established a connection with the Danish mission to the Hindus at Tranquebar, and rendered considerable aid towards the support of the work. The Tanjore mission originated in 1726, and the one at Trichinopoly in 1762, which, with the celebrated Schwarts as its missionary, was taken up five years afterwards by the Christian Knowledoe Society, and prosecuted with vigor and success. When other institutions of the Church of England were afterwards organized for the express purpose of propagating the Gospel in foreign lands, the Christian Knowledge Society thenceforth confined its attention to the circulation of religious works — Bibles, Prayer-books, tracts, etc. — at a cheap rate in Great Britain and its several dependencies. There are branch societies in various parts of the country, and persons are constituted members by subscribing annually a sum not less than one guinea.
"The Church Missionary Society was instituted in London April 12, 1799. The original design of the society was to act more especially in Africa and the East. That fact was embodied in its first designation, but afterwards dropped. Though the sphere contemplated by the first board of directors was neither small nor unimportant, this society has planted missions over still more widely extended regions. At first, and for a long time after its commencement, this society was simply supported and governed by the members of the Episcopal Church, and was not in any way subject to ecclesiastical authority. At length the appointment of English bishops to foreign countries rendered a change in the administration of the Church Missionary Society absolutely necessary: and it was decided that in future the institution should be conducted in strict conformity with the ecclesiastical principles of the Establishment. Hence all the missionaries who now go out in its service are placed under the government and direction of the bishops nearest to their respective stations. The funds of the Church Missionary Society are supplied in the usual way by personal contributions, legacies, collections after sermons. and at public meetings; and hitherto the institution has been supported in a very liberal manner.
"The principal spheres of labor entered upon and efficiently worked by the agents of the Church Missionary Society have been in Western Africa, Continental India, and Ceylon, British North America, and the West Indies. In all these countries, but especially in the one first named, the missionaries, catechists, and teachers of this institution have toiled with commendable zeal and diligence, and have been favored to see the fruit of their labor on a large scale. In 1882 Egypt and Arabia were entered. The Missionary Year-Book, for 1890, gives the statistics of the society as follows: 294 stations, 282 ordained, 43 lay, and 40 female foreign workers; 266 ordained, 2940 lay, 690 female native workers; 185,538 adherents, 47,531 communicants, 1928 schools, 77,451 scholars. The total income of the society amounted to £221,330 19s. lid. In 1830 there were only 318 conmmunnicansts; in 1870 only 21,705. Only 30 missionaries were employed in 1830, and 203 in 1870. In 1830 there was not a single native ordained clergyman employed by the society; ino 1870 there were only 109. Up to March 1, 1862, there had gone forth on foreign service, in connection with the Church Missionary Society, 562 men of various countries and races, of whom 121 were Germans.
"The Colonial Church and School Society may be regarded as supplementary to the Church Missionary Society. It has rendered valuable assistance to the missionaries employed in the far north-western wilds of British America, formerly included in the Hudson's Bay territories, to clergymen and teachers laboring among the scattered settlers of Australia, and to mission stations and schools in several of the British colonies.
"The London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews was founded in the year 1808, although it was not fully organized until the following year. The constitution originally contemplated two objects: 'To relieve the temporal distress of the Jews, and to promote their spiritual welfare.' Public worship, and the education of the children under the care of the society, within the United Kingdom, are conducted in strict conformity to the principles and formularies of the Church of England, with which it has always been identified both in its management and principal support. The first sphere of its action was among the Jews in London. In 1811 a printing-press was established to give employment to poor Jewish converts. Two years later a chapel and schools were opened for the benefit of seventy-nine proselytes and their families. In 1818 the first foreign missionary was sent forth to labor in Poland, where a seminary was soon afterwards established for the training of Jewish converts as missionaries. The society also published a Hebrew edition of the Scriptures for the Jews generally, and prepared a Judaeo-Polish version for Poland, and a Syriac version for the Cabalistic Jews. In 1840 the Jewish college for the complete training of missionary agents was established. It has proved an important auxiliary to Jewish missions, not only in connection with the London society, but also to kindred institutions which were afterwards called into existence. The London Society has above 30 mission stations for the benefit of the Jews in Europe, Asia, and Africa; more than 100 missionaries, of whom upwards of 60 are converted Israelites; about 20 schools, with an aggregate of Hebrew children during the last thirty years of upwards of 10,000. This society has seen 50 of its converts ordained as clergymen of Christian congregations at home, and it has distributed above 212,000 copies of the Hebrew Scriptures.
"Scottish Society for Proparating Christian Knowledge. — This institution was established in Edinburgh in the year 1709, being the first missionary association organized by the Presbyterians of North Britain. Its original design was the extension of religion in the British empire, and especially in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The pagan world subsequently arrested the attention of the directors, and called forth their sympathies and efforts. About twenty years after its formation this society entered into correspondence, with a view to forming stations among the American Indians in the vicinity of New England; Three agents were appointed to labor among the aborigines of these settlements; but, from some untoward circumstances which occurred, they appear to have been wanting in adaptation for their work, and were withdrawn. In 1741 a mission was established among the Delaware Indians, which met with great success. A number of native converts were received into the Church by baptism, and the heart of the missionary was cheered by manifest tokens of the divine presence and blessing. A good work was also carried on for some time among the Indians of Long Island by the agency of this society; but an attempt to evangelize the natives settled on the banks of the Susquehanna was not so successful.
"The Scottish Missionary Society was instituted in the month of February, 1796, under the designation of the Edinburgh Missionary Society. The first mission of this society to Sierra Leone was not a success. Nothing daunted by the comparative failure of the mission to Western Africa, in 1802 the Scottish Missionary Society sent out two missionaries to Tartary. This mission also failed in consequence of the oppressive and restrictive measures of government. The agents of this society were more successful, however, in Asiatic Russia, where they commenced their labors in 1805. In 1822 missionaries were also sent to India, when Bombay and Puna were occupied as principal stations. In 1835 this branch of the work was transferred to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which had recently commenced operations in India., In 1824 a mission was organized for Jamaica, which was productive of much good. This produced a mission to Old Calabar, Western Africa, which has been prosecuted with vigor and success. In 1847 the stations of this society in Jamaica were transferred to the United Presbyterian Church, by which they are now carried on with. efficiency and success.
"The Glasgow Missionary Society was organized in February 1796. It sent missionaries to Western and Southern Africa, but without very marked success. In 1844 the missions of the Glasgow Society were transferred to the Free Church of Scotland.
"The Church of Scotland's Foreign Mission Scheme. — The formation of several missionary societies of a general nature towards the close of the last century appears to have excited the zeal, if not the jealousy, of the Church, of Scotland, and overtures were presented to the General Assembly from different synods, praying that attention might be paid to the claims of the heathen world. For some time these were disregarded; but in 1824 the subject was brought forward again, and a committee was appointed to prepare a program for the organization of what was justly designated as 'a pious and benevolent object.' At the next Assembly, in 1S25, the committee reported in favor of British India as a field of labor, and advised the establishment of a great central seminary, with auxiliary district schools for the instruction of Hilldus children and young persons of both sexes. In 1829 the Reverend Alexander Duff sailed for Calcutta as the head of the educational institution. The ship was wrecked off the Cape of Good Hope, but without loss of life. After some delay and many dangers, Mr. and Mrs. Duff arrived at Calcutta on May 27, 1830, having lost a valuable library, and 'being more dead than alive.' The seminary was opened in the month of August, and met with remarkable success. Within a few days of the opening 200 pupils were in attendance. Both the elementary and collegiate sections of the institution prospered. The English language was chosen as the medium of instruction in the highest classes, but as soon as qualified teachers and suitable school-books could be obtained, due attention was paid to the vernacular. In 1835 three missionaries — the Reverend James Mitchell, John Wilson, and Robert Nisbet — were transferred by their own desire from the Scottish Missionary Society to the General Assembly's Mission; and in 1843 still further changes were made by the disruption of the General Assembly, which issued in the formation of the Free Church of Scotland, to which all the missionaries in India adhered, with the buildings, furniture, and property of the ,respective stations. After laboring in connection with the: Indian Mission for nearly thirty-five years, Dr. Duff finally returned to his native land in 1863, having meanwhile made but a brief visit to England and the United States in 1854 and 1855.
"The Free Church of Scotland's Foreign Mission. — This Church, after its organization in 1843, made arrangements for carrying on the missionary work both at home and abroad. The educational establishment at Calcutta, under the able superintendence of Dr. Duff, and the mission stations at Bombay, Puna, Nagpore, Madras, and other places in India, as well as those in Southern Africa, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the West Indies, Madeira, the Mediterranean, Australia, and Natal, were prosecuted with vigor and success under the new administration.
"The Free Church of Scotland also assumed the responsibility of supporting and carrying on a mission to the Jews which had been organized a short time before the disruption. The history of this branch of the work, so far as Hungary and Austria are concerned, is of more than ordinary interest. Pesth was the scene of a remarkable: awakening among the scattered seed of Abraham. Hundreds of Jews, many of them persons of distinction, became simultaneously interested inquiries into the truth. of Christianity. The revolution in Hungary caused the suspension of the mission for a time, and the despotism of Austria well-nigh extinguished it. Of late years there have been considerable changes in the scene of its operations, and Frankfort, Amsterdam, Breslau, Pesth, Galatz, and other places are mentioned in the society's report as places where its agents are now laboring for the conversion of the Jews to the faith of the Gospel.
"United Presbyterian Synod's Foreign Mission. — In the year 1835 the United Secession Church planted a mission in the West Indies by the agency of the Revs. William Paterson and James Niven. In the course of a few years several stations were opened in Jamaica, Trinidad, and the Grand Caymanas. The progress of the mission to these parts is indicated by the following scenes of labor, and the dates when the work was commenced at each place respectively: Jamaica-Stirling, 1835; New Broughton, 1835; Friendship, 1837; Goshen, 1837; Mount Olivnet 1839; Montego Bay, 1848; Kingston, 1848. Trinidad-Port of Spain, 1839; Arauca, 1842. The Great Caymanas Georgetown, 1846. In 1846 a mission was commenced at Old Calabar, in Western Africa, intended to be worked chiefly by converted negroes from Jamaica. The synod also sent several missionaries to Canada, who have since succeeded in forming self-sustaining congregations, and even in organizing large and influential presbyteries. The first work of the United Presbyterian Church, formed in May 1847, was to accept of the transference of the stations and agents of the Scottish Missionary Society in Jamaica, and of the Glasgow African Missionary Society in Kaffraria, which it has since conducted with vigor and success. It has also a Jewish mission to Algiers, Aleppo, and other places.
"English Presbyterian Synod's Foreign Mission. — This Church entered upon foreign missionary operations in 1844. The principal scene of its labors is China, and although the work has not as yet been conducted on a large scale, it is hoped that lasting good will be the result. The funds of the society were considerably augmented a few years ago by the handsome bequest of the late Mr. Sandeman, to whose benevolence and general Christian character a graceful tribute is paid in the annual report for 1859. Promising mission stations have been formed at Amoy and Swatow, where a few converted natives have been united in Church fellowship, and an additional missionary has recently been ordained and sent forth to strengthen the hands of the brethren who have been some time in the field.
"Reformed Presbyterian Church Mission. — Foreign missionary operations were commenced by this body in 1842. The principal scene of its labor has been the South Sea Islands, especially New Zealand and the New Hebrides. The Reverend John Inglis labored for many years in the island of Aneiteum with considerable success. By the blessing of God on his unwearied efforts a goodly number of converted natives were gathered into the fold of Christ, some; of whom became efficient Church officers and teachers of others, while the rising generation were carefully trained in a knowledge of God's holy Word to an extent which is not often witnessed even on mission stations. At one time, out of a population of 1900 in a certain district, 1700 were able to read the Bible — a proportion of readers perhaps scarcely surpassed in any country.
"Irish Presbyterian Church's Mission. — The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland commenced its missionary operations in 1840. Their first field was India. Considerable attention has also been paid to the British colonies by this body, missionaries having been sent out at different times to North America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. The Assembly has also Jewish missions at Hamburg, Bonn, and in Syria.
"Scottish Society for the Conversion of Israel. — This society was instituted in the year 1845, not in connection: with any particular branch of the Christian Church, but on a broad and catholic basis, the directors being chosen from different denominations. It was originally designed to afford temporal relief to the migrating Jews who visited Glasgow. Subsequently it extended its operations to the seed of Abraham in foreign lands, and sought their spiritual benefit as well as temporal welfare. Stations were formed and agents employed at Hamburg, Algiers, and Alexandria; but in 1857, when the United Presbyterian Church originated a mission to the Jews, these foreign stations were transferred to that body, from which most of the funds had been derived, and the Scottish Society again confined its labors to home, as before.
"Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. — In the year 1841 several of the leading medical practitioners in the Scotch metropolis, in the course of their reading, having come to the conclusion that medical skill might be greatly helpful to Christian missions, formed themselves into an association for this object. Their first efforts were directed to China, where the want of medical knowledge was sorely felt. The constitution of the society does not restrict its operations to the Celestial empire, but leaves it at liberty to afford its aid to the missionary enterprise in any part of the world. The intention of its patrons is to give gratuitous medical aid to the suffering poor, and at the same time to embrace every opportunity of imparting religious instruction to the dark, benighted heathens who are the objects of its benevolence.
"London Missionary Society. — Towards the close of the year 1794 a spirited paper appeared in the Evangelical Magazine advocating the formation of a mission to the, heathen on the broadest possible basis. This led to the. organization of the London Missionary Society. The Reverend David Bogue, D.D., of Gosport, the author of the paper alluded to, may therefore be regarded as the father and founder of this noble institution; and his name will ever be held in grateful remembrance by the friends of missions. Two months after the appearance of Dr. Bogue's practical paper, a conference was held to take steps for giving effect to the laudable proposal That conference was attended by representatives from several evangelical bodies, in accordance with the proposed catholicity of the spirit of action. The result of that conference was a carefully-prepared address to the ministers and members of the various churches, and the appointment of a committee to diffuse information, and to learn the sentiments of the Christian public upon the subject. A conference upon a larger scale was held in September, 1795 twelve months after the publication of Dr. Bogue's paper. The conference lasted three days, and comprised a large and influential body of Christians. The Reverend Dr. Haweis, preached an eloquent and impressive sermon on the occasion, taking for his subject the great commission (Mr 15:16); and the Reverend J. Burder and the Reverend Rowland Hill also took part in the preliminary work which issued in the formation of the institution. Thus, amid many prayers, much fraternal love, and the promise of large support both in counsel and contributions, the London Missionary Society was launched.
"The first question which pressed upon the attention of the directors of the London Missionary Society after its formation was the selection of the most suitable fields of labor. Wishing to commence their operations in a part of the world where no efforts had as yet been made by any other society for the evangelization of the natives, and encouraged by the reports which had been brought to England from the South Seas by an exploring expedition which had discovered many new islands. they decided, in the first place, to send missionaries to Polynesia. The field once chosen, and that choice published, it was found that neither agents nor money were wanting for the enterprise. The enthusiasm which prevailed was broad and deep, and the readiness with which service was offered and funds furnished cheered the hearts of the directors, and was regarded by them as a clear indication of the divine favor. In the early part of 1796 the missionary ship Duff was purchased, and freighted with a suitable cargo; and twenty-nine agents who had volunteered their services embarked for their distant sphere of labor. These were not all missionaries, properly so called, only four of them being ordained ministers, and the rest mechanics or artisans of different kinds, intended to take a part in the good work. Everything appeared providential hitherto, and, to crown all, Mr. James Wilson, a retired captain of excellent spirit and great professional skill, proffered his services to navigate the ship with its precious cargo to Polynesia. After some detention at Portsmouth, the Duff went to sea on September 23, followed by the earnest prayers of thousands; and by the good providence of God reached her destination in safety, notwithstanding a severe storm which she encountered off the Cape of Good Hope.
"The missionary ship Duff arrived at Tahiti on March 6, 1797, and anchored safely in Matavia Bay, at a distance of about three quarters of a mile from the shore. In the afternoon the captain and a member of the mission landed, and were met on the beach by Paitia, the aged chief of the district, who welcomed them to the country, and offered them a large native house for their accommodation. It was arranged that to the four ordained ministers and fourteen of the unmarried brethren should be confided the establishment and prosecution of the mission at Tahiti; that ten should endeavor to effect a settlement at Tonga,: one of the Friendly Islands; and that two should proceed to the Marquesas. The agents were distributed according to this arrangement, and commenced their labors, no doubt, with the best intentions. It would be an exercise of painful interest, if our space permitted us, to give the sequel of this enterprise in all its particulars. It may suffice to say that in this large band of missionary agents, selected in such haste, there were several men who proved altogether deficient in mental power, moral courage, and other necessary qualifications for the work. Consequently, some proved unfaithful and abandoned the enterprise altogether; others were discouraged, and the few who were stout-hearted and courageous labored under many difficulties. In some of the islands the mission totally failed, several of the. agents being murdered, and the rest having to flee for their lives. In after-years the London Missionary Society learned to select its missionaries with greater care, and seminaries for their proper training were speedily established. After numerous reverses, disappointments, and long delay, the missionaries of the London Society ultimately prosecuted their labors in various islands of Polynesia, with results of a most remarkable character, in connection with which the name of John Williams, the martyr of Erromanga, and those of other worthies, will be handed down to posterity as entitled to affectionate remembrance.
*"In 1798, about three years after its commencement, the London Missionary Society sent forth four missionaries to Southern Africa: Dr. Vanderkemp and Mr. Edmonds to labor in that part of the Cape Colony which bordered upon Kaffraria, and Messrs. Kitchener and Edwards were stationed north of the colony among the Bushmen. In the following year Dr. Vanderkemp and his colleague penetrated into Kaffirllnd, and offered the Gospel to the warlike natives, but with little success at that time. They afterwards labored among the Hottentots living within the colonial boundary, several of whom were successfully instructed in the things of God, and brought to a saving knowledge of the truth. In 1806 the missionaries crossed the Orange River, and commenced their labors among the wild Namaquas. Here the celebrated Robert Moffatt began his honorable and eventful career, and was favored to rejoice over the notorious Hottentot chief Africaner. Mr. Moffatt afterwards established a prosperous mission at Kurnman, among the Bechuanas, many of whom he saw gathered into the fold of Christ, and into whose language he translated the Holy Scriptures. After a long, laborious, and honorable missionary career, extending over half a century, Mr. Moffatt finally returned to England in 1870, a remarkable instance of God's preserving goodness and of entire. devotion to the mission cause. To the north of Bechuanaland, in the region of the Zambeze, Dr. Livingstone performed his wonderful missionary travels, and there also the ill-fated mission of the London Society to the Makololo was attempted.
"British India was the next field of labor on which the London; Missionary Society entered. In 1804 the Reverend Messrs. Ringeltaube, Cran, and Des Granges were sent out with the view of establishing a mission on the coast of Coromandel. On their arrival, Messrs. Cran and Des Granges proceeded to Vizagapatam, which lies about 500 miles south-west of Calcutta. and which was then unoccupied by any other society's missionaries. There they met with a cordial reception, and soon succeeded in establishing schools, and in translating portions of the Scriptures into the Telinga language. 1808 the mission was greatly strengthened by the conversion of a celebrated Brahmin, named Ananderayer, an interesting account of which was given in the Evangelical Magazine. In 1809 Mr. Cran died, and his colleague, Mr. Des Granges, only survived him about twelve months. Thus was the station left desolate for a time; but other zealous missionaries were sent out, and the cause again prospered. The good work was afterwards extended to Madras, Belgaum, Bellary, Bangalore, Mysore, Salem, Combaconum, Coimatoor, Travancore, Chinsarah, Berhampore, Benares, Surat, and other parts of India. At all these places schools were established, congregations gathered, the Gospel faithfully preached, and many souls won for Christ through the agency of this excellent institution.
"At an early period of its history, the London Missionary Society was led to turn its attention to the West Indies. In 1807 a Dutch planter in British Guiana made an earnest appeal to the directors for a missionary, accompanied by a liberal offer of pecuniary assistance. This led to the appointment of the Reverend John Wray as the first agent of the society in Demerara. As the work extended, additional missionaries were sent out, and stations were ultimately established in George Town, Berbice, and various parts of the colony, much to the advantage of the poor negroes, who made rapid progress in religious knowledge. The mission was progressing delightfully, when it received a severe check by the general rising of the slaves. But after the emancipation in 1834, the London Missionary Society realized the benefit of the change in common with other kindred institutions, and their numerous stations in Demerara, Berbice, and Jamaica have been favored with a pleasing measure of prosperity under the more favorable circumstances of entire and unrestricted freedom.
"To the London Missionary Society must be awarded the honor of organizing the first Protestant mission from England to China. In the year 1807 the Reverend Robert Morrison was sent out, chiefly for the purpose of securing if possible, a good translation of the Scriptures into the difficult language of the Chinese empire. In this he succeeded beyond the expectations of the. most sanrurine friends of the enterprise. He proved admirably adapted for the peculiar and untried sphere upon which he entered. After laboring at his translation for some years, Dr. Morrison was joined by other missionaries, and the work of preaching and teaching was commenced in good earnest. The progress of the mission was slow at first, and it was not till the year 1814 that the first convert was baptized. Afterwards, however, a considerable number of Chinese were brought to a saving knowledge of the truth, and gathered into the fold of Christ, through the united labors of the missionaries of this society.
"But the most interesting mission of the London Society was the. one which was undertaken to the island of Madagascar in 1818 by the appointment of the Reverend Messrs. Jones and Bevan as the first missionaries. Returning for their families, whom they had left at the Mauritius until they should learn the state of the country, these excellent brethren proceeded to Tamatave in the course of the following year, and commenced their work. Within seven weeks of their arrival five of this little band sickened and died, and Mr. Jones was left alone. He nobly resolved to persevere in his solitary work as he best could, and having returned from the Mauritius, whither he was obliged to retire for a season for the recovery of his health, he was joined by other missionaries from England, and their united labors proved very successful. During the first fifteen years of this mission the entire Bible was translated into the Malagasy language, and printed at the mission press in the capital, and the missionaries frequently preached to a congregation of 1000 persons with the most blessed results. Then came a dark and gloomy night of persecution, during the bloody reign of a cruel pagan queen. The missionaries were driven from the island, hundreds of the converted natives suffered martyrdom rather than deny Christ, and the once promising mission was laid desolate. This state of things had continued for more than a quarter of a century, when, in the order of divine providence, by the death of the queen in 1867, the way was opened once more for the preaching of the Gospel in Madagascar. The mission was now recommenced, and it was found that the native Christians had generally proved faithful, numerous accessions also having been made to their number. Several memorial churches were built to commemorate the death of the martyrs, and the work was extended to various parts of the island, with the prospect of still greater good in time to come.
"The report of the London Missionary Society for 188S stated: 'In China there are connected with the society 39 missionaries; in India, 97; in Madagascar, 32: in South Africa, 25; in the West Indies, and in the South Sea district, 141; The total income of the society amounted to £124,860 ls. 9d., the expenditure to £128,254 5d.' Three magazines are published by the society — the Chronicle, the Juvenile Monthly, and Quarterly News of Woman's Work. Up to 1888 the society had sent out 887 missionaries.
"British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews. — This institution was established in London in the year 1842, and draws. its chief support from the various Dissenting communities in England. Its object is identical with the Episcopal Society for Propagating Christianity among the Jews; but, being organized on a more catholic and general basis, it affords an appropriate sphere of evangelical labor in this department of missionary work of Nonconformists of every name. This society does not aim so much to baptize and found churches as to preach the Gospel and circulate the Scriptures and religious tracts among the seed of Abraham in
various countries. Its first sphere of operations was among the Jews in the cities and seaport towns of Great Britain. It afterwards extended its labors to the Continent, and opened stations at Frankfort, Paris, Lyons, Wirtemberg, and Breslan, and also at Gibraltar and Tunis, the place last amned having been found an excellent centre from which to work in Northern Africa, as well as a position of great influence from its being in the direct highway to the Holy Land. This society has also its mission college for the Jews, in which it trains many of its own agents. The twenty- four missionaries employed by this institution are all converted Jews, with the exception of two or three more than one half of whom were trained at the mission college. Nor are the religious interests of the rising generation neglected. From the beginning attention has been paid to Sabbath and week-day schools for Jewish children; and a few years ago an orphan asylum was established, in which a considerable number of destitute Hebrew boys and girls are fed, clothed, and instructed; and when they grow up they are put to useful trades and occupations, that they may earn their own livelihood.
"Congregational Home Missions. — The report presented to the last anniversary of this association stated that the society consists of 475 home mission pastors, who occupy central positions composed of four, five, or six villages, where, with the help of 121 voluntary lay preachers, the Gospel is preached in 786 mission chapels and rooms, the attendance ill which had exceeded 102,000 persons. There is in connection with this organization a department of lay and colportor evangelists, 100 of whom are now at work, who had visited 80,000 families during the year, distributed 250,000 tracts, sold 3000 copies of the Bible, and 120,000 periodicals. One thousand members had been added to the churches by means of this agency during the year.
"Baptist Missionary Society. — Like most other great and good things, the Baptist Missionary Society had a small and humble beginning. Its early history is inseparably connected With that of William Carey, who may be fairly regarded as its father and founder, as well as its first missionary to the heathen world. Although of humble parentage and low condition in life, Mr. Carey was a man of great mental energy and unwearied perseverance. While plying his lowly avocations, first as a shoemaker and afterwards as a humble pastor. and village schoolmaster, he conceived the grand idea of attempting to propagate the Gospel among heathen nations; and, to make himself better acquainted with the wants of the world, and to prepare himself for future action, he constructed maps of various countries, read numerous books, and studied two or three different languages. At length, in 1784, the Nottingham: Baptist Association, to which he belonged, resolved upon holding monthly concerts for prayer. Mr. Carey's one topic at these meetings was the degraded state of heathen lands; but few entirely sympathized with him in his views. Seven years later, when he had removed to Leicester, he introduced his favorite theme, and pressed it upon the attention of his ministerial brethren when assembled together. He respectfully submitted for their consideration. 'Whether it was not practicable, and their bounden duty, to attempt somewhat towards spreading the Gospel in the heathen world.' At the next meeting of the association, in the month of May, 1792, Mr. Carey preached his ever- memorable sermon from Isa 54:2-3, and dwelt with great power on his two leading divisions — 'Expect great things from God, and attempt great things for God.' The impression produced by. this discourse was so deep and general that the association resolved upon instituting a mission to the heathen at their next meeting in autumn. On October 2 the society was formed, and although the collection on the occasion only amounted to £13 2s. 6d., ample funds speedily flowed in from various quarters.
"After the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society, the next great question was in reference to the specific field in which operations should commence. Mr. Carey had thought long and anxiously about the South Sea Islands, and held himself in readiness to proceed thither if he could be promised support even for one year. Just at that time he met with a Mr. Thomas, from India, who was busily engaged in collecting funds for the establishment of a Christian mission in Bengal. In consequence of the representations made by this well-meaning but somewhat eccentric stranger, it was arranged that Mr. Carey should accompany him to. the East, and that they should unite their efforts to establish a Baptist mission among the Bindlds. After encountering numerous and complicated difficulties, financial, domestic, and political, they at length embarked — for India — in the Princess Maria, a Danish East Indiaman, on June 13 1793. They landed in safety at Balasore on November 10; but finding the way closed by the restrictions of the East India Company against their openly pursuing their sacred vocation as Christian missionaries, and being uncertain as to what amount of support, if any, they would receive for themselves and their families from England, they went up the country, and took situations which were offered to them in connection with establishments for the cultivation and manufacture of indigo. At the same time. they studied the language of the natives, held religious meetings with the people, and labored in every way to bring them to a saving knowledge of the truth. Mr. Carey, moreover, from the beginning gave great attention to the translation of the Scriptures into the Bengalee and other languages of the East, and the extent to which he succeeded was perfectly marvellous. As the prospects of success improved, additional missionaries were sent out from England: the head-quarters of the mission .were removed to the Danish settlement of Serampore; printing-presses were set up, and the work of translating and preaching the Gospel was carried on in a manner which has scarcely ever been equaled in any other part of the mission field. Mr. Carey became one of the most learned men in India, and for several years held the high office of professor of languages in the Calcutta College, in addition to his missionary duties. After a long and honorable career, during which he saw the Baptist mission in India greatly extended, and the whole or parts of the sacred Scriptures translated into about forty different languages of the East, Dr. Carey died in peace at Serampore, at the advanced age of seventy-three, on Monday, June 9,1834, leaving a noble example of disinterested zeal and entire devotedness to the service of Christ among the heathen.
"The attention of the Baptist Missionary Society was directed at an early period to the West Indies, and in 1814 the first station was commenced at Falmouth, in Jamaica. The first regular missionary appointed to this interesting sphere of labor was the Reverend John Rowe, but the ground had been partially prepared by Mr. Moses Baker, a man of color from America. The favorable reports sent home by the first missionary to Jamaica induced the society to send out two more laborers in the course of the following year. The number of agents was increased still further afterwards, till, in the course of fifteen years, fourteen pastors were employed, and the Church members numbered upwards of 10,000. Prosperous stations were established not only at Falmouth, but also in Kingston, Montego Bay, and in most of the other chief towns on the island. All went on well till the year 1831, when there occurred one of those insurrections of the Negro slaves which have repeatedly been so disastrous in their results to the missionary enterprise. As usual, the planters strove to involve the missionaries in the consequences of their own folly. In their fury the. colonists destroyed nearly all the chapels of the Baptist Missionary Society throughout the island, with a view to secure the expulsion of their agents; but in this they were disappointed. The value of the property thus wantonly destroyed was estimated at 20,000. The local government gave no redress; but the Imperial Parliament made handsome grants to compensate for the loss, and the British public came forward most liberally to help to restore the waste places of Zion. When the storm had passed over, the work again revived and prospered, not only in Jamaica, but also in the Bahama Islands, Trinidad, Honduras, St. Domingo, and other parts of the West Indies.
"In the year 1848 the Baptist Missionary Society extended its labors to Western Africa, and stations were established in the island of Fernaudo Po, and also on the banks of the Cammaroons, in the Bight of Benin. The Reverend A. Saker was the first missionary to this part of the coast, and he was spared to labor for manly years, and to see the fruit of his labor, while many others fell a sacrifice to the climate soon after their arrival. At length the Baptist missionaries were expelled from Fernando Po by the Spanish government on their taking possession of the island on the termination of their agreement with the English. On the mainland, however, where unrestricted religious liberty was allowed by the native chiefs, the good work took deep root, and a goodly number of hopeful converts were gathered into the fold of Christ. When China was thrown open to European missionaries, the Baptist Missionary Society responded to the call for Gospel preachers, and sent out two or three agents, who succeeded in making a good beginning, notwithstanding numerous difficulties which had to be encountered. Nor has this institution been unmindful of the claims of Europe. It has recently appointed missionaries to Norway and Italy; and in Rome itself its agents are taking their share in the glorious work of shedding the light of divine truth on the darkness of popish error and superstition.
"According to the last annual report, the number of European missionaries employed in various parts of the world by the Baptist Missionary Society (not including the Jamaica Baptist Union) is 118, in addition to 306 native pastors and preachers, who have been raised up in distant lands as the fruit of missionary labor. These occupy 446 stations, and minister in 320 chapels of various kinds, and they have under their pastoral care 7822 European and 12,776 native Church members. The number of scholars attending the mission schools is 3777. In connection with the Jamaica Baptist Union there are 59 pastors, 144 churches, 32,342 Church members.
"General Baptist Missionary Society. The General Baptists, so called from their general or Arminian views of redemption, formed a missionary society in 1816. The origin of this association is, under God, traceable mainly to the able advocacy of the Reverend J.G. Pike. Regarding the field as wide enough for all the agents that could be sent into it, this society also first turned its attention to India. In the month of May 1821, two missionaries, the Reverend Messrs. Bampton and Peggs, sailed for Cuttach, the principal town in Orissa, the seat of the notorious idol Juggernaut. The first of these devoted servants of Christ soon finished his course; but other agents followed at intervals, and opened new stations in adjoining districts. They were driven, however, by the force of external circumstances, to make frequent changes in their locations and plans of action. Their chief work consisted in combating the prejudices and practices of idolatry, and their stations were generally found in the neighborhood of the head-quarters of the venerated idols. The missionaries succeeded in establishing schools for both sexes, and an asylum for orphan or destitute children. Many a precious life they instrumentally preserved, which had been devoted to the blood-stained altar. As elsewhere, the great enemy to Christianity in Orissa was caste, change of creed being attended by enormous sacrifices-not only separation from kindred, but the loss of the wonted means of support. Despite all obstacles, and they were many and serious, the Gospel was ultimately embraced by considerable numbers, although the missionaries had to wait six years for their first convert. To counteract in some measure the evils which followed upon the loss of caste, the missionaries set themselves to the formation of villages, where the converts might be mightily helpful to each other. A carefully executed translation of the Bible into the Orissa language, and the preparation of a dictionary and grammar, were the work of Mr. Sutton, one of the society's missionaries, who exerted himself nobly in this department of Christian labor. In 1845 this society established a mission at Ningpo, in China, which, although feeble in its commencement, encourages the hope of its friends and patrons as to a fair measure of success in time to come.
"Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society. — The name of Dr. Coke must ever be associated with the early history of Methodist missions. He. was raised up and called by the providence of God to this department of Christian labor just at the time when his services were specially required. Mr. Wesley was fully engaged in guiding that great religious movement which took place in the United Kingdom in the latter part of the 18th century, when the foreign work was commenced, and could ill afford to have his attention called off to distant fields of labor. It was at this critical period that Dr. Coke appeared on the stage of action. Wearied with the restrictions and petty annoyances which he met with in the discharge of his duties as a parish clergyman, and with a heart fired with true missionary zeal, after his remarkable conversion to God, he joined the Methodist connection, and at Mr. Wesley's request took the general superintendency of the home and foreign missions — an office which he filled with credit to himself and advantage to the cause during the remainder of his long, active, and useful life. In the prosecution of his arduous duties, Dr. Coke crossed the Atlantic eighteen times, established a number of new missions, and went about from door to door himself to collect the means for their support in the most praiseworthy manner, long before the Missionary Society was regularly organized.
"Methodism had only been planted in the United States of America a few years when, in 1780, the work was extended to Canada; in 1783, to Nova Scotia; in 1791, to New Brunswick, and about the same time to Prince Edward's Island and Newfoundland. A few years afterwards Wesleyan missions were established in the Hudson's Bay Territory and British Columbia; while at the same time the Methodist Episcopal Church was spreading itself over every state in the Union, and planting mission stations in California and Oregon, and in other distant parts of the great continent. Dr. Coke was on his voyage to Nova Scotia with three missionaries- Messrs. Wairrener, Hammett, and Clarke — when the vessel in which they sailed was driven by a storm to the West Indies. Observing, as they believed, the hand of God in this event, the missionaries at once began to labor in those interesting islands, where their services were much required; and their numbers being soon increased, on the return of the zealous doctor to Europe, the foundation of a great and glorious work was laid, which continued to grow and expand from year to year, with great advantage to all classes of people. Dr. Coke had crossed the Atlantic eighteen times in superintending and carrying on the missions in America and the West Indies, and was advanced in years when, in 1813, he conceived the grand idea of Methodist missions to India. Bent upon his noble purpose, he pushed onwards through every difficulty, and on the last day of the year he sailed for the far-distant East, accompanied by six devoted young missionaries appointed to this service by the Wesleyan Conference. On the morning of May 3, 1814, Dr. Coke was found dead in his cabin, having, it is supposed, expired in the night in a fit of apoplexy. The Reverend Messrs. Harvard, Clough, Squance, Ault, Erskine, and Lynch keenly felt the sudden removal of their leader and head; but, having committed his remains to their watery grave in the Indian Ocean, they proceeded to India in the true missionary spirit, and by the blessing of God succeeded in laying the foundation of the present prosperous Wesleyan mission in Ceylon and continental India.
"The burden of superintending and collecting for the support of the early Methodist missions devolved almost entirely on the indefatigable Dr. Coke, although a nominal missionary committee occasionally sat in London to transact business in his absence. But when the Conference sanctioned his departure for India, it was deemed necessary to, make new arrangements for carrying on the work, to which he could no longer attend as formerly. It is believed that the idea of forming a Methodist Missionary Society originated with the late Reverend George Morley. It was not till 1817 that the connectional society was formally inaugurated, with a code of 'Laws and Regulations,' having the express sanction and authority of Conference; but 1813 and the Leeds meeting are regarded as the true commencement of the society. At this time Wesleyan foreign missions had been successfully carried on for forty-four years, and upwards of one hundred missionaries were usefully employed in foreign fields of labor. Thus it will be seen that Methodist missions do not owe their origin to the Missionary Society, but that, on the other hand, the Missionary Society owes its origin to the missions.
"When the Wesleyan Missionary Society had been fully organized, and axililaries and branches established in various parts of the United Kingdom, the early foreign missions of the connection were not only maintained in their wonted efficiency and good working order, but they were extended to other countries from year to year as openings presented themselves, and men and means were found available for the work. In 1811 a mission was commenced in Western Africa, and the work was extended to Southern Africa in 1814, to Australia in 1815, to Tasmania in 1821, to New Zealand in 1822, to the Friendly Islands in 1826, to China in 1845, and to Italy in 1860. In all these countries congregations have been gathered, churches organized, schools established, and places of worship erected on a scale more or less extensive, according to circumstances, and the Wesleyan Missionary Society has endeavored to take its full share in the work of evangelizing the inhabitants of those and other distant regions of the globe.
"According to the report for the year 1871, the Wesleyan Missionary Society has now, in connection with the various fields of labor occupied by its agents in Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Australia, 1029 ordained missionary ministers and assistants, including supernumeraries; 779 central or principal stations, called circuits; 4366 chapels and other preaching- places; 95,924 full and accredited Church members, and 144,733 scholars receiving instruction in the mission schools. The total amount of income from all sources for the year was £149,767 5s. lid. Of this sum, £39,698 Is. 6d. was contributed of affiliated conferences and foreign districts.
"Ladies' Committee for Ameliorating the Condition of Heathen Women. — In the year 1858 the degraded condition of heathen women was brought to the notice of a few eminent Christian ladies in London connected with the Wesleyan Missionary Society, who at once formed themselves into a committee to devise the means of promoting their welfare. The first measure decided upon was to send out female teachers to assist missionaries' wives in the schools already formed, and up to the present time 27 teachers have been sent abroad: to the West Indies, 3; continental India, 10; Ceylon, 3; South Africa, 7; China, 3; and Italy, 1. The committee also supports nine Bible women in Mysore, Bangalore, Canton, and Jaffna. Important assistance has also been rendered by grants of pecuniary aid or materials to 13 schools in continental India, 17 in Ceylon, 3 in China, 17 in South Africa, 1 in Italy, 1 in Honduras, and 5 in the Hudson's Bay Territory. In this good work about £1000 has been 'collected and spent annually, and Christian counsel and encouragement have often been communicated to female teachers and missionaries' wives abroad of more value than any material aid.
"Wesleyan Home Missions. — Methodism was professedly missionary in its character from the beginning, and it has ever sought to spread scriptural holiness throughout the land. But of late years the Wesleyan Conference has organized a systematic plan of home missionary work to supply and maintain earnest ministers for the benefit of the neglected population of our large cities and rural districts, as well as to afford aid to the poor, dependent circuits of the United Kingdom. Seventy-six missionary ministers are now employed in home mission work in England, Scotland, and Wales, besides eight as chaplains to minister to soldiers and sailors in the British army and royal navy. About £30,000 are annually contributed and expended in carrying on this good work, with gratifying results, and much more good might be done if funds were available for the purpose.
Since the commencement of the work under its present organization, to the Conference of 1870, there had been an increase in the home mission circuits of 14,686 persons. In connection with that increase, and springing from it, the higher work of spiritual. conversion to God was everywhere manifested. Last year more than 800 excellent people, constrained by the love of Christ, aided the home missionary ministers in the work in which they were engaged.
"Primitive Methodist Missionary Society. — Its missions may be divided into Home, Colonial, and Foreign, all of which are prosecuted with vigor. Besides supplying many neglected districts in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland with plain, faithful preachers of the Gospel, it has sent forth foreign missionaries to British North America, Australia, Western and Southern Africa, and some other distant lands. The success which has already attended the efforts of the society is very encouraging, and it bids fair to take its full share of labor in seeking to evangelize the heathen at home 'and abroad. The number of missionaries employed in England is 92; in Wales, 8; in Ireland, 7; in Scotland, 7; in circuits, 9; in Victoria, 7; in New South Wales, 15; in Queensland, 4; in Tasmania, 4; in New Zealand, 4; in Canada, 51; in Western Africa, 2; in Southern Africa, 1; total, 211. The total number of stations is 143, and of members, 13,898.
"Minor British Missionary Societies. — In addition to the leading missionary societies of the United Kingdom which carry on the work of propagating the Gospel in heathen countries on a large scale in various parts of the globe, there are several minor institutions which have been made very useful, notwithstanding the comparatively limited sphere of their influence. These associations have generally been organized for special objects or single missions, and have been conducted with varied results, according to circumstances. Of these the following may be mentioned:
"Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Missionary Society. — The first foreign mission of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists was to the north-east district of Bengal, among the Kassias, one of the hill-tribes of natives. This work was undertaken soon after the formation of the society (1840), and about ten years subsequently, in 1850, another station was commenced at Sythet. The missionaries did not confine their labors to preaching and teaching; they also turned their attention to those literary studies which are so necessary to success in all evangelical efforts in India. Messrs. Jones and Lewis succeeded in translating the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles into the Kassia language; nor did they labor without success in their direct efforts to turn the heathen from dumb idols to serve the true and living. God. The Calvinistic Methodists have also established a mission in Brittany, the language of that part of the European continent being similar, it is said, to the Welsh. They have also a mission to the Jews, which has been prosecuted with as much success as could be expected considering the peculiar difficulties of the enterprise.
"Evangelical Continental Society. — The object of this institution is to disseminate the saving truths of the Gospel among the various nations of the European continent. Its principal fields of labor are France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Bohemia. About £4000 per annum is raised and expended in carrying on this work, and the results have so far been encouraging.
"The Foreign Aid Society. — This association exists, not for the purpose of supporting and maintaining foreign missions, but to aid such as have been established and are carried on by other societies, and especially for the maintenance of Christian schools for the training of the rising generation. Its principal spheres of labor have hitherto been on the continent of Europe. In France the work formerly aided by this society was interrupted during the prevalence of the late war, but in Italy the work of evangelization was vigorously prosecuted. At Naples no fewer than 500 children are receiving instruction in schools to which this society has regularly contributed assistance. In Madrid the church under the care of Senor Carraso has been substantially assisted, and 350 persons have been admitted to Church membership.
"Vernacular Education Society for India. — This society was instituted in 1858 as a memorial of the mutiny, and has for its' object the providing of Christian vernacular education and literature for India. It has 118 schools, with 5122 scholars, who are instructed in 113 different languages, at a cost of about £8000 per annum, and bids fair to be a powerful and useful auxiliary to the various missionary societies which are laboring for the spread of the Gospel throughout the Indian empire.
"III. American Missionary Societies. — American Board of Foreign Missions. — This useful institution was organized September 10, 1810, under circumstances which clearly show the superintending providence of God in the interests of missionary work. A few years before a theological seminary had been established at Andover, Massachusetts, for the support of which a Mr. Norris, of Salem had presented a donation of $10,000, to be devoted to the education of missionaries. At the same time a gracious influence descended upon several of the students, turning their hearts especially to the subject of Christian missions. One of these, Samuel Mills, called to mind with feelings of deep emotion the words of his beloved mother with reference to him: 'I have consecrated this child to the service of God as a missionary.' This young man shortly afterwards engaged with Gordon Hall and James Richmond in conversation and prayer upon the subject of missions in the retirement of a lonely glen, and was delighted to find that their hearts also were drawn to the same subject. These three were soon joined by Messrs. Judson, Newell, Nott, and Hall, the whole of whom offered themselves for mission work, and the American Board of Foreign Missions was forthwith established.
"As it was proposed to found the institution on a broad and unsectarian basis, after the plan of the London Missionary Society, Mr. Judson was despatched to England to inquire into the working of that institution. The board was at first appointed by the General Association of Massachusetts, which is Congregational; but since the first election there has been no preference given to any Christian sect. In 1831, of 62 corporate members, 31 were Presbyterians, 24 Congregationalists, 6 Reformed Dutch, and 1 Associate Reformed. Of the 79 ordained missionaries of that period, 39 were Presbyterians, 2 Reformed Dutch, and the others Congregationalists. The missions are not under the control of ecclesiastical sects, but are governed as communities, where the majority of the votes of the missionaries is decisive. Nor are they regarded as permanent, but as established to plant churches, and to train them to self-support, with a view to a still wider diffusion of the Gospel. Hence, at an early period, seminaries were opened for the training of native teachers and preachers, and also for the education of girls who might engage actively in foreign service, or prove suitable partners to missionaries. From the very commencement this society was liberally supported, and proved very successful.
"The first field of labor occupied by the agents of the American Board of Foreign Missions was India. The Reverend Messrs. Judson, Nott, Newell,. Hall, and Rice arrived in Calcutta in June 1812, and were followed by other laborers in a few months afterwards. Numerous difficulties met them on the very threshold of the enterprise. The country was involved in war; no missionary operations were allowed by government; Messrs. Judson and Rice joined the Baptists, and Mr. Newell proceeded to Mauritius, where his wife and child found an early grave. At length, however, after many discouragements and delays, the way opened for the commencement of missionary labor in India, and a station was formed by Messrs. Hall and Nott in Bombay in 1814. Afterwards the work was extended to Ahmednlimgur, Satara, Kolapur, Madura, Arcot, Madras, and other places, with a measure of success which more than compensated for the early trials and bereavements which were endured. In 1817 a mission was commenced by this society among the Cherokee Indians, in the state of Georgia, by the appointment of the Reverend Mr. Kingsbury, who was joined a few months afterwards by Messrs. Hall and Williams. The first station was called Brainerd, and the second Eliot, in honor of the celebrated missionaries of former times. To these several other stations were ultimately added, and a good work was carried on for many years among the Cherokees, Choctaws, Osages, Chicasaws, Creeks, Ottawas, Ojibwas, Dakotas, Abenaquis, Pawnees, and other tribes of North American Indians. In 1820 the good work was commenced in Syria. The first missionaries were the Reverend Messrs. Parsons and Fisk, who arrived in Smyrna on January 15. They were followed by other zealous laborers, who, amid many difficulties, succeeded in their literary and evangelical labors among the Armenians, Nestraians, and others, as well as could be expected. In 1828 the missionaries extended their labors to Greece, and shortly afterwards missions were commenced in China and India. In 1833 the Reverend J.L. Wilson was appointed to Cape-Palmas, in Western Africa, and in the following year the Reverend Messrs. Grout, Champion, and Adams were sent out to labor among the Zulus, on the south-eastern coast of the great African continent, 'but perhaps the most remarkable and successful of the society's missions was that which was established in the Sandwich Islands in 1819. The Reverend Messrs. Bingham and Thurston were-the first who were sent out to the Pacific, but they Were accompanied by a farmer, a physician, a mechanic, a catechist, and a printer, with their wives, the band in all amounting to seventeen souls, including John Honoree, Thomas Hoper, and William Temoe, native youths who had been educated in America. On their arrival they found that the native idols had already been destroyed and abolished by public authority, and the people were thus in a measure prepared to receive the Gospel, untrammeled by those attachments to long-cherished: systems which in other instances have proved such a serious barrier to the dissemination of divine truth. From that day, to this the mission to the Sandwich Islands has continued to advance in all its departments. The Scriptures have been translated into the native language of the people, schools have been established for the training of the rising generation, and thousands of converted natives have been united in Church fellowship, so that the whole population of those beautiful islands are now at least nominally Christian.
"American Baptist Missionary Society. — This, society was established as early as 1814, but it did not receive its present name till 1846. It was first called the Baptist Triennial Convention for Missionary Purposes, and was commenced in Philadelphia, but afterwards transferred to Boston. It belongs to and is almost exclusively supported by the Calvinistic Baptists of the Northern States. There were some interesting circumstances connected with the early history of this institution which deserve ma passing notice. The Reverends A. Judson and L. Rice, of the American Board of Foreign Missions, underwent a change of views with regard to the subjects and mode of baptism when on their voyage to India, and having resolved to join the Baptist denomination, they were immersed by the Reverend Mr. Ward at Serampore, so in after their arrival in Calcutta. This circumstance was the means of stirring, to the missionary spirit among the Baptists in America, and of the formation of a society from the support of the new converts in their foreign labors, and for the propagation of the Gospel in heathen lands. The loss thus sustained by one society was gain to another, and resulted in a large increase of missionary agency and in a wide extension of the means of religious instruction. This society, which originated in the manner described, ultimately extended its labors from Rangoon, where they were commenced, through the Burman empire, to Siam, China, and Assam, to the Teloogoos in India; to Western Africa, to Greece, Germany, and France, and to various tribes of Indians on the American continent. Both in the character, extent, and results of its labors, this institution has proved itself worthy of the high commendation and liberal support with which it has been favored, and-it-bids fair to maintain its honorable position among the leading American missionary societies of the present day.
"Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society. — The Methodist Episcopal Church in America was itself the offspring of the-missionary zeal of English Methodism, the first Wesleyan missionaries ever sent abroad having been appointed to New York and Philadelphia in 1769. Within half a century from this period the work had spread over the whole continent, reaching even to California and Oregon, and in 1819 the missionary society was provisionally organized in New York, and was formally adopted as an authorized institution of the Church by the General Conference the following year. It has for its object the spread of the Gospel at home and abroad, among all ranks and classes of men. The bishop in charge of the foreign missions appoints the agents to their respective spheres of labor, and places a superintendent over each station. The pecuniary interests of the society are managed by a board, which is constituted in the usual way, and which meets at stated periods for the transaction of business. Its first field of labor, after arrangements had been made to supply the spiritual wants of German and other European immigrants, was among the North American Indians. In 1832 the Reverend Melville B. Cox was appointed as the first Methodist missionary to Liberia, in Western Africa. Before he had been six months in the country, however, he had been cut down by malignant fever, and the people were left as sheep having no shepherd. Other zealous laborers followed, and a good work has ever since been carried on in the small republic of Liberia by this society, chiefly through the agency of colored missionaries, who are found by experience to be best adapted to the climate. The work in Western Africa has since been organized into a separate Conference, over which a bishop has been ordained of African descent, and himself the fruit of missionary labor. In 1847 a mission was commenced in China, and soon afterwards in India, to the great advantage of vast numbers of the dark, beunghted heathens of the densely-populated regions. Nor has the continent of Europe been neglected by the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of America. By a remarkable providence, some of the German immigrants converted in America were made the means of conveying the blessings of the Gospel back to their native land, where a blessed work was commenced through their instrumentality, which soon extended from Germany to Sweden, Norway, Scandinavia, and other countries in the North of Europe. By their genuine missionary. spirit the Methodists of America prove themselves worthy of their noble and honored ancestry.
"Protestant Episcopal Board of Missions. — The Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America was organized by the General Convention of 1820, with the seat of operations in Philadelphia. In 1835 an entire change was made in the constitution of the society, when the title given above was adopted by general consent. The first scene of labor entered upon by the missionaries of this institution. was Greece, the Reverends J.J. Robertson and J.W. Hill, and Mr. Bingham, a printer, being sent out towards the close of 1830. They first settled at Tenos, but subsequently removed to Athens, where they were very successful in their educational labors. Their principal object was not to proselytize, but to revive and reform the Greek Church, and their labors were not without fruit. Stations were also formed in Syria and Crete, but afterwards. abandoned. In 1836 the board extended their labors to Western Africa, by the commencement of a station at Cape Palmas, among a dense population speaking the Grebo language. The first missionaries were the Reverend Messrs. Painei, Minor, and Savage, the last of whom was a medical man, and his skilful services were highly valuable in a country noted for its insalubrious climate. Considerable success was realized in this part of the mission field, several converted natives being gathered into Church fellowship, Christian schools established, and a small newspaper published in English and Grebo, called the Cavalla Messenger. In 1834 missionaries were sent to Bavaria and China by this society, and about ten years afterwards Dr. Boone was consecrated missionary bishop, and went out with a large staff of laborers to Shanlghbai. Nor were the heathen nearer home neglected by this institution. Mission stations were commenced among various tribes of North American Indians; and, notwithstanding numerous difficulties which had to be encountered, arising from the wandering habits of the people and other causes, 310 native children were soon reported as being under Christian instruction. In 1837 bishop Kemper consecrated a new church at Dutch Creek, and appointed Solomon Davis, a converted native, as pastor over it, whose ministry was made a blessing to many of his fellow-countrymen.
"American Society for Ameliorating the Condition of the Jews. — The primary object of this society, which was organized in 1820, was the temporal relief of persecuted converts. It was not until 1849 that anything like missionary effort was put forth for the benefit of the lost sheep of the house of Israel. It was found in 1851 that there was a Jewish population statedly residing within the United States amounting to 120,000, in addition to which there were hundreds and thousands constantly moving from place to place. In this wide field of labor the society at an early period employed ten missionaries and seven colporteurs, who visited forty towns, in which they endeavored to sow the good seed of the kingdom, with some visible proofs of spiritual success.
"Freewill Baptist Foreign Missionary Society. — The founders of this institution conceived the idea, after the plan of the eccentric Gossner, of tending forth missionaries to the heathen without any guarantied support, expressing great aversion to what they called the hireling system. Their principles were lacking in true missionary power; but at length the Rev. Amos Sutton, of the English Baptist Mission in Orissa, succeeded in awakening a few earnest spirits out of their deep slumber — first of all by a letter, and secondly by a personal address while on a visit to the States for the benefit of his health in 1833. The result was that the Reverends Eli Noyes and Jeremiah Phillips left for Orissa in September, 1835, accompanied by Mr. Sutton, with whom they passed the first six months of their foreign residence. The society has only occupied this one mission; and, although their agents have suffered much from the climate, their labors have not been without success, especially in dispensing medicine and establishing Christian schools. Some time ago there were 17 missionaries employed, with 16 native preachers, 11 churches, and 654 members.
"Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. — The Presbyterians of the United States were engaged in missionary work at a very early period. The Scottish Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge secured a board of correspondence in 1741, and appointed a minister to the Indians on Long Island, and in the following year sent the distinguished David Brainerd to the Indians in Albany. John Brainerd succeeded his brother David in 1747, and they were both partly sustained by the American Presbyterians. In 1765 the Presbytery of New York made a collection in all the churches for the mission to the Indians. In 1796 the 'New York Missionary Society' was instituted. This was followed in 1797 by the organization' of the 'Northern Missionary Society;' and in 1831 these were meraed in the Board of Missions of the Presbyterian Church, which established and conducted several interesting stations among the American Indians, in addition to those which had been previously commenced. In 1832 this society sent out a mission to Liberia, in Western Africa, and the work was afterwards extended to the island of Corisco and other places on the coast, where it has been carried on with a varied measure of success amid many difficulties incident to the climate and a deeply debased heathen population. In 1833 the Reverend Messrs. Reed: and Lowrie were sent out to India, and succeeded in establishing a mission station in the city of Lodiana, on the River Sutlez, one of the tributaries of the Indus — a place far distant from any other scene of missionary labor. The first band of missionaries suffered much from the inroads of sickness and death, but were soon aided or followed by a reinforcement of laborers, who succeeded in forming a native Church in 1825, the first two members of which became eminently useful as preachers of the Gospel to their fellow-countrymen. In 1838 the American Presbyterians commenced a mission at Singapore; and after the Chinese war three stations were formed alt Canton, Amoy, and Ningpo, to which a fourth-was afterwards added at Shanghai. The society suffered a severe blow in the death of the Reverend W.M. Lowrie, who was murdered by a party of pirates. The board has also sent missionaries to labor among the Chinese in California, and in every department of the work considerable success has been realized. Corea was entered in 1884:
"Evangelical Lutheran Church Mission. — The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Nova Scotia is a religious community which numbers only four or five thousand members, chiefly of German extraction, and yet it has shown a most praiseworthy zeal in the cause of missions.. This Church entered upon its foreign missionary labors in 1837, and a few years. afterwards it reported 5 ordained and 2 unordained native preachers as engaged in the goodwork in India, with 86 Church members and 355 scholars under their care.
"Seventh-day Baptist Missionary Society. — This institution was organized if 1842, and has been engaged ever since chiefly in Western Africa and China, where three or four agents have been usefully employed. The Chinese mission was begun in 1847 in Shanghai by the Rev. Messrs. Carpenter and Worden, who secured a house within the walls, fitted up a portion of it as a chapel, and commenced public worship in it soon afterwards. A few converts have been gathered into the fold of Christ as the result of their evangelistic labors.
"American Indian Mission Association. — This society was founded also in 1842, and is connected with the Baptist churches in the south-west, having its executive in Louisville. The agents of this society, numbering about thirty, have labored among different tribes of American Indians with a considerable measure of success, notwithstanding the difficulties which they have had to encounter. They report upwards of 1000 converted natives as united in Church fellowship on their respective stations.
"Free Baptist Missionary Society. — This small but useful institution was organized in 1843 at Utica, in the State of New York, on the broad Christian ground of having no connection with slavery. For several years-it has had a successful mission in Haiti, with 1 missionary, 3 female assistants, I native pastor, and 4 native teachers.
"Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. — This organization dates from 1844, and has sent forth three missionaries to India, two to Turkey, and three to the Pacific; but we have been unable to gather any very definite information with reference to the history or the results of their labors.
"Southern Baptist Convention's Missions. — The Foreign Missionary Society of the Southern Baptists was formally instituted in 1845, missionaries having been sent out to China the year before. Important stations were formed at Macao, Hong Kong, and Shanghai, which were very prosperous. In 1848 a gloom was cast over the mission by the loss of Dr. and Mrs. James, who were drowned by the upsetting of a boat when on their way to Shanghai; but the places of the dear departed were soon supplied by other laborers, and the good work continued to advance. The next field of labor occupied by this society was Western Africa. Soon after a station had been established in Liberia the work was extended to the Yarriba country, where several colored missionaries were usefully employed, who, from their being of African descent, could better endure the climate. According to the last returns, this society had 40 missionaries, 26 native assistants, 1225 Church members, and 633 scholars in the mission schools.
"American Missionary Association. — This society was formed at Albany, N.Y., in the year 1846, by those friends of missions who declared themselves aggrieved by the countenance given by some other philanthropic institutions to slavery, polygamy, and kindred forms of evil. Their avowed object was to secure a broad, catholic basis for the cooperation of Christians, but to exclude from their organization all persons living in or conniving at the flagrant forms of iniquity alluded to, The formation of this society was no sooner made known than it was joined by other smaller institutions, as the 'West India Mission,' the 'Western Evangelical Missionary Association,' and the 'Union Missionary Society,' who transferred their influence and their agencies to it, and thus gave to the new organization laborers in the West Indies, among the North American Indians, and in Western Africa. 'The labors of the society were subsequently extended to Siam, the Sandwich Islands, California, and Egypt. In 1867 it supported over 200 missionaries at home and abroad. Since that time the pressing needs of the freedmen of the Southern States have absorbed almost all the means at the disposal of the board, which they withdrew from other work to do this duty which lay nearest to them. This association have their schools and churches scattered through the former slave and border states. The whole number of missionaries and teachers commissioned during the last ten years amount to 3470; and schools have been established in 343 localities, the pupils under instruction numbering 23,324, who, as a rule, make rapid progress in learning. The interest and zeal of the colored people ill urging their children's education increases every year, and every year they also become more able to assist in the work. In a short time both schools and churches are expected to become self-supporting.
"American and Foreign Christian Union. — This institution was organized in New York in 1849. It was, in fact, the union of three other small societies — the 'Foreign Evangelical Society,' the 'American Protestant Society,' and the 'Philo-Italian Society' — which was afterwards called the Christian Alliance. The principal fields of labor cultivated by these associations, both before and after their union, were the papal countries of France, Belgium, Sweden, Canada, Hayti, and South America. In 1854, the fifth year of the new organization, it numbered 140 missionaries of all grades, one half of whom were ordained, and belonged to seven different nations, and a proportionate number of converted natives united in Church fellowship, and scholars in the mission schools.
"French Canadian Missionary Society. — This society was organized in 1839. Its object is to evangelize the French Canadian Roman Catholics, of whom there are nearly a million in the province of Quebec. It is conducted by a committee in Montreal, and employs a threefold agency education, evangelization, and colportage. Above 240 scholars are supported in whole or in part by the mission; eight small French Protestant churches have been organized, and about 1300 copies or portions of the Scriptures are annually circulated, in addition to other religious works which have been translated for the purpose.
"Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia. — The board was organized in 1844 in consequence of an overture on foreign missions by the Presbytery of Prince Edward's Island. The principal promoter of the enterprise, the Reverend John Geddie, was the first missionary who proceeded to Polynesia, accompanied by Mr. Isaac Archibald as catechist. On reaching their destination, they were kindly received by the agents of the London Missionary Society, and proceeded to establish a station at Anetteum, one of the New Hebrides group, where they arrived in July 1848. The entire population of the island soon renounced their pagan practices, and became professing Christians. An anxious desire for religious instruction was manifested, and a goodly number of the natives were brought under gracious religious influences.
"Minor Associations. — There are several minor missionary associations, both in Europe and America, concerning which our limited space prevents a separate description." In order to make the above list complete, it would be necessary to add the numerous Bible societies, SEE BIBLE SOCIETIES, and also Tract and Book publication societies, which are in constant and intimate cooperation with the regular missionary societies, together with a constantly increasing number of smaller organizations contemplating missionary results. Some of the above will be included in the subjoined tabular exhibit on pages 368 and 369.
Notwithstanding the numerous points of interest shown in our tabular exhibit, it is utterly impossible to reduce to statistics anything like a full showing of the work accomplished and in progress by modern missions. Indeed, as human language cannot fully set forth the horrors of heathenism, so no form of description can adequately portray the actual and possible results of missionary efforts earnestly and perseveringly put forth in harmony with the divine plan for evangelizing the world.
VI. General Views suggested by the Present Period of Missionary History as compared with Preceding Periods. —
1. The field of missionary operations is now more comprehensive than ever before, and more nearly illustrative of the Gospel design of evangelizing the whole world. In the apostolic period the Roman empire comprised the then known world. Up to the end of the mediaeval period, the world formerly known to the Romans was chiefly enlarged by the addition of the northern countries of Europe. Now, every continent and island of the globe is not only known by discovery, but accessible to Christian influence. In fact, all the important and many of the :unimportant nations of the earth have been actually made the subjects of missionary instruction, in accordance with the fullest literal meaning of the Savior's precepts, "Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature;" "Go teach all nations."
2. The Church of modern times has returned to the apostolic idea of Christian missions. Hence missionary operations now throughout the world are peaceful, No more crusades, no more inquisitions and autos dafe are employed for the pretended advancement of Christianity, but rather preaching and teaching generally of the pure Word of God as a means of persuading men to become followers of Christ.
3. The number of workers for this object is greater than ever before, and is rapidly increasing by the enlistment of native converts in almost every land.
4. The appliances and advantages of Christian civilization, such as the press and general education, are everywhere brought to the aid of missionary effort.
5. The sympathies of the Christian Church at large are extensively, though as yet for from fully, enlisted in the grand enterprise of Christianizing the human race.
In this enterprise unity of idea is to a large extent neutralizing diversity of action, and making even the rivalries of different Christian organizations conducive to a common advantage.
6. The progress and results, especially of Protestant missions within the current century, not only justify all the efforts of the past, but give most hopeful signs of promise for the future. These results comprise not only the conversion and salvation of individuals of every race and condition of humanity, but the actual Christianization of whole nations, and the initial steps by which whole races of men may be expected at no distant period to receive the Gospel. Of necessity, a large share of the work of modern evangelical missions has thus far been preparatory; such as the acquisition of languages, the translation and printing of the Scriptures, and the education of native ministers in heathen lands. If, therefore, what has been done shall by the blessing of the Head of the Church be made to act as leaven, according to our Saviour's promise, we may in due time expect the whole mass of human population to be leavened with the influence of Christian truth.
"The social and moral advantages which the missionary enterprise has conferred on the heathen are before the world. What vast tracts has it rescued from barbarism, and with what creations of benevolence has it clothed them! How many thousands whom ignorance and selfishness had branded as the leavings and refuse of the species, if not actually akin to the beasts that perish, are at this moment rising under its fostering care, ascribing their enfranchisement, under God, to its benign interposition; taking encouragement from its smiles to assume the port and bearing of men; and by their acts and aspirations retrieving the character and the dignity of the slandered human form! When did literature accomplish so much for nations destitute of a. written language? or education pierce and light up so large and dense a mass of human ignorance? When did humanity save so many lives, or cause so many sanguinary 'wars to cease?' How many a sorrow has it soothed; how many an injury arrested; how many an asylum has it reared amid scenes of wretchedness and oppression for the orphan, the outcast, and the sufferer! When did liberty ever rejoice in a greater triumph than that which missionary instrumentality has been the means of achieving? or civilization find so many sons of the wilderness learning her arts, and agriculture, and commerce? or law receive so much voluntary homage from those who but yesterday were strangers to the name? By erecting a standard of morality, how vast the amount of crime which it has been the means of preventing! By asserting the claims of degraded woman, how powerful an instrument of social regeneration is it preparing for the future! And by doing all this by the principle and power of all moral order and excellence — the Gospel of Christ — how large a portion of the world's chaos has it restored to light, and harmony, and peace!
"But great as are the benefits enumerated, most of which can in a sense be seen and measured and handled, we venture to affirm that those which are at present comparatively impalpable and undeveloped are greater still. The unseen is far greater than that which appears. The missionary has been planting the earth with principles, and these are of as much greater value than the visible benefits which they have already produced as the tree is more valuable than its first year's fruit. The tradesman may take stock and calculate his pecuniary affairs to a fraction; the astronomer may count the' stars, and the chemist weigh the invisible element of air; but he who in the strength of God conveys a great truth to a distant region, or puts into motion a divine principle, has performed a work of which futurity alone can disclose the results. At no one former period could either of our missionary societies have attempted to 'number Israel' — to reduce to figures either the geographical extent or the practical results of its influence, without having soon received, in the cheering events which followed, a distinct but gracious rebuke. How erroneous the calculation which should have set down the first fifteen years of fruitless missionary labor in Greenland, or the sixteen in Tahiti, or the twenty in New Zealand, as years of entire failure! when, in truth, the glorious scene which then ensued was simply that which God was pleased to make the result of all that had preceded the explosion, by the divine hand, of a train which had been lengthening and enlarging during every moment of all those years. Therefore were the whole field of missions to be suddenly vacated, and all its moral machinery at once withdrawn, we confidently believe that the amount of temporal good arising from what has been done will be much greater twenty years hence than it is at present" (Harris's Great Conmmission, pages 185, 186).
But happily there is no prospect that the field of missionary effort will soon be vacated. The thirty years that have elapsed since the above paragraph was written have proved to be the most productive of missionary results of any similar period since the days of the apostles. During their lapse the "moral machinery" of the Protestant Church in particular has become vastly augmented in volume and in power, and has been set to working with great efficiency in many important localities which were then wholly inaccessible. The records of even that period fill numerous Volumes, and yet the half has not been written.
VII. Missionary Aspect of the World, with the Literature appropriate to each Region. — So vast is the field of modern missions, so numerous are the workers, and so various are the departments of effort, that it is difficult, though very important, to form an adequate idea of the enterprise as a whole. In order to do so even approximately, an inquirer has to glean from many sources, and to combine into one view all the various lines and successive phases of action which focalize towards the contemplated result. The proper mode of studying this subject may be indicated by a comprehensive grouping of the different sections and countries of the world in reference to missionary occupation and progress, coupled with such references to the literature of missions as will enable a student to prosecute thorough inquiry into the history, condition, and prospects of each particular field.
It may here be remarked that the literature of modern. missions is already very extensive. It embraces two distinct classes of publications, of which the first may be denominated auxiliary, the second descriptive. To the first belong versions of the Scriptures, and all tracts and books designed for circulation in mission fields, whether educational, apologetic, or devotional. To the second belong accounts of countries, peoples, and systems of false religion, also missionary explorations, experiences, biography, and history. Publications of the latter class are specially interesting and valuable to Christian workers in all lands. As there is a common brotherhood in humanity, which is greatly strengthened by the ties of Christian relationship, so the experiences of foreign mission life become not only interesting but instructive to the agents and supporters of Christian work in Christian lands. The converse of this proposition is equally true, and thus it is that home missions and regular Church work in Christian countries practically blend together with missionary work in foreign and pagan countries, forming one great system of effort for the evangelization of the world.
In proceeding to a brief panoramic survey of the principal divisions of the earth in reference to missions, it seems proper to begin with the earlier scenes of Christian occupation and labor, and pass around to the American continent and islands, thus completing the circuit of the habitable globe.
1. The Continent of Europe presents at this time the interesting spectacle of active missionary labor prosecuted not only by British but also by American Protestants in most of those old countries where a ceremonious or a nominal Christianity has long held sway. In Northern Europe, especially in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, the missionaries are in many cases natives of those countries, who as emigrants to the United States of America became experimental Christians, and who have returned to preach the doctrines of vital godliness to their fatherlands., Protestant missions are also established in France, Switzerland, Austria, Portugal, Spain, and Italy. In all these countries the Scriptures and Christian tracts are circulated more freely and more numerously than ever before.
With some correspondence to the activity of Protestants in the Roman Catholic countries of Europe, the Church of Rome has become very zealous for the reconversion of England to mediaeval Christianity. The Jesuits expelled from Germany and the monks disfranchised in Italy are sent there in great numbers. These measures have a tendency to stimulate greater activity among British Christians in home missions, and thus, so long as peaceful measures are employed on both sides, it is to be hoped that mutually good results will follow. Thought will be stimulated, liberality increased, watchfulness will be awakened, and Christ will be preached, even though of contention. As the movements now referred to are for the greater part quite recent, the latest information respecting them must be sought in the current reports and correspondence of the societies engaged in them, inclusive of the Bible and Tract societies. In this field comparatively little has been required in the matter of Bible translations, but much attention has been given to the revision of versions to make them as perfect as possible for popular circulation. See Rule, Mission to Gibraltar and Spain; Arthur, Italy in Transition; Scott, Telstrom and Lapland; Reports of Missionary Societies; Toase, Wesleyan Mission in France; Mrs. Peddie, Dawn of the Second Reformation in Spain; Ellis, Denmark and her Missions; Henderson's Life and Labors.
2. Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, and Western Asia. The modern populations of the northern shores of the Mediterranean are greatly mingled. The Moslem races predominate, but nominal Christians are found in every country and under all the governments. They constitute more than a third part of the inhabitants of Constantinople, and are found in every province of the Turkish empire, while in Persia they are supposed to number twelve millions. Hence a wise plan for the conversion of the Mohammedans of those lands involved the primary necessity of evangelical missions to the nominal Christians of the East. To this task, as a republication of the Gospel in Bible lands, the American Board of Foreign Missions has addressed itself energetically and perseveringly. It has in so doing established missions in Greece, in Palestine, in Syria, among the Jews, Mohammedans, and Bulgarians of Turkey. the Armenians, the Nestorians, and the Druses. A very interesting history of these missions and their adjuncts has recently been published by Dr. Anderson, from which it appears that, notwithstanding many difficulties, great and encouraging results have been attained, not only in the direct experience of the Christian life, but in the awakening of a general spirit of inquiry, the improvement of education, increased toleration, and the diffusion of the Word of God throughout the various regions that have been occupied and permeated by the influence of the missions. The printing of the board has been on a very extensive scale, including the issue of the Scriptures and other publications in the following languages, viz. Italian, modern Greek, Graeco-Turkish, ancient Armenian, modern Armenian, Armeno-Turkish, Osmani-Turkish, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Hebrew-Spanish, modern Syriac, and Arabic. The printing of the whole Bible in Arabic, at the expense of the American Bible Society, was completed in 1865. The great work of its translation and conduct through the press was accomplished by the zeal and energy of sixteen years' labor or the part of two learned missionaries of the American Board, Drs. Smith and Van Dyck. This one publication offers the Word of God to the Arabic reading world comprising a population (though largely uneducated of 120,000,000 of people. See Anderson, Oriental Missions; Smith and Dwight, Missionary Researches in Arpzenia; Hartley, Researches in Greece and the Levant; Perkins, Eighteen Years in Persia; Grant, Nestorians Wortabet, Syria and the Syrians; Dwight, Christianity in Turkey; Churchill, Residence in Mount Lebanon, Ewald, Mission in Jerusalem Thomson, The Land and the Book; Wilson, Greek Mission; Yeates, Gospel in Syria; Wilson, Lands of the Bible.
3. Missions among the Jews. — For more than eighteen centuries the Jews have been a cosmopolitan people. The very first missions of the apostles were to the Jews "scattered abroad." In subsequent ages the once chosen but now dispersed race was in many countries made the object of cruel and wasting persecution. Still as a peculiar people the Jews have continued "among all nations" to maintain their own beliefs and customs, and especially an inveterate prejudice against Christianity. SEE JEWS; SEE JUDAISM. As such they could not be reached by missionary efforts of the usual type. Hence at an early period of the missionary movement of the current century it was deemed important to organize special missions to the Jews in the various countries where they resided in the greatest numbers. Indeed, some beginnings of this character were made in Holland and Germany during the preceding century, and not without good results. August Hermann Francke took a lively interest in this subject. One of the ablest workers raised up under him was professor Callenberg, who in 1728 founded an institute for the education of Christian theologians in Hebrew antiquities and the Rabbinic theology. February 15, 1809, the London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews was organized. In 1820 the American Society for ameliorating the condition of the Jews was begun. In 1849 it was greatly enlarged in its scope. In 1842 the British Society for the propagation of the Gospel among the Jews was organized by the Dissenting churches. In 1839 the Church of Scotland commenced missionary efforts in behalf of the Jews. In 1845 the Scottish Society for the conversion: of Israel was organized. Besides these principal organizations, there have been various local societies for the same object both in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, and also various missionary societies, e.g. the American Board, the Presbyterian Board, and that of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, have maintained special missions to Jewish populations. The aggregate result of these efforts is impossible of indication by figures, and yet it is no small thing to be able to say that many thousands of copies of the Scriptures of both the Old and New Testaments have been circulated among the 5,000,000 of Jews accessible to Christian effort. The versions used have been Hebrew; Hebrew-Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, and those of other European languages. The number of missionary stations established is over 130, missionaries employed over 350, mostly converted Jews, and an aggregate of probably 70,000 confessed converts. Many of these converts have given the best proofs of their sincerity and faithfulness by the endurance of bitter persecution from their kindred; and many who have not identified themselves with the Christian Church are believed to have accepted the vital truths of Christianity, and to have received to their hearts Jesus as the true Messiah. An intelligent writer says, "If all things be taken into consideration, we have no doubt that the results of these labors (missions to the Jews) exceed in proportions rather than fall short of those of other valued missionary societies." Missions to Jews have been prosecuted in the following countries: Great Britain, Holland, Poland, Germany, France, Italy, North Africa, Smyrna, Hungary Moldavia, Wallachia, Turkey, Egypt, Palestine, Persia, Abyssinia, and the United States of America. While it must be admitted that the results of these efforts have not been as great as might have been hoped, yet they must not be undervalued in their past influence nor in their promise for the future. Great changes are now taking place among the Jews, especially those inhabiting the more enlightened countries, and although certain forms of rationalism seem to be most popular with many who have relinquished the faith of their ancestors, yet when the insufficiency of these shall have been proved they may be found to have served as stepping-stones to evangelical truth. Should this be the case, the beginnings of missionary effort in behalf of Israel in so many lands may ere long prove to be of inestimable value in hastening the grand consummation of the world's conversion. See Steger, Die Evangelische Judenmission, in ihrer Wichtigkeit u. ihren gesegeneten Fortgange (1847); Hausmeister, Die Judenmission (Heidelb. 1852), an address read at the Paris meeting of the Evangelical Alliance; id., Die evangel. Mission unter Israel (1861); Harens, Ueber Judenmission (Altona, 1862); Kalkar, Israel u. die Kirche (Hamburg, 1869); Halsted, Our Missions (Lond. 1866); Anderson, Oriental Missions; Reports of societies.
4. Egypt. — A form of Christianity has long existed among the Copts of Egypt. But they, together with the followers of Mohammed, are sunk in a state of deplorable ignorance and moral depravity. The United Brethren were the first to form a mission in Egypt, but, meeting with little or no success, it was relinquished in 1783. The missionary societies now operating are the American Association, United Presbyterian Church, Kaiserswerth Deaconesses' Institute, and Jerusalem Union, at Berlin. The Bible versions in use are the Coptic and Ethiopic. The mission of the United Presbyterian Church of America has been. particularly successful. They have stations both in Cairo and Alexandria, together with a number of minor stations. A Church has been organized with a large and increasing membership. The customs that doom women to a life of seclusion and degradation have been gradually invaded. The Sabbath is more and more sacredly revered, and the vicious and idle habits so common among the people are somewhat abandoned. See Boaz, Egypt; Lansing, Egypt's Princes; Thompson, Egypt, Past and Present; Miss Whately, The Huts of Egypt.
5. Northern Africa, with the exception of Egypt, seems abandoned to Moslem predominance. Owing to its vast deserts of sand, it is in fact but thinly inhabited — indeed only traversed occasionally by tribes of wandering and savage Arabs. The French occupation of portions of Algeria, including the locality of the churches of Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine, has done little toward restoring the Christianity taught by those fathers, and for the present the prospect of a re-evangelization of Northern Africa is in no sense hopeful. See Davies, Voice front North Africa; Carthage and her Remains.
6. Western Africa. — This title includes Senegambia, the British colony of Sierra Leone, the American settlement of Liberia, and the country of Guinea. In the latter are included the kingdoms of Ashantee and Dahomey. A large proportion of the people are pagans; among the remainder a very corrupt form of Mohammedanism exists. The earliest efforts made by the Protestant Church to Christianize them were made by the Moravian Brethren in 1736. The missionary societies now in the field are the Church, Wesleyan, Baptist, North German, Society of Bremen, Evangelical Mission at Basle, Free United Methodists, United Presbyterian Church, American Southern Baptist, American Episcopal Board, American Methodist Episcopal, and American Presbyterian. Some of the Bible versions in use are the Berber, Mandingo, Grebo, Yarriba, Haussa, Ibo, and Dualla. In all, twenty-five dialects have been mastered. There are now many thousands of hopeful converts to Christianity; also above 200 schools, with more than 20,000 scholars under instruction. A very important result has been achieved in the success of native agency. See Wilson, Western Africa; East, Western Africa; Mrs. Scott, Day-dawn in Africa; Schon and Crowther, Expedition up the Niger; Beecham, Ashantee and the Gold Coast; Randolph, The People of Africa; Tucker, Abeokuta; Walker, Sierra Leone; Bowen, Central Africa; Cruikshank, Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast; Fox, Western Coast of Africa; Liberia and its Resources; Life of Daniel West; Memoirs of M.B. Cox; Waddell, Twenty-nine Years in the West Indies and Central Africa; Freeman, Ashantee.
7. Southern Africa. — The section of Africa now under consideration comprises the six provinces of Cape Colony, British Kaffraria, Kaffraria Proper, the sovereignty beyond the Orange River, Natal, and Amazula, The ideas of the people about God were very confused and indefinite, and, there appeared to be no particular form of worship among them. The first mission to the tribes of Southern Africa was established by the Moravian Church in 1737. The missionary societies now in the field are the American Board of Commissioners, Propagation, London, Wesleyan, Free Church of Scotland, United Presbyterian, and Evangelical Moravian Brotherhood, with six Coictiieital societies. The Bible versions in use are the Benlga, Namacqua, Becluana, Sesuto, Zulu, Pedi, and Kaffir. There are nearly a quarter of a million of communicants. Numerous schools have been opened, with a large average attendance of scholars. As a Hottentot has expressed it, the missionaries have given them a religion where formerly they had none: taught them morality, whereas before they had no idea of morality; they were given up to profligacy and drunkenness, now industry and sobriety prevail among them. See Moffat, Missionary Labors in South Africa; Livingstone, Missionary Travels; Philips, Researches; Campbell, Travels in South Africa; Holden, Kaffr Races; Shaw, Memorials of South
Africa; Broadbent, Martyrs of Namcaqualand; Taylor, Adventures in South Africa.
8. Abyssinia was formerly divided into three independent states; now, however, there is but one. The Christianity of the Abyssinians is so impure as to be little better than heathenism. Thus far it has proved a discouraging field for missionary effort. The Bible versions in use are the Amharic and Ethiopic. See Salt, History of Abyssinoia; Hotten, Abyssinia and its People (Lond. 1868); Gobat, Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia; Flad, Abyssinia; Isenberg and Stern, Missionary Journals; Stern, The Captive Missionary; Krapf, Eighteen Years in Eastern Africa. SEE ABYSSINIAN CHURCH.
9. Madagascar is one of the largest islands in the world, with a population of five millions. The native religion is idolatrous, but no public worship is offered to the idols. The London Missionary Society introduced the Gospel into Madagascar in the year 1818. The work of that society has been very successful, having largely secured the Christianization of the island. The other missionary societies are the Church and Propagation. The Bible version in use is the Malagasy. The native Church passed through a terrible persecution in 1849. Two thousand persons suffered death rather than renounce Christ. So plentiful has been the ingathering since that Madagascar is now in an important sense counted a Christian country. See Ellis, History of Madagascar; id., Martyr Church of Madagascar; Freeman, Persecutions in Madagascar; Reports of the London Missionary Society.
10. Mauritius. — This island has a population of 300,000, three quarters of whom represent the races of India. The missionary societies in this field are the London, Propagation, and Church. An extensive and promising work is carried on among the Tamils and Bengali-Hindustani-speaking coolies, and also by the London Society among the refugees and other emigrants from Madagascar. See Bond, Brief Memorials of the Rev. J. Sarjant;. Backhouse, Visit to Mauritius; Le Brun, Letters.
11. Ceylon is an island situated off the south-west coast of Hindustan. The inhabitants are divided into four classes: the Singhalese, who are Buddhists; the Tamils, who profess Hinduism; the Moormen, and the Whedahs. A form of Christianity was introduced into Ceylon by the Jesuits as early as 1505. Protestant missions were commenced by the Dutch in 1656, by the London Missionary Society in 1804, by the Baptists in i812, and by the American Board in the same year. The Wesleyans of England commenced their important mission in the same island in 1813. Glorious triumphs have been wrought in this field during the last halfcentury, and a steady advance now characterizes the work. The Wesleyan mission has been very successful. It reports 1535 members. The missionary societies are the Baptist, Church, Propagation, and American Board. The Bible versions in use are the Pali, Singhalese, and Indo-Portuguese. See Tennent, Christianity in Ceyloon; Hardy, Buddhism in Ceylon; Echard, Residence in Ceylon; Harvard, Mission in Ceylon; Selkirk, Recollections of Ceylon; Hardy, Jubilee Memorials of the Wesleyan Mission in South Ceylon.
12. India has been divided by the British into the three presidencies of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras; these again are subdivided into districts. Its entire extent is about 1,357,000 square miles, with a population of 250,000,000. The religions may be divided into four classes: Hinduism, Buddhism, Mohammedanism, and that taught by Zoroaster. Under their individual and united influence the condition of the people was deplorable. Children were thrown into the River Ganges as offerings to imaginary deities; widows were burned with the dead bodies of their husbands, and numbers destroyed themselves by throwing their bodies under the wheels of the cars of their bloodthirsty idols. The pioneers of Protestant missions in this country were two Danes, who arrived in 1706. There are now twenty-seven missionary societies laboring in the field. The following are a few: Church, Propagation, London, Baptist, Wesleyan, Church of Scotland, American Presbyterian, American Baptist, and American Methodist Episcopal. A few of the Bible versions in use are the Bengali, Hindui, Urdu Telinga, Tamil, Mahratti, and Punjabi. The number of native Christians at the close of 1871 was 224,161. Within the preceding ten years an increase of 85,430 took place. The system of caste, which has proved a great barrier to the triumph of the Gospel, is becoming lax, and showing signs of its coming dissolution. Widows are often remarried. Females for the first time are under education. There is a better appreciation of justice, morality, and religion than ever there was. The native Church promises to become gradually self-supporting. The number of towns and villages scattered over the country inhabited by Protestant Christians is 4657. Statistical facts, however, can in no way convey an adequate idea of the work which has been done in any part of India. The Gospel has been working like leaven, and the effect is very great even in places where there are but few avowed conversions. Even Keshub Chunder Sen, the leader of the new Theistic school, has been constrained to use the following language: "The spirit of Christianity has already pervaded the whole atmosphere of Indian society, and we breathe, think, feel, and move in a Christian atmosphere. Native society is aroused, enlightened, and reformed under the influence of Christian education." Sir Bartle Frere, who was thirty years in India in various official positions, says: "I speak simply as to matters of experience and observation, and not of opinion, just as a Roman prefect might have reported to Trajan or the Antonines, and I assure you, whatever you may be told to the contrary, the teaching of Christianity among one hundred and sixty millions of civilized, industrious Hinduis and Mohammedans in India is effecting changes — moral, social, and religious — which, for extent and rapidity of effect, are far more extraordinary than anything which you or your fathers have witnessed in modern Europe. It has come to be the general feeling in India that Hinduism is at an end — that the death-knell has been rung of that collection of old superstitions which has been held together so long." Similar testimony has been borne by lord Lawrence in his famous letter to the London Times; also by lord Napier, Sir William Muir, colonel Sir Herbert Edwards, and others in the civil and military service in India. The general opinion, not only of the missionaries, but of thoughtful and intelligent laymen, is that India is much in the condition of Rome just previous to the baptism of the emperor Constantine. Idolatry now in India, as then in Rome, is falling into disgrace — men are becoming wiser. Truth in its clearness and power is gradually entering their minds and changing their habits and lives. An intelligent Hindu said to a missionary on one occasion: "The story which you tell of him who lived, and pitied, and came, and taught, and suffered, and died, and rose again — that story, sir, will overthrow our temples, destroy our ritual, abolish our shastras, and extinguish our gods." The preaching of Christ crucified, and the proclaiming of him who is the way, the truth, and the life, is already accomplishing in some measure what this Hindu said it would, and we may hope, with the divine blessing, to see in the near future a great turning of the people unto the Lord, and the utter destruction of all idols. See Thornton, India, its State and Prospects; Duff, India and Indian Missions; Kay, History of Christianity in India; Butler, Land of the Veda; Hough, Christianity in India; Hoole, Madras and Mysore; Clarkson, India and the Gospel; Massie, Continental India; Tinling, Early Roman Catholic Missions in India; Weitbrect, Missions in Bengal; Wylie, Bengal; Storrow. India and Christian Missions; Stirling, Orissa Arthur, Mission to
Mysore; Long, Bengal Missions; Mullen, Missions in South. India; Memoirs of Carey, Marshnan, Ward, and Schwtartz; Reverend E.J. Robinson, The Daughters of India; Marv E. Leslie, The Zenana Mission; J.F. Garey, India.
13. Indo-China comprises the kingdoms between India and China. The whole district may be divided into four parts: the British territories, Burmah, Siam, and Cochin China, including Cambodia and Tonquin. Buddhism is the leading religion. The missionary societies are the American Baptist, American Presbyterian, American Missionary Association, and Gossner's Evangelical. The Bible versions in use are the Burmese, Bghai- Karen, Sgau-Karen, Pwo-Karen, and Siamese. The Baptists have achieved great success in these regions. Heathen' customs are loosened, prejudices are dissolved. The king of Burmah sends his son to the mission school. The late king of Siam sought his most congenial associates among European Christians. Evangelization is going on with great vigor among the Karens of Burmah. Though poor, they support their own pastors. See Mrs. Wylie, Gospel in Burmah; Mrs. Judson, American Baptist Mission to the Burman Empire; Life of Judson; Malcom, Travels; Gutzlaff, Notices of Siam, Corea, and Loo Choo; Gammell, Baptist Missions.
14. The Indian Archipelago. — This vast extent of islands forms a bridge as it were to Australia, and from thence northward to China. The outer crescent begins with the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, followed by Sumatra and Java, and then by the Lesser Sunda Islands. Northward of these are the Moluccas, which are followed by the Philippines, and lastly by Formosa. The superficial area is estimated at 170,000 square miles. The population is 20,000,000. The most ancient inhabitants were the Papoos; they were supplanted by the Malays; these in turn are threatened with the same fate by the Chinese coolies. The religions are numerous: Hindus, Buddhists, and Mohammedans form the larger proportion of the populations. The missionary societies are the Netherland Society of Rotterdam (1797), Java Society of Amsterdam, Separatist Reformed Church, Utrecht, Netherland Society of Rotterdam (1859), Netherland Reformed, Church of England, and Rhenish. The Bible versions in use are the Malay, Javanese, Dajak, and Sundanese. Considerable good has been accomplished among the Saribas tribes and the Land Dyaks of Borneo. Both their moral and social state testify to the civilizing power of Christianity. See Wigger, Hist. of Missions; Memoirs of Munson and Lyman; Hist. of the Missions of the American Board.
15. China. — This is an extensive country of Eastern Asia. Its superficial area is equal to about one third that of Europe, and its population is estimated at 434,000,000. The empire is divided into eighteen provinces. The religions of China are chiefly Buddhism and Confucianism. The first Protestant mission in China was that of the London Missionary Society, founded by Dr. Morrison in the year 1807. The missionary societies now in the field are twenty-two in all, a few of which are the following: London, American Board of Commissioners, American Baptist, American Methodist Episcopal, American Episcopal, American Presbyterian, Baptist, Wesleyan, and Presbyterian. The Bible versions in use are the Chinese, Mandarin, Ningpo, Canton, Hakka and other local dialects of China. For several years there was little or no visible fruit of the missionary's labor, but at length the tide of success set in, and a large ingathering of converts took place. All the open ports are occupied by mission stations, and some places that are not open by treaty stipulations are occupied on sufferance. There are now one hundred ordained missionaries, and one hundred and eighty native catechists and teachers. The result of their united labors is encouraging as to the past and fill of promise for the future. A review of the results which have been accomplished in India (see above), and of the spiritual revolution which is in progress there, is in a high degree encouraging to those who are laboring for the conversion of the still more populous empire of China. Missions in China have been established only about half the period that they have in India, and there have been only about half as many laborers. When they shall have been continued for as long a time, and with as many missionaries, the prospect is that there will be an equal or greater number of converts, and the prospect for the utter overthrow of the religious systems of China will be equally bright. The obstacles to the conversion of the Chinese people are many and great, but they are not more numerous or formidable than those which are now successfully encountered in India. If the Chinese are a more materialistic people than the Hindus, and their leading men more sceptically inclined, there is, on the other hand, an absence of the immense obstacle of caste; nor is there any set of men in China that are looked up to with such awe and reverence, and wield such immense power, as the Brahmins of India. Moreover, there is not the same diversity of races in the Chinese empire, and the number of languages is but about half the number of those in India. There is, too, this advantage in China, that, whatever the mother-tongue may be, all who have received a good education can read books. understandingly, which are in the general written (unspoken) language. The Chinese also are becoming a ubiquitous people, and if the multitudes who come to our own and other Christian lands, vie have good reason to believe that not a few will return to China prepared in heart and mind to aid in spreading the Gospel of Christ. The number of Chinese converts at the present time is 35,000, which is about the number there were in India thirty years ago, and the stage of progress of the missions in other respects is about the same as it was in the latter country at that period; but the outlook in China now is much more encouraging than it was in India then, and all those who are seeking the spiritual conquest of the most ancient and most populous nation of the world have abundant encouragement to press forward in their efforts. See Medhurst, China; Huc, Christianity in China, Tartary, and Thibet; Morrison's Life; Abeel, Residence in China; Kidd, China; Williams, Middle Kingdom; Doolittle, China; Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria, and Mongolia; Lockhart, Medical Missionary in China; Milne, Life in China; Matheson, Presbyterian Mission in China; Deann, China Mission; Wiley, Fuh-Chau and its Missions.
16. Japan. — This empire consists of three large islands and several smaller ones, which have a superficial area of 90,000 square miles, and a population of 40,000,000. The Japanese are divided into two religious sects, called Sinto and Budso, or Buddhists. The missionary societies are the American Episcopal, American Presbyterian, American Reformed (Dutch) Church, and American Methodist Episcopal Church. The Bible version in use is the Japanese. This peculiar country, which, following the expulsion of the Jesuits in the 17th century, could not be brought under missionary influence from being closed to foreigners, has now become so freely open, and brought into such favorable relations with Christian nations, as to encourage the hope that as a nation it will be entirely Christianized at no distant period. See Smith, Visit to Japan; Caddell, Missions in Japan; recent Reports of missionaries; Mori, Education in Japan.
17. Australia is the largest island in the world, being nearly the size of the whole of Europe. The aborigines, a race more degraded than either the Hottentot or Bushmen of South Africa, are fast diminishing in numbers. The missionary societies are the Colonial Presbyterian, Gossner's Evangelical, Evangelical Moravian Brotherhood, and Wesleyan Propagation. The migratory habits of the native tribes have stood in the way of any great success of missionary labors. Some, however, have been reached by localizing them on mission reserves. The colonization and occupation of Australia by Great Britain has introduced Christian civilization and English institutions throughout its vast extent, and made it the subject of evangelical labor in modes peculiar to all Protestant Christian countries. See Young, Southern World; Jobson, Australia; Strachan, Life of Samuel Leigh; Memoirs of Rev. B. Carvosso, D.J. Draper, and Nathaniel Turner; Angus, Savage Life in Australia.
18. New Zealand comprises a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, the principal of which, three in number, are distinguished as the Northern, Middle, and Southern Islands. The natives were savage cannibals, without any fixed idea of worship, but believers in a great spirit called Atua and an evil spirit called Wiro. The first missions to this people were commenced in 1814 by the Church and Wesleyan missionary societies. The missionary societies now in the field are the Propagation, Church, North German, and Wesleyan. The Bible versions in use are the Maori and New Caledonian. The natives are now chiefly professed Christians. The Christian-Sabbath. and Christian ordinances are observed all over the islands, and this triumph of Christianity, in rescuing such a nation from the depths of heathenism and even from the practice of the bloodiest cannibalism, is indeed glorious. See Yates, New Zealand; Thompson, Story of New Zealand; Miss Tucker, The Southern Cross and Southern Crown; Brown, New Zealand and its Aborigines; Memoirs of J.H. Bumby.
19. Tonga and Fiji. — Although embraced in the generic title of Polynesia, and even in the minor term South Sea Islands, yet the insular groups known as Tonga and Fiji deserve special notice as having exhibited some peculiar features of savage life, and, correspondingly wonderful triumphs of Christian labor. Then population of the Tonga, frequently called the Friendly Islands, is estimated at 50,000; that of Fiji, 127,000, scattered over-not less than eighty different islands. Cannibalism is a characteristic practice of the heathen of Polynesia. In Fiji it was an institution of the people interwoven in the elements of society, forming one of their pursuits, and regarded by the mass as a refinement. But even this revolting crime has yielded before the mild influence of Christianity, and is for the most part abolished. Perhaps it may be still secretly practiced by a few in some of the islands. The triumphs of the Gospel in these remote parts of the earth have been in every sense wonderful. Cruel practices and degrading superstitions have given way before Christian teaching. "Thousands have been converted, have borne trial and persecution, well maintained good conduct, and died happy. Marriage is sacred; the Sabbath regarded; family worship regularly conducted; schools established generally; slavery abolished or mitigated; the foundation of law and government laid; many spiritual churches formed, and a native ministry raised up for every branch of the Church's work." The missionary societies are the London, Wesleyan, and a few smaller organizations. The Bible versions are the Fijian and Rotuman. See Williams and Calvert, Fiji and the Fijiais; Miss Farmer, Tonga and the Friendly Isles; West, Ten Years in South Central Polynesia; Martin, Tonga Islands; Lawry, Visits to the Friendly Islands; Seemann, Mission to the Fiji Islands; Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia; Waterhouse, King and People of Fiji; Memoirs of Mrs. Cargill.
20. The South Sea Islands. — The above term is popularly applied to the islands of the Pacific south of the equator, including the Marquesas, the Austral, the Society, the Georgian, the Harvey, the New Hebrides, and the Solomon Islands, as well as the groups above noticed. A mission was begun in that distant and degraded region as early as 1797, but the difficulties were so great that it came near being abandoned. But in 1812 the night of heathenism seemed to be suddenly illuminated by the Sun of Righteousness. It has since been followed by a glorious awakening. Up to that time a native Christian in Polynesia was unknown. Two generations later it was difficult to find a professed idolator in all Eastern or Central Polynesia where Christian missions had been established. "The hideous rites of their forefathers have ceased to be practiced. Their heathen legends and war-songs are forgotten. Their cruel and desolating tribal wars appear to be at an end. The people are gathered together in peaceful village communities, and live under recognized codes of law. On the Sabbath a large proportion of them attend the worship of God. In some instances more than half the adults are members of Christian churches. They educate their children, they sustain their native ministers, and send their noblest sons as missionaries to heathen lands farther west." In fact, those islands are no longer to be regarded as heathen. See Ellis, Polynesian Researches; Williams, Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands; Martyr of Erromanga; Life of John Williams; Gill, Gems from the Coral Islands; Lundie, Mission in Samoa; Pritchard, Missionary's Reward; .Murray, Missions in Western Polynesia; History of the London Missionary Society.
21. Sandwich Islands. — The Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands constitute the most important Polynesian group north of the equator. They have been the locality of one of the most important missions of the American Board. That mission was commenced in 1820. Its history for forty years following is one of struggle, trial, perseverance, and encouraging success. The report of the mission in 1857 said, "When we contrast the present with the not very remote past, we are filled with admiration and gratitude in view of the wonders God has wrought for this people. Everywhere and in all things we see the marks of progress. Instead of troops of idle, naked, noisy savages gazing upon us, we are now surrounded by well-clad, quiet, intelligent multitudes, who feel the dignity of men. Instead of squalid poverty, we see competence, abundance, and sometimes luxury. Instead of brutal howlings and dark orgies, I've heard "the songs of Zion and the supplications of saints." The year 1860 was distinguished for revivals of religion over a large part of the islands. As a result, nearly 1500 were received into the churches during that year, and 800 the year following. So great had been the success of this mission that the American Board, as early as 1848, incepted measures for creating an independent and self-supporting Church in the islands. Carefully and slowly following the leadings of Providence, the native churches were by degrees educated up to this idea, which was happily consummated in 1863, and has since been put in practice with excellent results. Thus, following about fifty years of missionary labor, not counting the good intermediately accomplished, the world witnesses the. grand result of a nation converted from barbarism, and a native Christian community supporting its own pastors and maintaining foreign missions in islands and regions beyond. See Stewart, Missions to the Sandwich Islands; Dibble, Sandwich Islands Mission; Bingham, Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands; Jarves, History of the Hawaiian Islands; Anderson, History of the Mission of the American Board to the Sandwich Islands.
22. North America. — The aboriginal races of the North American continent have, to a greater or less extent, been the subjects of missionary labor almost from the period of the first settlements by Europeans. Eliot's mission to the Indians of Massachusetts was begun in 1646. The French Catholic mission to the natives of Canada dates back to 1613. Spanish missions were commenced in Florida in 1566, in New Mexico in 1597, and in California in 1697. The vast extent of the continent, the lack of national affiliation among the numerous native tribes, the imperfection and multiplicity of languages, together with the extreme unsusceptibility of American Indians to the influences and habits of civilized life, have rendered this class of missions peculiarly difficult. Nevertheless they have been prosecuted by Christians of various denominations with a zeal and perseverance that have not been without encouraging results, both as to individuals and communities. A full history of these missions has never been written, yet many volumes have been filled with sketches embodying material for such a history. In no part of the world have there been greater personal sacrifices or more diligent toil to Christianize savages with results less proportioned to the efforts made. Without enumerating or discussing causes, the fact must be recognised that throughout the whole continent the aboriginal races are dying out to an extent that leaves little present prospect of any considerable remnants being perpetuated in the form of permanent Christian communities. Still missions are maintained in the Indian territories and reservations; and the government of the United States is effectively cooperating with them to accomplish all that may be done for the Christian civilization of the Indians and Indian tribes that remain. The Canadian government also maintains a similar attitude towards the Indian missions within its boundaries. See Tracy, Eliot, and Mayhew, Gospel among the Indians; Lives of Eliot and Brainerd; Mather, History of New England; Gookin, Christian Indians of New England; Shea, Catholic Missions; Kip, Early Jesuit Missionaries; Winslow, Progress of the Gospel in New England; Hallet, Indians of North America; Heckewelder, Missions among the Delawares and Mohicans; Latrobe, Moravian Missions in North Anerica; Loskiel, Moravian Missions in North America; Hawkins, Episcopal Missions in North American Colonies; M'Coy, Baptist Indian Missions; Finley, Wyaindot Mission; Hines, Indian Missions in Oregon; Pitezel, Mission Life on Lake Superior; Jones, Ojibway Indians; West, Mission to the Indians of the British Provinces; Marsden, Mission to Nova Scotia; Churchill, Missionary Life in Nova Scotia; Ryerson, Hudson's Bay Mission; Tucker, Rainbow in the North; De Schweinitz, Life of Zeisberger.
23. The United States and Canada. — In no part of the world is there more enlightened and persevering activity in missionary effort than in these great Christian countries. To them the tide of emigration has been flowing from Europe for a hundred years, and of late it has set in from Asia. Hence, in addition to the providential call upon American Christians for efforts to evangelize the Indians of their forests, there has been even a louder call upon them to teach the Gospel to the foreign populations in their midst, including the African slaves and their descendants. In recognition of this call, missions have been prosecuted with great effect among the German and Scandinavian populations, the fruits of which are already seen in the American missions to Europe. Missions have also been prosecuted to some extent among the French in America and their descendants, but with less success. But, as the tendency is strong towards the mingling of all nationalities in a homogeneous American population, the greatest results have been secured in the normal spreading of the various churches on the ever-enlarging frontier, and in the accumulating masses of our ever- growing cities. In this work of home evangelization, Sunday-schools, SEE SUNDAY-SCHOOLS, have served as a most efficient auxiliary. In addition to the various general and local home missionary societies, there have been missions to seamen in the ocean ports and along the inland waters of the nation, and also especially, since the extinction of slavery, to the freedmen of the South. Recently efficient missions have been established among the Chinese in California.
24. Mexico and Central America. — These countries were favorite fields of the Spanish Roman Catholic missionaries, and by them were pronounced Christianized at a comparatively early period in the settlement of America. The intermediate history of those countries, however, illustrates in a striking manner the defectiveness of that form of Christianization which contents itself with ceremonious conversion, and the exclusion of the Word of God from the people. Within a recent period, and more particularly since the extinction of the empire of Maximilian, there has been a reaction in favor of religious liberty, in consequence of which Protestant missions have been established in the city of Mexico, and in several of the more important provinces. The Scriptures in the Spanish language are now freely circulated throughout Mexico, and to some extent in the republics of Central America. The greatest obstacles to their influence on the public mind are found in the prevailing ignorance and superstition of the people. It may be hoped, however, that these will gradually pass away. See Robertson, History of America; Prescott, Conquest. of Mexico; History of the British and Foreign and American Bible Societies; Bishop Haven, Letters from Mexico; recent Reports of the American Christian Union, the Presbyterian Board, the American Board, and the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Crowe, Gospel in Central America, Honduras, and Guatemala; Griffin, Mexico of Today.
25. South America. — With the exception of Brazil, which was settled by the Portuguese, the several countries of South America were populated by colonies from Spain. The entire continent was long ago Christianized after the Roman Catholic type. It was in Paraguay, the centre of the continent, that the Jesuits planted and developed the most remarkable mission known to their history, and yet by Roman Catholic power they were summarily expelled both from Paraguay and Brazil. The aboriginal races of South America have to some extent become mingled with the European and African races that have come to be occupants of their territory, but to a large extent they have declined in numbers, giving omen of ultimate extinction. The tribes that have been pronounced Christianized resemble in superstition and their low grade of intelligence the native races of Mexico, and their religious aspirations are equally hopeless. Most of the South American governments maintain a limited toleration, under which Protestant missions have been established in Guiana, Guatemala, Brazil, Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, Peru, and Chili. Most of these missions have met with encouraging success, which, although as yet on a limited scale, may prove the beginning of great results hereafter, especially in elevating the standard of Christianity hitherto prevailing in those vast regions. Pata- gonia is still wholly abandoned to a sparse population of cruel savages. An unsuccessful mission to them was attempted in 1848 by captain Allen Gardiner, of the English navy, and several associates. Nevertheless efforts for the evangelization of the Patagonians are still kept up by English Christians. See Robertson, History of America; Prescott, Conquest of Peru; Southey, History of Brazil; Kohl, Travels in Peru; Muratori, Missions in Paraguay; Bernan, Missionary Labors in British Guiana; Brett. Indian Missions in Guiana; Kidder, Sketches of Brazil; Reports of the Presbyterian Board and of the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society; Marsh, Memoir of Captain Gardiner; Hamilton, Life of R. Williams.
26. West Indies. — The West India Islands are divided into three principal groups: 1, the Bahamas; 2, the Greater Antilles; 3, the Lesser Antilles. The population is estimated at about 3,400,000. Of these, about two thirds are negroes, one fifth white men, and the remainder mixed races. Through cruel oppression on the part of the early European emigrants to these islands, the native races, with a few exceptions, have long been extinct. To supply their place as laborers, African slaves were imported. The religion of the negroes was a mixture of idolatry. superstition, and fanaticism. Obeism and myalism, species of witchcraft, were commonly practiced. The first missionary efforts among the negroes were made by the Moravian Brethren in 1732. Since then the following missionary societies have entered the field: the Wesleyan, American Free Baptist, Propagation, Baptists American Missionary, London, Church, and United Presbyterian.
Since the abolition of slavery in 1838 the negroes have given increasing heed to the precepts and practices of Christianity, and thus secured a higher degree of moral improvement and social elevation. The most prosperous society, the Wesleyan, numbers 44,446 Church members. See Coke, History of the West Indies; Duncan, Wesleyan Mission to Jamaica; Phillippo, Jamaica, Past and Present; Samuel, Missions in Jamaica and Honduras; Horsford, Voice from the West Indies; Candler, Hayti; Knibb, Memoirs; Memoirs of Jenkins, Bradnack, and Mrs. Wilson; Trollope, West Indies.
27. Greenland and Labrador. — The arrival of Hans Egede on the shores of Greenland in 1721 marked an epoch in the history of modern missions, and the whole subsequent history of Moravian missionary effort among the inhabitants of Greenland and the coasts of Labrador is full of intense though sometimes of melancholy interest. In several instances both the missionaries and the people for whom they labored were decimated alike by disease and famine. But, notwithstanding all discouragements, the missionaries toiled on. By them it was effectually demonstrated that the one agency adapted to elevating degraded savages was the preaching of Christ and him crucified. By this appointed agency, first one and subsequently many of the Greenlanders were awakened and converted, after which civilization and education followed. From the original nucleus of Christian effort at Disco, Christianity has been effectively disseminated by missionary settlements in other parts of the island. Five such settlements are now occupied, and nearly two thousand souls are under the direct care of the missionaries. About one fifth of the population of West Greenland receive Christian instruction at the mission settlements, and there are scarcely any unbaptized Greenlanders on the whole west coast up to the seventy-second degree of north latitude. On the east coast the inhabitants are still heathen; but they are very few in number, and practically inaccessible to foreigners. The peninsula of Labrador is sparsely inhabited by Esquimaux, a race of natives similar in language and customs to the Greenlanders. To that land, therefore, the Moravians extended their efforts successfully in 1771, since which time they have been extending Christian influence by means of mission stations, of which there are now fourNain, Okak, Hopedale, and Hebron. At these stations thirty-five missionary agents are employed, and about twelve hundred natives are under Christian instruction. The Gospel has triumphed in frozen Labrador as well as in Greenland. See Crantz, History of Greenland; Egede, Greenland Mission;
Holmes, United Brethren; Histories of Moravian missions in Greenland and Iceland.
VIII. Missionary Geography. — From the above survey it may be seen that in an important sense the world is already occupied as the field of active missionary enterprise. A few brief statements of results accomplished by it during the current century may serve as a just indication of still greater results that may now be safely anticipated in time to come from its increasing and maturing agencies.
The mission to Tahiti in 1793-4 was the first attempt in modern times to carry the Gospel to an isolated and uncivilized people. It was commenced at a period when the greater heathen nations of the world were wholly inaccessible. In the islands of the southern seas, as upon a trial-ground, all the great problems of humanity have since been wrought out. The densest ignorance has been enlightened, the fiercest cannibalism has been confronted, the lowest conditions of humanity have been elevated, and the most abominable idolatries overthrown and substituted by a pure worship. The various languages and dialects of the islands of the Pacific have been committed to writing. Dictionaries, grammars, translations of the Scriptures, and many other books, have been printed and introduced to the daily use of the populations, a large proportion of whom have been taught by schools to read and write in their own languages. The civil condition of the various communities has also been improved by modifications of their laws and customs adapted to the new and improved state of public feeling and knowledge.
It is hardly possible for the processes of elevating nations from pagan barbarism to Christian civilization to be better stated than in the language of John Williams, the renowned missionary martyr of Erromanga. "I am convinced," wrote he, forty years ago, "that the first step towards the production of a nation's temporal and social elevation is to plant among them the tree of life, when civilization and commerce will entwine their tendrils around its trunk, and derive support from its strength. Until the people are brought under the influence of religion they have no desire for the arts and usages of civilized life, but that invariably creates it." "While the natives are under the influence of their superstitions, they evince an inanity and torpor from which no stimulus has proved powerful enough to arouse them but the new ideas and the new principles imparted by Christianity. And if it be not already proved, the experience of a few more years will demonstrate the fact that the missionary enterprise is incomparably the most effective machinery that has ever been brought to operate upon the social, the civil, and the commercial, as well as the moral and spiritual interests of mankind." At the present time the mission field of the South Sea Islands presents every variety of communities, from those of the coral islets, just emerging from barbarism and learning their first lessons of Christianity, to those that have been longest taught and most thoroughly tried by intercourse with the outer world, which has sometimes been as destructive as their original paganism. It has been thought by some that the first experiments of modern missions to the heathen were providentially directed to the small islands of Polynesia, among an impressible people, rather than to the great and ancient nations of India and China; that comparatively the easiest work was given to the churches at first, in the process of which they might solve the great problems of missionary measures and economies preparatory to the greater work awaiting them in larger and in some respects more difficult fields.
The marvellous rise and progress of civilization in Australia during the last half-century is largely due to missionary effort. Three generations ago there was not a civilized man on the Australian continent, nor in the adjacent islands of Tasmania and New Zealand. Now there are two millions of English-speaking Protestants, in the enjoyment of a good government, a free press, and all the immunities of liberty, education art, and commerce. The influence which the Australian colonies will eventually exert upon Polynesia and the Asiatic nations, from Japan to India, as well as upon the Indian Archipelago and New Guinea, cannot fail to be great. There is, moreover, every reason to hope that it may be both good and Christian. In no communities does there exist a greater desire for the spread of education and the circulation of sound literature. In Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide there are excellent public libraries. Whatever disadvantages were fastened upon those regions by the original plan and effort of England to populate them with transported criminals, have now been largely if not wholly counteracted. Indeed, it is asserted by English writers that there is on the whole a larger proportion of well-informed, educated people in the Australian colonies than among the same number of people in Great Britain, while the religious feeling is fully equal. The proportion of the aboriginal population is now not only small, but, notwithstanding all influences, growing relatively less, so that the missionary activity of Australian Christians may be expected to seek fields in the surrounding countries in the midst of which they are placed.
As the voyage of Columbus, by which America was discovered, and many of the expeditions by which the New World was opened up to settlement, were in a certain sense missionary in their character, so from that day down to the present, missionary effort has been making geographical explorations, and increasing both the extent and thoroughness of geographical knowledge. Of this the expeditions and journeys of Livingstone in Africa are a striking proof and illustration. Moreover, the influence which missions have exerted, and are now more than ever promising to. exert over vast portions of the earth, renders the subject of missionary occupation in various countries one of peculiar interest. For a full illustration of this subject nothing less than a missionary map of the world is requisite; nevertheless, very suggestive indications are practicable on a condensed scale, like those herewith presented to the reader. Without any attempt to show the island world of the southern hemisphere, to which reference has been made above, a miniature outline of India is first introduced, followed by similar outlines of other important fields, to which, for lack of space, we cannot further allude.
It would be difficult, even with the largest map, to impress the mind adequately with the extent and importance of India. That ancient country embraces a territory twenty-three times as large as England, and, leaving out Russia and Scandinavia, equal in extent to all Europe. It contains twenty-one races and thirty-five nations, while its inhabitants speak fifty- one different languages and dialects. Its population, according to the census of 1872, is 237,552,958, of which number 191,300,000 are directly governed by-British rulers, and 46,250,000 by native governments dependent upon the British.
Notwithstanding some praiseworthy efforts to introduce the Gospel into India during the 18th century, all such efforts were opposed, and to a great extent neutralized, by the East India Company, which then practically ruled the country in the name of Great Britain. It was not till 1815 that toleration was obtained for missions in India from the British Parliament. Since that period diligent efforts have been made, both by English and American Christians, to antagonize idolatry, and introduce Christian truth and worship by all appropriate means. Yet the government connection with idolatrous worship was not fully withdrawn till 1849.
A most interesting exhibit of the work and influence of missions in India may be found in a Parliamentary Blue-book ordered to be printed by the House of Commons, April 2, 1873. From it the following facts are abridged and copied:
"The Protestant missions of India, Burmnah, and Ceylon are maintained by 35 missionary societies, in addition to local agencies. They employ the services of 606 foreign missionaries. They occupy 522 principal stations and 2500 subordinate stations. A great impulse was given to these societies by the changes in public policy inaugurated by the charter of 1833, and since. that period the number of missionaries and the outlay on their missions have continued steadily to increase."
Cooperation of Missionary Societies. — "This large body of European and American missionaries bring their various moral influences to bear upon the country with the greater force because they act together with a compactness which is but little understood. From the nature of their work, their isolated position, and their long experience, they have been led to think rather of the numerous questions on which they agree than of those on which they differ, and they cooperate heartily together. Localities are divided among them by friendly arrangements; and, with few exceptions, it is a fixed rule among them that they will not interfere with each other's converts and each other's spheres of duty. The large body of missionaries resident in each of the presidency towns form conferences, hold periodic meetings, and act together on public matters. They have frequently addressed the Indian government on important social questions involving the welfare of the native community, and have suggested valuable improvements in existing laws."
Various Forms of Labors. — "The labors of the foreign missionaries in India assume many forms. Apart from their special duties as public- preachers and pastors, they constitute a valuable body of educators. They contribute greatly to the cultivation of the native languages and literature, and all who are resident in rural districts are appealed to for medical help for the sick."
Knowledge of the Native Languages. — "No body of men pays greater attention to the study of the native languages. The missionaries, as a body, know the natives of India well. They have prepared hundreds of works, suited both for schools and for general circulation, in the fifteen most prominent languages of India, and in several other dialects. They are the compilers of several dictioinaries and grammars; they have written important works on the native classics and the system of philosophy; and they have largely stimulated the great increase of the native literature prepared in recent years by native gentlemen."
Mission Presses and Publications. — "The mission presses in India are 25 in number. During the ten years between 1862 and 1872 they issued 3410 new works in thirty languages. They circulated 1,315,503 copies of books of Scripture, 2,375,040 school-books, and 8,750,129 Christian books and tracts."
Schools and Training Colleges. — "The missionary schools in India are chiefly of two kinds, purely vernacular and Anglo-vernacular. In addition to thee work of these schools, several missions maintain training colleges for their native ministers and clergy, and training institutions for teachers of both sexes. An important addition to the efforts made on behalf of female education is seen in the Zenana schools and classes, which are maintained and instructed in the houses of Hindu gentlemen. The great progress made in the missionary schools and the area they occupy will be seen from the following fact. They now contain 60,000 scholars more than they did twenty years ago. In 1872 the scholars numbered 142,952."
Christian Communities. — "A very large number of the Christian communities scattered over India are small, and they contain severally fewer than a hundred communicants and three hundred converts of all ages. At the same time some of these small congregations consist of educated men, have considerable resources, and are able to provide for themselves. From them have sprung a large number of the native clergy and ministers in different churches, who are now taking a prominent place in the instruction and management of an indigenius Christian Church. Taking them together, the rural and aboriginal populations of India which have received a large share of the attention of the missionary societies now contain among them a quarter of a million native Christian converts."
General Influence of Missions. — "The missionaries in India hold the opinion that the winning of these converts, whether in the city or in the open country, is but a small portion of the beneficial results which have sprung from their labors. No statistics can give a fair view of all that they have done. They consider that their distinctive teaching, now applied to the country for many years, has powerfully affected the entire population. The moral tone of their preaching is recognized and highly approved by multitudes who do not follow them as converts. Insensibly a higher standard of moral conduct is becoming familiar to the people; the ancient systems are no longer defended as they once were, many doubts are felt about the rules of caste, and the great festivals are not attended by the great crowds of former years. This view of the general influence of their teaching, and of the greatness of the revolution which it is silently producing, is not taken by missionaries only. It has been accepted by many distinguished residents in India and experienced officers of the government, and has been emphatically endorsed by the high authority of Sir Bartle Frere. Without pronouncing an opinion upon the matter, the government of India cannot but acknowledge the great obligation under which it is laid by the: benevolent exertions made by these six hundred missionaries, whose blameless example and self-denying labors are infusing new vigor into the stereotyped life of the great populations placed under English rule, and are preparing them to be in every way better men and better citizens of the great empire in which they dwell." The following is the testimony of Sir Bartle Frere,, governor of Bombay: "I speak simply as to matters of experience and observation, and not of opinion — just as a Roman prefect might have reported to Trajan or the Antonines — and I assure you that, whatever you may be told to the contrary, the teaching, of Christianity, among the one hundred and sixty millions of civilized, industrious Hindus and Mohammedans in India is effecting changes, unmoral, social, and political, which, for extent and rapidity of effect, are far more extraordinary than anything you or your fathers have witnessed in .modern Europe."
To the above may be fitly added the following similar authoritative testimonies:
"I believe, notwithstanding all that the English people have done to benefit India, the missionaries have done more than all other agencies combined.
"Lord LAWRENCE, viceroy and governor-general." "In many places an impression prevails that the missions have not produced results adequate to the efforts which have been made; but I trust enough has been said to prove that there is no real foundation for this impression, and those who hold such opinions know but little of the reality. Sir DONALD M'LEOD, "Lieutenant-governor of the Punjaub." In the light of such competent and unequivocal testimony it would seem impossible for any reasonable mind to doubt the grandeur or the beneficence of the results accomplished by Christian missions during the current century, or to question their still greater promise in time to come. The above notices of missionary work in India may serve as a sample of similar testimony which might be adduced from various other countries. In nearly all cases the most that has been done is to be regarded as in a large measure preparatory to greater efforts and successes hereafter.
The great empire of China affords another remarkable example. That most populous country of all the earth had for ages maintained a rigid system of non-intercourse with the people of foreign nations, whom it indiscriminately stigmatized as outside barbarians. Until within a little more than thirty years all Christian efforts in behalf of China had to be made outside of the empire, or stealthily if within its borders. On the opening of the "Five Ports" to commerce in 1842 missions also entered, and, notwithstanding multiplied obstacles, have since made wonderful progress. Already there are 34,000 unative Christians in China. The principal great cities of the empire have become recognised centres of missionary effort, from Canton on the south to the old Tartar capital, Peking, on the north. What is perhaps most interesting of all is the demonstrated fact that, notwithstanding the peculiarities of the Chinese character, the power of the Gospel has proved itself adequate to its complete transformation and renewal after the New-Testament model. Many ministers of the Gospel have already been raised up. The native churches are also developing both the capacity and the disposition for self-support. Thus all the elements of a successful and progressive establishment of Christianity throughout the empire of China seem now to be happily at work.
In Japan a few recent years have witnessed extraordinary changes in favor of Christianity. Not less than 527 Protestant missionaries. of whom half are American, are now energetically but peacefully at work within the empire, from whose borders, owing to passions and prejudices, excited by the Jesuit missionaries of the 16th century, Christianity had long been excluded by the most barbarous decrees. Native churches have already been formed. and converted Japanese are becoming apostles to their countrymen, while a system of education, indirectly under Christian influence, promises to elevate the general intelligence and character of the nation at an early day. The old edicts against Christians, if not formally repealed, are practically set aside and a favorable sentiment towards Christianity has become very general in various grades of society.
In South Africa a mission was commenced by the Moravians as early as 1737; but it was withdrawn in 1744, and not effectively resumed till 1792. In 1798 the London Missionary Society entered the field, in 1812 the Wesleyan, and since various others. Although Hottentots and Kaffirs are not promising subjects for missionary influence, yet the Gospel, through missionary agency, has not been wanting in glorious triumphs among them, as well as other native tribes of South Africa, while it has made substantial progress among the Dutch and English colonists who now permanently occupy that portion of the African continent.
In 1815 the Church of England Missionary Society first turned its attention to the countries on the eastern border of the Levant. In 1819 the American Board commenced its work in the same regions. The missions in Greece, Turkey, and Persia have been mainly addressed to the nominal Christians of those lands. As a result, thousands have been converted, and a large number of evangelical congregations have been established both in European and Asiatic Turkey. Most interesting and promising also have been the results of the educational efforts made in connection with the Protestant missions in the Orient.
IX. General Missionary Literature. — Notwithstanding the numerous references in this article to books relating to the several fields of missionary effort through. out the world, the subject of missions as a whole would be but imperfectly delineated without allusion to its general literature, which embraces several classes of valuable works not heretofore named, and which can now be but briefly indicated.
1. General Histories of Missions, by Wiggers, Steger, Klumpp, Blumhardt, Brown, Callenburg, Clarkson, Huie, Choules and Smith, Pearson (Propagation of the Gospel).
2. Cyclopaedias, Gazetteers, etc. — Newcombe, Aikman, Hassel (Pole to Pole), Moister (Missionary World), Edwards (Gazetteer), Hoole (Year- book), Grundeman (Missions Atlas, Gotha, 1867-71); Bliss, Miss. Yearbook, 1890.
3. Histories of Missionary Societies. — Annales de la Propagation de la Foi; Lettres Edifiantes; Anderson, Hist. of the Colonial Church; Alder, Wesleyan Missions; Moister, Wesleyan Missions; Bost, Moravians; Cox, Baptist Missionary Society; Gammell, Baptist Missionary Society; Jubilee of the Church Missionary Society; Ellis, London Missionary Society; Kennett, Accounts of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel; Jubilee of the Religious Tract Society; Jubilee of the British and Foreign Bible Society; American Bible Society; Tracy, Hist. of the American Board; Strickland, American Methodist Missions; Green, Presbyterian Missions; Lowrie, Presbyterian Missions; Reid, Missions of the M.E. Ch.
4. Missionary Biographies. — Morison, Lives of the Fathers; Pierson, American Missionary Memorial; Tarbox, Missionary Patriots; Yonge, Pioneers and Founders; Eddy, Daughters of the Cross; Lives of Schwartz, Carey, Marshman, Coke, Morrison, Phillips, Shaw, Judson, Hall, and. many others.
5. Discussions of Missionary Principles. — Harris, Great Commission; Duff, Missions the Chief End of the Church: Hamilton, End and Aimn of Missions; Campbell, Philosophy of Missions; Kingsmill, Missions and Missionaries; Muller, On Missions, a lecture delivered at Westminster Abbey, December 3, 1873, with an introductory sermon by dean Stanley; Beecham, Christianity the Means of Civilization; Maitland, Prize Essay; Stowell, Missionary Church; Stowe, Missionary Enterprises; Wayland, Moral Dignity of Missions; Liverpool Conferences on Missions; Richard Watson, Sermons; Macfarlane, The World's Jubilee; Seelye, Chr. Missions; the addresses on Missions delivered at the New York meeting of the Evangelical Alliance; and many others. The following periodicals contain valuable articles on the subject of missions: English Rev. 7:42 sq.; 18:354 sq.; Western Rev. January 1855; July 1856; Christian Rev. 1:325 sq.; 2:449 sq.; 6:285; 10:566 sq.; volume 14 November; Amer. Bibl. Repository, 3d series, 4:453; 6:161 sq.; January 1867, page 58; Bibl.
Repos. and Princet. Rev. Oct. 1870, p. 613; New-Englander, 8:489; 9:207 Princet. Rev. 5:449; 10:535; 15:349; 1858, page 436; 17:61; 36, 324; July 1867; Christian Examiner, 1:182; 3:265, 449; 29, 51; 44, 416; Biblioth. Sacra, Oct. 1867; Brit. and For. Evangel. Rev. April, 1871; Evangel. Qu. Rev. October 1870, page 373; Meth. Qu. Rev. 7:269; 8:165 sq.; Baptist Qu. October 1873, art. 7; April 1874, art. 6; Theol. Medium, July 1873, art. 2; October art. 2; Catholic World, 1870, page 114. See also Malcom, Theol. Index, s.v.
6. Missionary Periodicals. — Their number is legion. Every country interested in missionary enterprises is publishing one or more. Germany, Engiand, and America have them by the score. Among the most valuable are the Missionary Chronicle (Lond.), the Missionary Magazine (Lond.), and the Missionary Herald (Boston); Missionary Review of the World (N.Y.); also Mission Life (Lond. 1866 sq.), a magazine consisting chiefly of readings on foreign lands with reference to the scenes and circumstances of mission life; the Basle Evang. Missions-Magazin (established in 1816); Burkhardt, Missions bibliothek. A General Missionary Periodical, a monthly, is just starting at Gutersloh, Germany. Its editors are Christlieb, Grundemann, and Warneck. It is to be published in English, and its contributors are to be of the world at large.
The above outline will serve at least as an indication of the great extent and value of a species of Christian literature which is obviously destined to increase in volume and in interest from year to year and from age to age. Whoever, by means of the authentic information now accessible, will acquire a full and just comprehension of the grand enterprise of missions, as it stands embodied in the active movements and growing successes of Christian missionaries and churches, can hardly fail to recognise with wonder and gratitude the rapid and substantial progress that is now made towards the fulfilment of the Saviour's great command, "Go teach all nations." (D.P.K.).