Reformation THE, is the name commonly given to the religious and ecclesiastical movement of the 16th century which resulted in the overthrow of the then allpowerful authority of the Roman popes in a large portion of the Christian world, and in the construction of a number of new religious organizations. The name itself is highly significant, and points to the importance of the new departure in the history of Christianity which then began. It has come into quite general use even among Roman Catholic writers, although the theologians of that Church have attempted to substitute for it other terms, like the "so-called Reformation," and the "separation of the Church." We have already had occasion in numerous articles of this Cyclopedia to refer to detached portions of the Reformation. The Church history of no important country of Europe could be complete without a mention of its reformatory movements, wdnhether they were successful or unsuccessful, and the biographies of the great fathers of the Reformation consist chiefly of an account of their labors in behalf of the reconstruction of the Church upon a new basis. The present article treats of the great turning-point in the history of Christianity as a whole.
I. Forerunners of the Reformation. — Like most of the great events in the history of mankind, the Reformation has had its preparatory history, in which attempts of a similar nature were made for the same purpose, meeting with no or but partial success, but yet smoothing the way for the marvellous changes which were achieved by the victorious reformation of the 16th century.
1. All the Reformed churches which have sprung from the movements of the 16th century are agreed in regarding the undue power which the bishops of Rome at an early time began to arrogate to themselves, and the centralized constitution which consequently was forced upon the Christian Church, as one of the most fatal deviations from the doctrines of the Bible and the practice and the life of the apostolic age. In a wider sense of the word, all the efforts, therefore, which have been made to repress and abolish the arrogant and encroaching power of the Roman popes, and to bring back the Church to its purity in the time of her founder and his first disciples, might be called preparatory and forerunning movements of the great Reformation. These movements have been manifold and widely different in their origin, progress, and ramifications, and each of them has to be individually judged by its own character and history. Indeed, throughout the Middle Ages, even when the power of the papacy was most despotic and absolute, a reformatory tendency was pervading the Church, often confining itself to secrecy and occult labors, but frequently bursting the bonds of the Church, proclaiming its reformatory principles in public, and defying the ire of an enraged hierarchy. Some of these outbursts ran smoothly on in the channels of a purely evangelical belief; others became impregnated with fanatical, sometimes even anti-Christian, elements, and threatened with a common overthrow both the State and the Church of the times. Among the more prominent reformatory movements in the earlier part of the Middle Ages were those of the Albigenses, the Cathari, and the Waldenses, to all of which (and many others) this Cyclopedia devotes special articles.
In the latter part of the Middle Ages, the deviation of the ruling Church from Scripture and primitive Christianity became more and more glaring, and the corruption among all classes of the clergy, from the highest to the lowest. more and more general. The call for a "reformation in the head and members" spread rapidly, and even great nations began to look upon the reformation of the Church as a national cause. It has been justly remarked that the meaning given to the term "reformation in the head and members" was by no means uniform, and that "every one understood it to mean primarily that which he most desired — the removal of what seemed to him most oppressive and unchristian." All malcontents, however, appeared to agree in regarding the administration of the Christian Church by the papal court as utterly depraved, and as subversive of true Christianity.
The efforts made for putting an end to papal misrule and achieving a reformation of the Church were chiefly of two kinds. The one class found the seat of the degeneration not so much in a departure from the doctrine of the Bible as in the usurpation by the popes of greater power than belonged to them by divine and Church right. These men stroligly believed in the continuity of the visible Church; they rejected the right of separation and secession, and looked upon the oecumenical councils of the Church as the only medium through which the needed reformation of the Church should be effected. This school had for a long time a centre in the most famous literary institution of the Church — the University of Paris. Its chief representatives were Peter d'Ailly, the chancellor, his pupil Gerson, and Nicolas de Climanges, rector of that university. The hearty support of many of the foremnost princes of the age, including several emperors, was secured, and at the three great councils of Pisa, Constance. and Basle the majority of the assembled bishops and theologians expressed their: concurrence in these views, and earnestly endeavored to effect a radical reformation on this basis. Thejoyous hopes which had been raised in the Church by these reformatory efforts were, however, sorely disappointed when the pope succeeded in dissolving the Council of Basle.
Much more thorough than this class of reformers were a second, who not only turned against papal usurpations in the government of the Church, but also by a study of the Scriptures were led to look upon the entire doctrinal system of the Church, as it had gradually developed under the misguidance of the popes, as an apostasy from the Christianity of the Bible, and who therefore believed that, more than a reformation in its head and members, the Church needed a reformation in its spirit and doctrines. The foremost representatives of this: school were Wycliffe in England, and Huss in Bohemia. To Wycliffe the papacy appeared as anti-Christianity, and the papal power, in his opinion, was not derived from God, but from the emperor. He rejected altogether the existing hierarchical constitution of the Church, and advocated the substitution for it of the presbyterial constitution as he believed it to have existed in the apostolical age. To the traditions of the Church he absolutely denied an authoritative character, and declared the whole Scripture to be the only source and rule of religious knowledge. Huss derived his views of Church reform largely from Wycliffe, and in 1410 was excommunicated from the Church as a Wycliffite. One of the central doctrines of the reformation of' the 16th century rose, however, in his system to greater prominence, and he also resembled his great followers more than Wycliffe by arousing the masses of the people in behalf of reform. Neither Wycliffe nor Huss succeeded in carrying through a reformation. When the English governmelnt, which had protected Wycliffe during his lifetime from personal injury, began a bloody persecution against his followers, most of whom were found in the higher classes and among the men of learning, the reformatory movement in England came to a sudden standstill. The reformatory ideas of Huss appeared for a time to gain complete control of an entire country, and thus to establish a stronghold of evangelical Christianity: in the centre of Europe. But internal dissensions and the superior power of the German emperor annihilated in 1434 the prospects of the Hussite movement, which dwindled down into a small sect called the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. Numerically too weak to exercise a missionary influence upon the remainder of Christian Europe, this religious denomination will yet always be counted among the ripest and most delicious fruits of the reformatory tendencies of the Middle Ages.
Nothing shows better the vast difference between the two classes of reformers who have been characterized in the above lines than the fact that Gerson, the most gifted representative of the first named, was the leading spirit at the Council of Constance which sentenced Huss to be burned at the stake. Besides these two broad currents of reformatory movements which are visible in the Church history of the latter part of the Middle Ages, there were a large number of theological writers who bravely contended for bringing the corrupt Church of their times back to the purity of Bible Christianity, and who more or less discussed all the great reformatory questions which agitated the world in the 16th century. Among the most celebrated of these reformers were John (Pupper) of Goch, rector of a convent of nuns at Mechlin, John Wessel (Gansfort), called by his friends Lux Imundi, and John (Ruenrath) of Wesel. Though many of these writers made undisguised assaults upon the received doctrines of the Church, their views, if not directly addressed to the people, were frequently tolerated as learnied opinions of the school.
One of the most gifted reformatory preachers of the Middle Ages appeared towards the close of the 15th century in Italy. With a rare eloquence and boldness he attacked the immoral life prevailing in both Church and State, and demanded a radical reform of both. Though few reformatory preachers have ever succeeded better than Savonarola in swaying the emotions of large masses of the people, he did not lay the foundation of any reformatory organization; and when he was burned at the gibbet, there was no one to continue the work of his life.
2. At the close of the 15th century, the Church had succeeded in repressing all the reformatory movements of the Middle Ages, at least so far as to prevent, mostly by the sword of the secular arm, the consolidation of any of these movements into a powerful ecclesiastical organization, like that of the Eastern Church. But her triumph, after all, was more apparent than real. Her authority had been thoroughly undermined, and remained shaken in every country of Europe. The threats of the Church might extort reluctant recantations from a number of intimidated reformers; but her very successes of this kind had the effect of spreading the latent discontent with a religious organization which so palpably cared more for power than for the purity of Christian doctrine and Christian life. Other powerful agencies aided in shaking the belief of the educated classes in the Church. The most influential among them was the school of the Humainists,.who used the revival of classical studies for promoting a general literary culture, which not only fully emancipated itself from the gilardianship of the Church, but frequently assumed an indifferent and antagonistic position even with regard to Christianity. Especially in Italy, humanism became an enthusiastic worshipper of pagan antiquity, and it became quite common that high dignitaries of the Church were in the circles of their friends and acquaintances known as avowed atheists. Even pope Leo X was credited with the remark — and, whether true or not true, it was regarded as credible by his contemporaries — "It is generally known how much we and ours have profited by the fable of Christ." While in Italy many of the leading humanists became opponents of Christian belief, though they had no objection to retaining their positions, which often were of the highest rank, in the Church, the chief patrons of the classical studies in the Teutonic countries were mostly men of earnest Christian convictions, who cultivated them with a view to strengthening the cause of Christianity, and of reforming the Church. It was especially the community of the Brothers of the Common Life who founded a number of excellent schools, in which the highest attainments in the revived classical studies, and an education in the principles of earnest, purified Christianity, were aimed at. Though the community as a whole never entered into an oppositional attitude with regard to the Church, but rather, like its greatest member, Thomas a Kempis, limited itself to teaching, preaching, and practicing that which in the system of the ruling Church appeared to be unobjectionable to earnest and pious Christians, its teachers and pupils generally favored the idea of a Church reformation, and in the 16th century many of them became enthusiastical co-workers in the reformatory labors of Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin.
The labors of such men could not fail to kindle in Germany still more the desire for a reformation, and to strengthen the expectation that in resuming the work of reformation on a grand scale the German nation would take the lead. As early as 1457, chancellor Mayer of Mentz wrote to AEneas Svlvius, subsequently pope Pius II: "The German nation, once the queen of the world, but now a tributary handmaid of the Roman Church, begins to arouse herself as out of a dream, and is resolved to throw off the yoke." This spirit of preparing for the overthrow of the papal yoke and the purification of Christianity at the proper time was fondly nurtured by hundreds of learned and pious men in the latter part of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century; and when at length the right leader appeared at the fulness of time, he found hundreds of thousands ready to fall at once into line as combatants in the grand army of reform.
II. Luther's Reformation in Germany. — While the forerunners of the Reformation diffused in the Church the yearning for a radical purification of Christianity, and while the humanists were educating a race much better fitted for being the standard-bearers of a thorough reform than were the reformers of preceding centuries, a number of other great events co- operated for bringing the mediaeval history of mankind to a close, and for ushering in a new sera. Maritime discoveries of unparalleled magnitude widened the horizon of the European nations and led to a rapid growth of commerce, to an increase of manufactures, and a greater and more general diffusion of wealth. The invention of the art of printing diffused knowledge among the masses of the people to an extent which former generations would have regard ed as impossible. Feudalism and medieval chivalry collapsed before the rise of the wealthier and more intelligent burgherdom of the cities and towns, on the one hand, and the consolidation of powerful states under centralized governments, on the other. The new forces which obtained a controlling influence upon modern society were not always, and not by necessity, hostile to the rulling Church; but it is at once apparent that when in alliance with reformatory Church movements they were a considerable aid in raising up more formidable oppositions to the popes and their Church than those which had been put down in the Middle Ages. Soon after the beginning of the':6th century, Germany, then the soil most favorable to religious reform, produced the man who succeeded in carrying through the reforms which the preceding centuries had so often in vain attempted, who dealt to the papacy a heavier blow than it had received since the separation of the Eastern Church, and whose name, forever associated with "The Reformation," stands at the portal of modern history as one of its greatest pillars. No one disputes the eminent position which Martin Luther occupies in history, nor the extraordinary qualities which elevated him to it. The Manual of Church History, by Dr. Alzog, which has been translated into nearly all the languages of Europe, and is very extensively used in the theological schools of the Roman Catholic Church, says of Luther: "If we look upon his agitated, eventful life, we must count him among the most remarkable men of all centuries, althrough he has not grasped his mission as a reformer of the Church. We must also recognise his courage, though it frequently degenerated into defiance — his untiring activity, his popular, irresistible eloquence, sparkling wit, and disinterestedness. He did not lack a profound religious sentiment, which yearned for satisfaction, and which constitutes the fundamental character and the most brilliant feature of his system." A Protestant Church historian (Kurtz) justly calls Luther a religious genius, who was called to his great work by the rarest union of the necessary qualifications and gifts of the intellect, sentiment, character, and will; who was trained and educated by a providential guidance of his life; who, in his own life, had passed through the entire essential course of reformation, had tested in himself its divine power, and then could not but make the holiest and dearest experience of his life serviceable to all the world.
1. The origin of the German Reformation was quite humble and indefinite. Pope Leo X, of whom even Roman Catholic writers must say that "he does not appear to have experienced the blessing and power of the Christian faith," and that "religion was not to him the highest affair of life," had arranged for a very extensive sale of indulgences. It was not deemed worth while to assign for such an outrage upon the religious sentiment of pious Christians a more specious pretext than that the proceeds of the sale were intended for a war against the Turks and the erection of St. Peter's church. The real destination of the money, it was quite commonly believed, was to defray the exorbitant expenditures of the pope's court and to serve as a marriage dowry of his sister. Archbishop Albert of Mentz, of whose Christian belief as little was known as of that of the pope, authorized the sale in Germany on condition that fifty per cent. of the gross income should flow into his own pocket. A Dominican friar (Tetzel) carried on the trade with an effrontery which outraged the sentiments of thousands of earnest Christians. Among those who were urged by their conscience to rise against this profanation of Christianity was Luther, then a young monk in an Augustinian convent. When a young student, he had been driven by his anxiety for the salvation of his soul into the retirement of a convent. After long doubts and mental troubles, he had derived from a profound study of the Scriptures, and of the writings of Augustine and Tauler, the consolatory belief that man is to be saved, not by his own works, but by faith in the mercy of God in Christ. When he became a doctor of the Sacred Scriptures, he was deeply impressed with the duty imposed upon him by the oath he had to take on the occasion of teaching and making known to the world the truths of Christianity. Both as an earnest Christian, who sincerely believed in the Christianity of the Scriptures, and as a conscientious teacher of theology, Luther felt himself impelled to enter an energetic protest against the doings of Tetzel. In accordance with the principles of the Church of Rome, he wrote to several neighboring bishops to stop the sale of indulgences, and only when this appeal remained unheeded he determined to act himself. On the eve of All-Saints' Day, Oct. 31, 1517, he affixed to the castle church of Wittenberg the celebrated ninety-five propositions, which are generally looked upon as the beginning of Luther's reformation. Both Protestant and Roman Catholic writers are agreed that these theses involved by no means on Luther's part a conscious renunciation of the Roman Catholic faith. Luther himself showed this clearly by his subsequent appeal to the pope; but Dr. Hase justly remarks that Luther certainly must have been aware that he had thrown out a challenge to the most powerful prelates and monks. On the other hand, the opposition to Rome was so widespread that Luther's words worked upon public opinion as the kindling spark in a powdermagazine. Even the pope, who had at first looked upon the matter as another monkish quarrel, became startled at the electric shock which it produced throughout the Christian world. Serious measures for arresting the progress of the movement were resolved upon. At first the pope cited Luther to Rome, but at the request of the University of Wittenberg and the elector of Saxony the concession was made that the papal legate, Thomas de Vio, of Gaeta (better known in history under the name Cajetanus), should examine Luther in a paternal manner. The characteristic feature in Luther's line of defence was the rejection of the arguments taken from the fathers and the scholastics, and the demand to be refuted by arguments taken from the Bible. It was also remarkable that soon after appealing from the cardinal's treatment to the pope when better informed, he was urged on, by a fresh papal bull in behalf of indulgences, to change his appeal and to direct it to an oecumenical council. Soon after, the Roman court found it expedient to change its policy with Luther, and to endeavor to bring him back by means of compromise and kindliness. The papal chamberlain, Karl von Miltiz, a native of Saxony, was so far successful that Luther promised to write letters in which he would admonish all persons to be obedient and respectful to the Roman Church, and to write to the pope to assure him that he had never thought of infringing upon the privileges of the Roman Church. The promised letter was actually indited; its language is full of expressions of humility, and exalts the Roman Church above everything but Christ himself. He also promised to discontinue the controversy if his opponents would do the same. But soon he was drawn into the Disputation of Leipsic (June 27 to July 15, 1519), which the vain-glorious Dr. Eck (even Roman Catholic writers thus characterize him) had originally arranged with Carlstadt. History awards to Dr. Eck the glory of having been the more clever disputant, but Luther's cause was nevertheless greatly benefited by it. The arguments of his opponents drove Luther onward to a more explicit rejection of Romish innovations. He was led to assert that the pope was not by divine right the universal bishop of the Church, to admit a doubt of the infallibility of councils, and to be convinced that not all Hussite doctrines were heretical. At the same time the reformatory movement was greatly strengthened by the universal sympathy that began to be expressed with Luther, by the alliance with the liberal humanists and knights of Germany, and especially by the open accession to his cause of one of the greatest scholars of the age, Dr. Melancthon. The conflict between Rome and Luther now became one for life and death. Dr. Eck returned from a journey to Rome with a bull which declared Luther a heretic and ordered the burning of his writings. Luther, on the other hand, systematized his views in three works, all of which appeared in 1520: To his Imperial Majesty and the Christian Nobility of the German Nation; On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church; and Sermon on the Freedom of a Christian Man. Finally he broke away the last bridge of retreat by publicly burning (Dec. 10, 1520) the papal bull with the papal canon law. The pope succeeded in prevailing upon the German emperor and the German Diet of Worms (1521) to proceed against Luther; and when the latter firmly refused to recant, and avowed that he could yield nothing but to the Holy Scriptures and reasonable argument, he was placed under the ban of the empire; but so great was the discontent in Germany with Rome that the same assembly that condemned Luther for opposing the faith of their ancestors presented 101 articles of complaint against the Roman see. The ban of the empire involved serious dangers for Luther, for it gave permission to any one to assault his person and seize upon his property; but he was saved from these dangers by his secluded life at the Castle of Wartburg, to which disguised horsemen, according to a previous understanding with the elector, but against his own desire, had conducted him. Far from the turmoil of political agitation, he found time not only to issue several powerful polemical essays (against auricular confession, against monastic vows, against masses for the dead, and against the new idol of the archbishop of Mentz), which refuted the rumor that he was dead, but to conceive and partially execute the plan of translating the Bible into the native tongue. During the absence of Luther from Wittenberg, the Reformation under the leadership of men who were more impetuous and practical, but less circumspect and theplogical, assumed a more aggressive turn against Rome. Several priests renounced celibacy and were married; Carlstadt administered the Lord's supper in both kinds, and in the German language. To these changes Luther made no objection; but when Carlstadt began to commit open acts of violence in disturbing the public worship of the Roman Church — when enthusiastic prophets appeared from Zwickau, who boasted of immediate divine revelations, rejected infant baptism, and denounced Church, State, and science — he emerged once more from his seclusion, silenced by powerful sermons his adversaries at Wittenberg, and once more placed himself at the helm of the movement. In intimate union with. Melancthon, he now labored for completing the theological system of the Church which began to rear itself on the basis of his reformatory movement. Luther himself gave his chief attention to continuing the translation of the Bible in German, which was completed in 1534, and constitutes in every respect one of the master-productions of the reformatory age; while Melancthon, in his celebrated work on theological science (Loci Communes Rerum Theologicarum), gave to the theological leaders of the new Church a hand-book of doctrine which, as a literary production, ranked with the best works that the Church of Rome had produced up to that time.
In Rome, Leo X had meanwhile (1521) been succeeded by Adrian VI, the son of a mechanic of Utrecht, who, while strongly attached to the continuity of the external Church and opposed to the separation already produced by Luther, was at the same time sincerely and honestly devoted to the cause of a religious reform. The energy displayed by him and the success obtained were, however, by no means commensurate with the honesty of his convictions. During his short administration (1521-23) he was neither able to,arrest the anti-Church reformation of Luther nor to smooth the way for the introduction of any reforms within the Church. The latter were hated in Rome no less than the former, and when Adrian died he was succeeded by a humanist, Clement VII, who, like Leo X, was anxious to preserve the splendor and the power of the papal court, and showed not the least interest in the purity of religion.
In Germany, during this interval, the protracted absence of the emperor had prevented the adoption of any stringent measures for the suppression of the Reformation, and allowed the latter to strike deeper roots in the nation. The majority of the princes, it is true, were not yet willing to part with the religion of their fathers, and to identify themselves with the movement which they thought represented their beloved ancestors as heretics. They mistrusted Rome, however; persisted in demanding reforms; contented themselves with resolving at several successive diets that the Edict of Worms should be carried out as much as possible, and thus enabled the princes and free cities which were friendly to the Reformation to consolidate it within the boundaries of their states. When the papal legate Campeggio succeeded at the Diet of Ratisbon, in 1524, in bringing about an alliance between Ferdinand of Austria, the dukes of Bavaria, and most of the bishops of Southern Germany for the preservation of the old faith and for carrying out the Edict of Worms, landgrave Philip of Hesse and elector John of Saxony, at a meeting held at Gotha, took the initiatory step for a counter-alliance of the friends of the Reformation. Luther and Melancthon were at first opposed to the conclusion of any offensive and defensive alliance, on the ground that God's cause should not be defended by carnal weapons. When, however, the danger appeared to increase, a defensive alliance between the landgrave and the elector was concluded in 1526 at Torgau, and was soon joined by a number of other princes. As the emperor became involved in a new foreign war in which the pope was on the side of his enemies, the Diet of Spire unanimously agreed upon the decree that until the meeting of a free general council every state should act with regard to the Edict of Worms as it might venture to answer to God and his imperial majesty. This decree gave to the states which were friendly to the Reformation time to reorganize the churches of their territories on the basis of the Reformation. The lead was taken by the elector John the Constant of Saxony. Melancthon drew up the articles of visitation, in accordance with which, in 1529, a general Church visitation of ecclesiastical and lay cotmcillors took place. Among the results of this visitation were the compilation of two catechisms by Luther for more efficient instruction of the children in the elements of religion, the appointment of superintendents to exercise spiritual supervision, and the introduction of an ecclesiastical constitution, which became the common model for the churches in the other German states. Luther, in the meantime (1525), had followed the example of many of his clerical friends and married. As the continuing centre of the entire movement, Luther exerted a powerful influence in many directions as professor and author by an extensive correspondence far beyond the borders of Germany, and by supplying the churches with a great number of excellent Church hymns in the native tongue. By these Church hymns, as well as by his translation of the Bible, Luther at the same time occupied so prominent a position in the history of German literature that Germany as a nation appeared to be under the greatest indebtedness to him, and its further progress to be closely linked to the success of the Reformation. A number of theological controversies into which Luther was drawn, and of which those with king Henry VIII of England, with Erasmus, with Carlstadt, and Zwingli were the most important, belong more to the personal history of Luther than to that of the Reformation.
2. A new crisis for the German Reformation began in 1529 with the Diet of Spire. The emperor having victoriously finished his wars, was now free from foreign entanglements, and showed himself determined to maintain the religious unity of the empire. A very numerous attendance of bishops and prelates secured a Catholic majority, which, in accordance with the imperial demand, decreed that the Edict of Worms should be carried through in the states which had hitherto acknowledged its authority, but that no innovations should be required in the remaining provinces; that none should be obstructed in celebrating the mass; and that the privileges of every spiritual estate should be respected. Against this recess, which if carried out would have made a further progress of the Reformation impossible, Electoral Saxony, Hesse, Luneburg, Anhalt, the margrave of Brandenburg, and fourteen imperial cities entered a protestation, from which they were henceforth called Protestants. They appealed from it to the emperor-to a free council and a German national assembly. Philip of Hesse urged the evangelical princes to assume a defiant attitude for the defence of the Reformation, and, in order to strengthen their alliance, advised a union with the imperial cities that favored the Reformation of Zwingli. In accordance with his wishes, a theological colloquy was arranged at Marburg (Oct. 1 to 3, 1529), in which Zwingli, Luther, OEcolampadius. and Melancthon took part. They failed to effect an agreement in the doctrine of the Lord's supper, but parted with the mutual promise to end the public controversy. Soon after the evangelical princes assembled at the Convention of Schwabach, Luther had drawn up, on the basis of the articles of Marburg, the so-called seventeen Schwabach articles, which the Zwinglian cities were requested to sign as conditional of their admission to the alliance. The request was, however, declined, and the convention remained without result. At the next Diet of Augsburg (1530) the emperor intended to put an end to the religious strife. The elector of Saxony therefore requested his theologians to draw up a brief summary of the evangelical faith, and they accordingly presented to him a revision of the Schwabach articles at Torgau (the Torgau articles). The elector was accompanied to Augsburg by Spalatin, Melancthon, and Jonas. Luther, who was still under the ban of the empire, remained behind at Coburg. The emperor's arrival was delayed, and Melancthon used the time up to the opening of the diet (June 20) for composing, on the basis of the Torgan articles, the famous Confession of Augsburg (q.v.), the first of the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church, which, after being approved by Luther, was signed by the states. It had been drawn up both in Latin and in German; and although the emperor desired the Latin text to be read, it was at the request of the elector publicly read to the diet in German (June 25). Some of the princes admitted that they had derived from this document a clearer conception of the Reformation than they had possessed heretofore of its character and design; but the emperor commissioned the Catholic theologians Faber, Eck, Cochlaeus, and Wimpina to prepare a "confutation" of the Confession, which was read on Aug. 3. The emperor declared that he was determined to stand by the doctrines laid down in the confutation; that he expected the same from the princes; that he was the patron of the Church, and not willing to tolerate a schism in Germany. He refused to receive the "Apology of the Augsburg Confession," which had been composed by Melancthon in reply to the "confutation." The recess of the empire of Sept. 22 announced that the confession of the Protestants had been refuted, but that time for consideration would be given to them until April 15 of the next year; until then all should refrain from diffusing their heresy by writing or preaching; and within six months a general council would be called for the ultimate settlement of the matter. The Edict of Worms was to be carried out, and the imperial court was to proceed against the disobedient. As, soon after the close of the diet, a legal process was actually begun against the Protestant states for having confiscated the property of the Church, the Protestant powers met at Smalkald, and concluded (1531) a defensive alliance for six years, at the head of which the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse were placed. Fortunately for the new alliance, the emperor was soon again involved in a war with the Turks, who threatened an invasion of Austria and Germany, and his desire to obtain the aid of the Protestant churches once more disposed him favorably towards toleration. New negotiations resulted in the conclusion of the religious peace of Nuremberg (July 23, 1532), which enjoined upon both parties mutual friendship and Christian love until the approaching council. Pope Clement VII so far yielded to the demands of the emperor that he promised in 1533 to convoke a council within the space of a year at Mantua, Bologna, or Piacenza; but he demanded, at the same time, from the Protestants a previous unconditional submission to the decrees of the council. This promise the Protestants naturally refused to give, though they were ready to attend the council and plead their cause. The power of the Protestants in the meanwhile was greatly strengthened by the accession of the dukes of Pomerania and Wurtemberg, and by a union with the cities which favored the Zwinglian Reformation; and which, after a religious colloquy, held at Cassel in 1535, between Melancthon and Bucer, agreed in May, 1536, upon the Wittenberg Concord, by which the cities unequivocally accepted the Augsburg Confession. When in July, 1536, the pope actually convoked the council at Mantua, the Protestant states met again for consultation at Smalkald. They accepted and signed the "Articles of Smalkald" which had been composed by Luther, and which presented the doctrines of the Reformation in much stronger terms than the Confession of Augsburg, and they remained unanimous in the resolve not to attend an Italian council, at which the pope would appear both as a party and as a judge. The council did not meet, but in 1538 a "holy league" for the suppression of Protestantism was formed at Nuremberg by the archbishops of Mentz and Salzburg, the dukes of Bavaria, George of Saxony, and Henry of Brunswick. But the next year George died, and was succeeded by his Protestant brother Henry, who found it easy to carry through the Reformation; and a few years later (1542), Henry of Brunswick was driven from his dominions, into which his conquerors likewise introduced the Reformation. The elector of Brandenburg, Joachim I, a decided enemy of Luther, was likewise (1535) succeeded by a Protestant son. Thus gradually the Reformation gained over to its side nearly all the secular princes of Germany, with the exception of the dukes of Bavaria and the house of Hapsburg, which found it necessary to adhere to the old faith on account of its connection with Spain, Belgium, and Italy. Several new attempts were made to effect a reconciliation of the contending parties. The Colloquy of Worms (1540) remained without any result. At the Diet of Ratisbon (1541), where Rome was represented by the pious legate Contarini, who himself favored the fundamental doctrines of Protestantism as they were then maintained, an agreement was effected between the theologians concerning the doctrine of justification and other points, but it was found impossible to harmonize views on transubstantiation. The Protestants, but not the Catholics, had to pledge themselves to abide by the agreed articles (the Ratisbon Interim) until the meeting of the council. The pope was finally prevailed upon by the emperor to open (Dec. 13, 1545) the long-promised council at Trent, a city of the German empire. The emperor still adhered to the plan to force the pope into a Catholic reformation of the Church, and the Protestants into submission to the Church. Another colloquy at Ratisbon was arranged in 1546 to draw up a basis of union to be submitted to the council, but it remained without result. At the same time, the emperor was determined to break the political power of Protestantism by annihilating the Smalkald alliance, and in this he was quite successful. The elector and the landgrave were declared guilty of high-treason, and in the ensuing Smalkaldic war, in which duke Maurice, though himself a Protestant, fought from political motives on the side of the emperor, both princes were defeated and made prisoners. The other members of the league, with the exception of a few cities, submitted. The emperor was anxious not to give to his expedition the name of a religious war. but the pope accorded a plenary indulgence to all who would aid in the extermination of the heretics. Shortly before the beginning of the war (Feb. 18, 1546), Luther had died at Eisleben, where he had been invited to act as umpire between the counts of Mansfeld. In order to prevent the participation of the Protestants in the council, the pope caused the immediate condemnation of some important Protestant doctrines in the first session of that body; and to escape the reformatory pressure of the emperor, he transferred the council (March, 1547), on the pretext that in Trent it was threatened by the pestilence, to Bologna, where it soon dissolved. The emperor was greatly dissatisfied, and determined to go on with his own reformatory policy for preserving the religious unity of Christendom. At his request, the conciliatory and nobble-minded bishop of Naumburg, Julius von Pflugk, and the court preacher of the elector of Brandenburg, John Agricola, drew up the Augsburg Interim (1548), which was adopted by the diet, and was to serve as the standard according to which all matters relating to religion should be arranged until the decision of the council. At first the Interim was intended to be valid for both Protestants and Catholics, but it really remained in force only among the former, to whom it conceded the marriage of the clergy, the use of the cup in the sacrament, and some indefinite constructions of particular doctrines of the Catholic Church. The Protestants submitted to the Interim with great reluctance; and even the emperor's ally; Maurice of Saxony, did not risk its uuconditional introduction, and at his advice the Leipsic Interim (1548) was drawn up by Melancthon, in which the greater part of the Catholic ritual was declared to be indifferent (adiaphoron), and therefore fit to be retained. It also declared that the power of the pope and of the bishops might be acknowledged so long as they used it for the edification, and not for the destruction, of the Church. But even this more Protestant Interim gave no satisfaction, and the fermentation continuied until the new pope, Julius III, reconvoked the Council of Trent for May 1,1551. The emperor demanded that Protestants should attend the council, but Maurice made the attendance dependent upon the condition that Protestants should receive the right of voting, that the former resolutions against the Protestants should be annulled, and that the pope himself should be subject to a general council. Melancthon elaborated as the basis of the doctrinal negotiations the Confessio Saxonica, or Repetitio Confessionis Augustance. Protestant deputies from Wiirtemberg, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Strasburg appeared at Trent, and Melancthon, accompanied by several theologians of Wittenberg, set out to join them. The situation of the Reformation was radically changed when Maurice concluded a secret alliance against the emperor with a uIumber of Protestant princes and the Catholic king of France, to whom, for his assistance, the three German bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun were treacherously surrendered by the allies. Maurice, in a short and decisive war (1552), completely defeated the emperor, who was sick at Innsbruck, and compelled him to agree to the Treaty of Passau (July 30, 1552), which set the landgrave of Hesse at liberty (the elector of Saxony had been liberated previously), opened the imperial council to the adherents of the Reformation, promised a diet for the settlement of the religious differences, and provided a permanent peace for at least all those who sympathized with the Augsburg Confession. The continuance of the war between Germany and France delayed the convocation of the.Diet of Augsburg until Feb., 1555. Both parties in Germany had arrived at the conviction that the hope of terminating the religious controversy by means of religious colloquies or by a general council must be abandoned for the present, arid that peace and order in the empire could only be maintained by mutual forbearance. After long negotiations, the "Religious Peace of Augsburg" was concluded. — It guaranteed the free exercise of religion to the Catholics and the adherents of the Confession of Augsburg. According to the "territorial system,"which now came into use, the prince of every German state had a right to reform the Church within his dominion. The subjects of both Protestant and Catholic governments who were unwilling to conform to the ruling religion retained only the right to leave their country without obstruction. The Protestants remained in possession of the ecclesiastical benefices which they held in 1555. But with regard to the future, it was provided that all spiritual states of the empire which should subsequently go over to the Augsburg Confession should by that act forfeit their offices and possessions. The Catholics remembered with fear the losses which they had sustained by the secession of the grand master of the German order, Albert of Brandenburg, and with which they were threatened by the sympathy with the Reformation of the archbishop Hermann of Cologne; and they therefore believed that on the adoption of the articles securing to them the possession of bishoprics and other ecclesiastical states, even if their actual incumbents should become Protestants, the very existence of their Church would depend. The article called "Ecclesiastical Reservation" (Reservatun Ecclesiasticum) was proclaimed by the Roman king Ferdinand as an actual ordinance of the diet, though the Protestants loudly protested against it, and their protest had to be recorded in the peace.
III. Zwingli's and Calvin's Reformation in Switzerland. — Next to Germany, Switzerland became the principal source of the Reformation. But it sent forth two currents which have never fully united, though many connecting canals have been built between them, and both are now usually acknowledged as belonging to one comprehensive system; which is commonly designated as the Reformed Church. One of the movements originated in German, the other in French, Switzerland. At the head of the one was Ulric Zwingli, at the head of the other John Calvin. The thirteen cantons which constituted Switzerland at the beginning of the 16th century were still in nominal connection with the German empire; and the same causes, therefore, which have been referred to in our account of Germany favored the growth of the Reformation in Switzerland. Dissatisfaction with and contempt of Rome were, moreover, promoted in Switzerland by the large number of mercenaries who were employed in the military service of the popes, and who, after returning home, not only diffused a knowledge of the utter corruption prevailing in Rome, but by their own unworthy lives helped to bring Rome into disrepute.
1. Ulric Zwingli, who gave the first impulse to the Reformation in German Switzerland, SEE ZWINGLI, had received his education at the universities of Vienna and Basle, and in the latter place had joined himself to a circle of enthusiastic admirers of ancient learning and of enlightelned religious views who gathered around Erasmus. It was more classical education and scientific study of the Holy Scriptures than, as in the case of Luther, religious experience which made Zwingli an earnest advocate of religious reform, although, like his teacher Erasmus, he continued to hope for a reformation within the Church by the ecclesiastical authorities themselves. Such views were entertained quite generally in Switzerland; and thus, though Zwingli in 1518 raised his voice against the effrontery of a trader in indulgences, the Franciscan monk Bernardin Samson, he was appointed papal chaplain by the papal legate. His preaching against the corruptions prevailing in the Church became more earnest after he had been appointed, in 1519, "Lent priest" in Zurich. The influences proceeding from Luther did not remain without effect upon him, and he began to be looked upon in Zurich as a Lutheran at heart. When he designated the rule of fasting as an ordinance of man, the Council of Zurich, in 1522, took his part against the bishop of Constance. Zwingli's first reforming work, Von Erkiesen und Freyheit der Spysen, which was published at this time, gave a new imptuse to the movement. In the same year Zwingli, in the name of the reformatory party among the clergy, addressed the Diet of Lutcerne and the bishop of Constance in behalf of a free preaching of the Gospel; he also demanded the abolition of priestly celibacy. In accordance with Zwingli's wish, the Council of Zurich arranged on Jan. 29, 1523, a religious conference, at which Zwingli presented the reformatory doctrines he had preached in sixty-seven articles, and defended them so successfilly that the Council of Zurich charged all the preachers to preach the pure Gospel in the same manner. Soon after, Zwingli received an efficient co-laborer in his reformatory efforts by the appointment of Leo Judae as Lent priest at Zurich. Several events signalized at this time the steady advance of the cause. The council allowed nuns to leave their convents, several of the clergy married without hindrance, a German baptismal service was introduced, and the cathedral chapter, at its own request, received new andt suitable ordinances. In other cantons, especially in Lucerne, Fribourg, and Zug, a violent opposition was manifested against the Reformation, but in Zurich its success was fully secured. The council convoked a new conference for October 26, upon images and the mass, to which all Swiss bishops and cantons were invited, but only Schaffhausen and St. Gall sent delegates. No champion for images and mass was found at the conference, and the Council of Zurich concluded to promote the reformation of the canton by diffusing the proper instruction in the country districts, for which purpose Zwinigli, the abbot Von Cappel, and Conrad Schmidt, commnander of the knights of St. John at Kussnacht, were appointed. With the assent of the council, Zwingli published his Christian Introduction, which was to explain to the people more fully the meaning of the religious Reformation. Soon new reformatory measures were adopted by the council. The shrined pictures in the churches were shut up, and every priest was left free to celebrate mass or not as he chose (Dec., 1523). On Whit- Sunday, 1524, the work of removing the images from the churches was begun, and it was completed in thirteen days. The abolition of many other usages followed in rapid succession; and the transformation in religious service was completed by the celelration on April 13, 14, and 16, 1525, of the Lord's supper again in its original simplicity in the great minster. The publication of Zwingli's De Vera et Falsa Religione and the first part of the Zurich translation of the Bible likewise gave a favorable impulse. Beyond Zurich, the Reformation was carried through in nearly the whole canton of Appenzell, and in the town of Muhlhausen; a broad foundation was laid in Berne by the preaching of the prudent Berchtold Haller; in Basle, Wolfgang Fabricius Capito and Caspar Hedio were the first preachers, and in 1524 the authorities conceded to John CEcolampadius those conditions in regard to reform under which he accepted an appointment as minister. The Reformation also gained a firm ground in Schaffhausen and St. Gall. The majority of the cantons were, however, still opposed to the Reformation, and the Diet of Lucerne (Jan., 1525) endeavored to satisfy the longing for a reformation without rending the Church. Its decrees, however, did not go into effect; and the Catholic cantons, in accordance with the advice of Dr. Eck, arranged a new religious disputation at Baden (May 19, 1526), where (Ecolampadins acted as the spokesman of the Reformed theologians. Though both parties claimed the victory, the Reformation continued to make progress. In the summer of 1526, the Grisons granted religious freedom; in April, 1527, the Reformed party obtained a majority in the Council of Berne. which, after a new disputation at Berne (Jan. 6, 1528), officially introduced the Reformation. Decisive measures for securing the preponderance of the Reformation were taken in 1528 by St. Gall, and in 1529 by Basle and Glarus. As the most zealous of the Catholic cantons, especially Schwvz, Uri, Unterwvalden, Lucerne, Valais, and Fribourg, resorted to forcible measures for the suppression of the Reformation, Zurich and Constance, on Dec. 25,1527, formed a defensive alliance under the name of Burgher Rights. It was joined in 1528 by Berne and St. Gall; in 1529 by Biel, Mtuhlhausen, Basle, and Schaffhausen; in 1530 by Strasburg, which had been repelled by the German Protestants. The landgrave of Hesse also was received into it in 1530, at least by Zurich and Basle. In the meanwhile five Catholic cantons — Lucerne, Zug, Schwvz, Uri, and Unterwalden — had concluded (April, 1529) a league with king Ferdinand for the maintenance of the old faith. A war declared by Zurich in 1529 against the five cantons was of short duration, and the peace was favorable to the former. In 1531 the war was renewed, and the forces of Zurich were totally defeated at Cappel, Zwingli himself finding his death. The peace which Zurich and Berne were forced to conclude was, on the whole, humiliating; it recognised, however, and secured both confessions of faith. Soon after the battle of Cappel, OEcolampadius died (Nov. 23, 1531) of grief for the losses of the Reformed Church. Henry Bullinger in Zurich, and Oswald Myconius in Basle, now became the leading spirits among the Reformed, whose strength was greatly impaired by internal dissensions and by the progress of the Anabaptists. The Catholic cantons succeeded in arresting the further spread of the Reformation in German Switzerland, and in repressing it by force in some free districts and in parts of the cantons Soleure and Glarus; but in the remainder of the Reformed cantons, especially in Zurich and Berne, the population steadfastly continued to adhere to the cause of religious reform.
2. In French Switzerland, the reformatory movement began in 1526 in the French parts of the cantons Berne and Biel, where the Gospel was preached by William Farel, a native of France. In 1530 he established the Reformation in Neufchatel. In Geneva a beginning was made as early as 1528; in 1534, after a religious conference held at the suggestion of the Bernese, in which Farel defended the Reformation, public worship was allowed to the Reformed; rapid progress was then made through the zeal of Farel. Froment, and Viret; and in 1535, after another disputation, the papacy was abolished by the council anid the Reformation adopted. In 1536 John Calvin, SEE CALVIN arrived in Geneva, and was induced by Farel to remain in the city and to aid him in his struggle against a party of freethinkers who called themselves Spirituels. In October of the same year he took part with Farel and Viret in a religious disputation held at Lausanne, which resulted in the adhesion of the Pavs-de-Vaud to the cause of the Reformation. In 1538 both Calvinn and Farel were banished by the council, which had taken offence at the strict Church discipline introduced by the Reformers. Soon, however, the friends of the Reformation regained the ascendency, and Calvin was recalled in 1541, while Farel remained in Neufchatel. For several years Calvin had to sustain a desperate struggle against his opponents, but in 1555 they were finally subdued in an insurrection set on foot by Ami Perrin. From that time the reformatory ideas of Calvin were carried through in both Church and State with iron consistenc,. and Geneva became a centre whence reformatory influences spread to the remotest parts of Europe. By an extensive correspondence and numerous religious writings, he exerted a strong personal influence far bevond the boundaries of Switzerland. The theological academy of Geneva, founded in 1588, supplied the churches of many foreign countries, especially France, with preachers trained in the spirit of Calvin. When Calvin died, in 1564, the continuation of his work devolved upon the learned Theodore Beza. Calvin disagreed in many points with Zwingli, whose views gradually lost ground as those of Calvin advanced. The Second Helvetic Confession, the most important among the symbolical books of the Reformed Church, which was compiled by Bullinger in Zurich, published in 1566, and recognised in all Reformed countries, completed the superiority of Calvin's principles over those of Zwingli.
3. Although the majority of the German Protestant churches remained in connection with the Lutheran Reformation, a German Reformed Church which wore a moderately Calvinistic aspect sprang up in several parts of Germany. In 1560 the elector Frederick III of the Palatinate embraced the Reformed creed, and organized the Church of his dominions according to Reformed principles. By his authority, Ursinus and Olevianus composed the Heidelberg Catechism, which soon came to be regarded not only as the standard symbolical book of the German Reformed Church, but was highly esteemed throughout the Reformed world. Maurice. the learned landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, after several fruitless attempts to reconcile the Lutheran and Reformed churches, joined the latter in 1564, and compelled the Lutheran Church of his dominion to enter into communion with Calvinism. In Anhalt, Calvinism was introduced chiefly from attachment to Melancthon, and Nassau introduced the Heidelberg Catechism in consequence of its relation to the house of Orange. The most important accession to the Reformed Church of Germany was that of John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg, who onl Christmas day, 1613, received the Lord's supper in the court church of Berlin according to the Calvinistic ritual. Although he tried, as all princes of these times did, to induce the people to follow his example, the overwhelming majority of the country continued to remain Lutheran. Among the free imperial cities, it was especially Bremen which adopted the Reformed creed.
IV. The English Reformnation. — In England the writings of Luther were warmly welcomed by many, especially by those who secretly adhered to the doctrines of Wycliffe. King Henry VIII, who was a great admirer of St. Thomas a Becket, wrote against Luther (1521) the work Adsertio VII Sacramentorum, for which he received from the pope the title Defensor Fidei. He also wrote the emperor of Germany a letter in which he called for the extirpation of the heretics. But Lutheranism found zealous adherents even at the English universities, and an English translation of the Bible (1526) by Frith and Tyndale, members of the university of Cambridge, had a decisive effect. Soon the king fell out with the pope, because the latter refused to annul Henry's marriage with Catharine of Aragon, the niece of the emperor Charles V. The king, who represented that his marriage with Catharine, his brother's widow, was open to objections, laid the matter, by advice of Thomas Cranmer, before the Christian universities; and when replies were received declaring the marriage with a brother's wife as null and void, the king separated from Catharine, married Anne Boleyn, and fell under the papal ban. The English Parliament sundered the connection between England and Rome, and recognised the king as the head of the Church. Henry was desirous of destroying the influence of the pope over the Church of England, to which, in other respects, he wished to preserve the continuity of its Catholic character. The cloisters were subjected to a visitation in 1535, and totally abolished in 1536; and the Bible was diffused in the mother tongue (1538) as the only source of doctrine; but the statute of 1539, imposed distinct limits upon the Reformation, and, in particular, confirmed transubstantiation, priestly celibacy, masses for the dead, and auricular confession. A considerable number of those who refused to comply with the religious changes introduced into England were executed. A powerful party, headed by Thomas Cranmer, after 1533 archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas Cromwell, after 1534 royal vicargeneral for ecclesiastic affairs, exerted a silent influence in behalf of a nearer approach towards the Reformed churches of continental Europe. They met with little success during the reign of Henry, but obtained a majority in the regency which ruled England during the minority of Edward VI. Peter Martyr, Occhino, Bucer, and Fagius were called to England to aid Cranmer in carrying through the Reformation. The basis was laid in the Book of Homilies (1547), the new English liturgy (the Book of Common Prayer, 1548), and the Forty-two Articles (1552); but the labors of Cranmer were interrupted by the death of Edward VI (1553). His successor, queen Mary, the daughter of Henry and Catharine of Aragon, was a devoted partisan of the Church of Rome, during whose reign Cranmer and from three hundred to four hundred other persons were executed on account of their religion. A papal nuncio appeared in England, and an obsequious parliament sanctioned the reunion with Rome; but the affections of the people were not regained, and the early death of Mary (1558) put an end to the official restoration of the Papal Church. Queen Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, whose birth, in consequence of the papal decision, was regarded by the Roman Catholics as illegitimate, resumed the work of her father, and completed the English Reformation, as distinct both from the Church of Rome and the Reformations of Germany and Switzerland. The Book of Common Prayer which had been adopted under Edward was so changed as to be less offensive to Catholics, and by the Act of Uniformity, June, 1559, it was made binding on all the churches of the kingdom. Most of the Catholics conformed; of 9400 clergy, their benefices were only lost by fourteen bishops, fifteen heads of ecclesiastical corporations, fifty canons, and about eighty priests. Matthew Parker, the former teacher of the queen, was appointed archbishop of Canterbury. The validity of his ordination, which was not sanctioned by the pope, nor made according to the Roman rite, was at once disputed in numerous Catholic writings, but has also found some Catholic defenders, as Le Courayer. The Confession of Faith which had been drawn up under Edward in forty-two articles was reduced to thirty-nine articles, and in this form it was adopted by a convocation of the clergy at London in 1562, and by Parliament made, in 1571, the rule of faith for all the clergy. According to the Thirty-nine Articles, the Scriptures contain everything necessary to salvation; justification is through faith alone, but works acceptable to God are the necessary fruit of this faith; in the Lord's supper there is a communion of the body of Christ, which is spiritually received by faith; and predestination is apprehended only as it is a source of consolation. Supreme power over the Church is vested in the English crown, but it is limited by the statutes. Bishops continued to be the highest ecclesiastical officers and the first barons of the realm. Subscription to the articles was made binding only on the clergy; to the laity freedom of conscience was allowed. The adoption of the Thirty-nine Articles completed, in the main, the constitution of the Episcopal Church of England. Some parts of the Church government and the liturgy, especially the retaining of sacerdotal vestments, gave great offence to a number of zealous friends of a radical religious reformation who had suffered persecution during the reign of Mary, and, while exiles, had become strongly attached to the principles of strict Calvinism. They demanded a greater purity of the Church (hence their name Puritans), a simple, spiritual form of worship, a strict Church discipline, and a Presbyterian form of government. The Act of Uniformity (1559) threatened all Nonconformists with fines and imprisonment, and their ministers with deposition and banishment. When the provisions of the act began to be enforced, a number of the Non-conformist clergy formed separate congregations in connection with presbyteries (since 1572), and a considerable portion of the clergy and laity of the Established Church sympathized with them. The rupture between the parties was widened in 1592 by an act of Parliament that all who obstinately refused to attend public worship, or led others to do so, should be imprisoned and submit, or after three months be banished; and again in 1595, when the Presbyterians applied the Mosaic Sabbath laws to the Christian Sunday, and when Calvin's doctrines respecting predestination excited animated disputes.
A much more uncompromising opposition than that by the Puritans was made to the Established Church by Robert Brown, who embraced (from 1580) Calvinism in its strictest form, denounced the English Church as a false Church, and demanded that, in accordance with the apostolic example, every congregation should be an independent Church. His adherents, who were variously designated as Brownists, Independents, and Congregationalists, renounced all fellowship with the Church of England, and met with great success, though Brown himself returned to the Church of England. In 1593 there were about 20,000 Independents in England: those who fled to Holland founded a number of churches there, and from Holland the Pilgrim fathers brought this branch of the English Reformation over to the New World.
The Stuarts entertained immoderate opinions as to the royal authority in Church and State. James I, the son of Mary Queen of Scots, remained, in spite of the Gunpowder Plot (1605), mild towards the Catholics, but bitterly opposed to Puritanism. The Catholic element in the Established Church was greatly strengthened, and an attempt was even made to restore episcopacy in Scotland. A bond of union was, however, given to all parties by an excellent new translation of the Bible into English, with which king James's name is honorably connected. Charles I followed in the footsteps of his father; and as the bishops sided with him in his conflicts with Parliament and his endeavors to enforce the divine right of kings, the king's overthrow, which ended in his execution (1649), involved the overthrow of the supremacy of the Episcopal Church. The Parliament summoned an assembly of divines at Westminster — the Westminster Assembly (1643- 49) — and, in accordance with the proposition of this assembly, introduced a Presbyterian form of government and a Puritanic form of worship. Soon after the death of Cromwell, however, the Stuarts were recalled (1660) and the Episcopal Church re-established. The Test Act (1673) prohibited every one from holding any public office unless he had acknowledged the king's ecclesiastical supremacy and had received the sacrament of the Lord's supper in asn Episcopal church. In consequence of the adherence of James II to the Church of Rome, there arose one more conflict between the English king and the Episcopal Established Church; but when William III of Orange became king the constitution of the Church was definitely settled (1689). The Church of England retained the Episcopal form of government, and Ireland was placed under the jurisdiction of the Church of England. This connection between the Established Church of England and the Established Church of Ireland remained until 1870, when the latter was disestablished and its official connection with the Church of England severed. The "Church of Ireland" since then forms an independent, self- governing body; while the Scotch Episcopal Church and the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States agree with the religious creed of the Church of England, but frame their Church laws with entire independence.
V. The Presbyterians of Scotland. — The first knowledge of the Reformation begun in continental Europe was brought to Scotland by several Scotch students of Wittenberg. They tried to circulate Luther's writings, but found the ground not favorable to a reformation, because king James V had intimately allied himself with the clergy for the purpose of curbing the power of the nobility. Stringent measures were adopted against the favorers of the Reformation. The first victim was Patrick Hamilton (March 1, 1528), a youth of royal blood, who, while studying in Germany, had imbibed a love of the Reformation. Two more Reformers were burned in 1534; in 1539, five in Edinburgh and two in Glasgow. Nevertheless, tlie adherents of the Reformation steadily increased in number, especially among the nobles. When James V died, the leader of the reformatory party, James Hamilton, earl of Arran, succeeded in seizing the regency. When the latter saw his political influence endangered by the Reformed earl of Lennox, he was gained over by the widowed queen and by David Beautoun (Beton), cardinal-archbishop of St. Andrew's, to the Catholic side, and persecution began afresh. The Catholic party derived some advantages from the national war against Henry VIII of England, as the latter was looked upon as a patron of reformatory movements; but the burning of George Wishart, one of the theological leaders of the Reformation, rallied the reformatory party anew. Under the guidance of John Knox they began to advance more firmly, and to develop their ecclesiastical affairs more definitely. As both Knox and Wishart had been educated at Geneva, and were firmly addicted to the Reformed Confession, the reformed type of the Reformation now obtained in Scotland a decided and lasting ascendency over the Lutheran. The Reformed party allied itself with the English government, the Catholics with that of France. The latter sent the young daughter of James V, Mary Stuart, to France for education, where she was subsequently married to king Francis II of France, and imbibed an enthusiastic attachment to the Church of Rome. In 1554 the fanatical dukes of Guise, the brothers of the widowed queen, became regents of Scotland. The French influence was strongly used for the repression of the reformatory party, which, on the other hand, was benefited by the accession to the English throne of Mary, daughter of Henry VIII. Protection was afforded to the English Protestants who had fled on account of their religion, and freedom of worship was again secured by the native friends of the Reformation. John Knox, who in 1546 had had to flee from Scotland, returned in 1555 to strengthen the Reformed faith and to urge on the nobility and the people to an unceasing contest against the idolatries of Rome. Dissatisfied, however, with the feeble support which he found, Knox returned in 1556 to Geneva, in which city he received from the Scotch bishops the sentence to the stake which had been passed against him. The stirring letters which Knox wrote to Scotland from Geneva led (1557) to the formation of a defensive league of the Protestant nobility — the "Congregation of Christ." The accession of Elizabeth to the English throne was followed in Scotland by the adoption of new measures against the Reformation, which French troops were to carry into effect. This led to a furious outbreak of the Reformed party. John Knox once more returned, the Covenant of May 31 was signed, a new alliance with England was concluded, and the widowed queen deposed as regent. The iconoclastic devastation of Catholic churches and cloisters began at Perth and rapidly spread over the kingdom. A civil war which ensued was concluded by the treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which recognised the rights of the Refo)rmed. The Scotch Parliament, whiich met soon after, immediately abolished the papal jurisdiction over Scotland, forbade the mass, and approved an entirely Calvinistic Confession (Confessio Scottica). In the next year (1561) the Presbyterian Church government was set in order in the Book of Discipline. These acts of the Parliament were, however, not sanctioned by the government until 1567, after the overthrow of Mary Stuart, who, notwithstanding her fanatical zeal in behalf of Rome, had been unable since her return from France (1561) to arrest the complete victory of the Reformed party. While the theology of the Scotch Confession was strictly Calvinistic, the episcopal benefices were allowed to continue, as the regents during the minority of James VI, and still more James himself, had a strong personal interest in their preservation. Melville, the successor of Knox, induced the Assembly of 1578 to adopt a strictly Presbyterian Church constitution, which admits no Church office except the four recognised by Calvin — of pastor, doctor, elder, and deacon. The sanction of this Church constitution (the Second Book of Discipline) by Parliament and the youthful king was not obtained until 1592. James was, however, personally averse to Presbyterianism and a strong adherent of an episcopal form of government. He left no means untried, especially after he had united the crown of England with that of Scotland, to force an episcopal form of government upon the Church of Scotland. Charles I went still further than his father, and gave to the Scotch a liturgy which the Presbyterians denouneced as a service to Baal. The union of Scotch Presbyterians with the Puritans and Independents of England led to the overthrow of Charles I. In 1643 a new league and covenant was adopted, and in 1645 Scotland received the Westminster standards. After the execution of Charles I, the Scotch, from opposition to Cromwell, proclaimed Charles II, who had signed the covenant, as king. This led, however, to a serious and lasting division among Scotch Presbyterians. Other divisions, from various causes, followed in the course of time, and even at the present time (1879) Scotch Presbyterianism is split up into a large number of divisions. The Presbvterian character of the people has, however, remained unimpaired. Cromwell, who several times defeated the Scotch, did not allow the assembly to meet, but in no other way interfered with the freedom of the Scotch Church. Charles II relapsed into the Stuart tendency to introduce Episcopalianism; but on the expulsion of the Stuarts in 1689, the Church constitution of 1592, and the Westminster Confession were definitely restored. To the adherents of an Episcopalian Church an act of 1712 granted freedom of worship, and in 1792 they received the full enjoyment of civil rights.
VI. The Reformned Church of Holland. — Nowhere did the Reformation find a more favorable soil than in the Netherlands, which were closely united with Germany. being regarded as a fief of the empire. The people were noted for their industry and love of freedom, and were therefore inclined to an earnest opposition to every form of ecclesiastical and civil despotism. Besides, the Brethren of the Common Life, the Beghards, and other religious communities had awakened and fostered an interest in a purer, more scriptural form of Christianity, which, at the beginning of the 16th century, was far from being extinct. Therefore Luther's writings, although they were condemned by the University of Louvain, were enthusiastically received in the flourishing cities of Flanders, Brabant, and Holland. As the Netherlands were the hereditary land of the emperor Charles V, he made the utmost efforts to suppress the reformatory movement: and the penal law which was issued at Worms in 1521 was carried out with greater earnestness in the Netherlands than in Germany. In 1523 two Augustinian monks, Henry Vos and John Esch, were executed at Brussels-the first martyrs of the Reformation. Other edicts against the Protestants followed, and with them new executions. The progress of the Reformation was, however, not checked; but, in consequence of the closer connection of the people with France and Switzerland, it took a Reformed rather than a Lutheran type. The vigor of the persecution during the reign of Charles was somewhat mitigated by the mild disposition of the two stadtholders, Margaret of Savoy, and Mary, widowed queen of Hungary, the latter of whom, a sister of the emperor, was even suspected of a secret syrmpathy withi the Reformation; and in many places the execution of the obnoxious decrees was even prevented by the out-spoken personal inclinations of municipal and provincial authorities. An effort made by Charles V (1550) to establish a regular inquisition, after the pattern of the Spanish, was not successful. Philip II did not shrink from measures of the utmost cruelty to enforce submission to the laws and to the Council of Trent; but, instead of submitting, the people rallied for the defence of their religious and civil liberty. A Calvinistic confession of faith (Confessio Belgica) was in 1562 drawn up by Guido de Bres, and in 1566 it was recognised by a synod of Antwerp as a symbolical book of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands. In the latter year a defensive league, the Conmpromiss, was also concluded by the nobles, which spread with great rapidity. The name of Gueux (Beggars), by which the court at first had ridiculed the confederates, was received by the people as a title of honor, and served as a rallying-point for a great national movement towards freedom. When the stadtholder Margaret of Parma felt unable to curb any longer the rising opposition, the duke of Alba undertook to extinguish the Reformation with fire and sword. In the southern provinces he was successful; but seven of the northern provinces formed, in 1579, the Union of Utrecht, and renounced allegiance to the king of Spain. A long and bloody war of independence followed, which terminated in the establishment of the independent Dutch Republic. In the southern provinces, which remained under the crown of Spain, the Reformation was almost wholly extinguished. The Dutch Republic, though only one of the smaller Protestant states of Europe, soon added to the reputation of the Reformation by the conspicuous position it occupied in regard to literature and art, to civilization and to maritime conquest. In the inner history of the Reformed churches, the Arminian controversy, SEE ARMINIANISM, and the Synod of Dort (q.v.) — which was attended by delegates of the English Episcopal Church and the churches of Scotland, the Palatinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Wetteran, Geneva, Bremen, and Emden — were of considerable importance. The decision of the Synod of Dort led for a time, both in Holland and in the Reformed churches of several other countries, to a complete victory of strict Calvinism over a party which demanded more Biblical simplicity and less rigid conformity with the system of any theologian, even if it be Calvin; but soon strict Calvinism lost more ground in Holland than in any other Reformed Churcli, and rationalism obtained an ascendency so decisive and of so long duration that in the 19th century a numerous party of orthodox members of the National Church separated from the latter and constitilted a Free Reformed Church. The Dutch Reformed Church has planted large and flourishing offshoots in North America and several countries of South Africa, and thus contributed an important share to the ascendency which Protestantism enjoys in these regions. In Belgium, under the cruel rule of tie Spaniard's, but very few and small Reformed congregations were able to continue their always endangered existence, until, in the 19th century, the reunion of the country with Holland began an aera of greater freedom and of progress, which continued after the erection of Belgium into an independent kingdom. Now Belgium has again a National Reformed Church, which is still one of the smallest Reformed national churches of Europe, but is recognised by the State, enjoys a steady progress, and the outspoken sympathy of many of the foremost statesmen of the country.
VII. The Lutheran Reformation in the Scandinavian Kingdoms. — At the time when Luther began his reformation, Christian II ruled over all the Scandinavian countries — Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden. He was an unprincipled tyrant, who favored the Reformation in Denmark in order to strip the bishops of their political power, while in Sweden he executed the noblest men under the plea that they were under the papal ban. As early as 1519 he called Martin Reinhard from Wittenberg to Copenhagen into the theological faculty, and in 1521 he issued a decree encouraging the marriage of the priests. When, in 1522, a papal delegate appeared in Denmark, Christian took back his decree on the marriage of the priests. He was, nevertheless, deposed in 1523, and among the grounds of the deposition which the estates brought forward was, that he had infected his wife with the Lutheran heresy, and introduced promoters of this same heresy into the Catholic kingdom of Denmark. Christian was succeeded by his uncle Frederick I, duke of Holstein, who strongly inclined towards the Reformation, but who had, nevertheless, to promise to the estates of Denmark to put down, with persecution, the heresy that was pressing in. In the hereditary duchies of Schleswig and Holstein all violent interference with the great religious struggle was in 1524 forbidden, and the king's well-known sympathy with the Reformation greatly promoted the more rapid diffusion of Luther's doctrines and writings. Tie provincial of the Carmelite order, Paulus Elise, translated part of the Psalms; the New Test., translated by John Michelsen, a companion of the expelled king, Christian II, and printed in Leipsic in 1524, found a large circulation, and in 1525 the reading of the Bible was declared free. The nobility at an assembly at Viborg showed itself favorable; the king declared himself openly for it in 1526; the Diet of Odense, in 1527, deprived the bishops of their ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and granted religious liberty to all, and the right of marriage to the clergy until the meeting of a general council. Viborg, in Jutland, Maimij, in Scania, and Copenhagen became important centres of the movement, which now spread with great rapidity over the whole kingdom. At the Diet of Copenhagen in 1530, which was to attempt a reunion of the parties, the Lutheran preachers, with John Jansen (preacher at Copenhagen) at their head, presented a confession of faith in forty-three articles. Though the object for which the diet had been coinvokedt was not attained, the predominance of the Lutherans was now fully decided, and the king openly ranged himself on their side. On the death of Frederick I the bishops used the political ipower which had been left to them for a last attempt to put down the Reformation, but it was of no avail. The new king, Christian III, by energetic and violent measures, soon destroyed the last remnant of the old Church and completed the victory of the Reformation. Immediately after his accession to the throne, he confirmed the freedom of religion. On Aug. 20, 1536, all the bishops were imprisoned. A diet held at Copenhagen decreed that the bishops should thereafter be deprived of all secular power, and that the Church property should be confiscated, and divided among the king, the nobility, and ecclesiastical and charitable institutions. When the imprisoned bishops declared their willingness to renounce their dignities, they were restored to liberty; only Ronnov, bishop of Roeskilde, refused, and died in prison. At the invitation of the king, John Bugenhagen came to Denmark, crowned (1537) the king and the queen, consecrated two evangelical bishops or superintendents, and took a leading part in the framing of a new Church constitution, which was published on Sept. 2, 1537, and sanctioned by the Diet of Odense in 1539. From that time all Denmark has firmly adhered to the Lutheran Church. For many years no other worship was allowed; and, even after the establishment of complete religious liberty in 1848, more than ninety-nine per cent. of the entire population continue to be classed as Lutherans.
On the progress of the Reformation in Norway we are but imperfectly informed. A monk Anthony is mentioned who preached the Gospel in Bergen. The majority of the bishops and the clergy appear to have been opposed to the Reformation, which was almost unknown until the reign of Christian III; then the Danish government began to introduce the Reformation. Olaf Engelbrechtsen, archbishop of Drontheim, soon abandoned his opposition to the Danish king and fled (1537) with his treasures to the Netherlands, and resistance to the new Church constitution soon ceased. Many of the bishops and clergy, however, left their positions; there was a scarcity of preachers, and the people for a long time showed a marked preference for Catholicism. But when the people had become settled in their new belief they became strongly attached to the Lutheran Church, with which now fully ninety-nine per cent. of the population are connected.
Iceland had become a part of the Danish kingdomn by the Calmar Union of 1397, and the decree of the Danish Diet of 1536, which declared the Evangelical Church as the State religion of Denmark, became also valid for Iceland. For several years the two bishops of the country successfully neutralized the efforts of the Danish government. In 1540 Gifur Einarsson, who had studied in Wittenberg, became bishop of Skalholt, and began the introduction of the Reformation. His successor, Martin Einarsson, worked in the same direction, but was violently opposed by the other bishop, John Aresen, of Holar, who even took him prisoner, and had Gifur's bones dug up and interred in an unconsecrated place. But finally bishop Aresen was overpowered, and in 1550 executed as a rebel. This ended all opposition to the Reformation in Iceland. The entire population, as in Denmark and Norway, has ever since belonged to the Lutheran Church. In Sweden the Reformation was hailed as a useful ally in the struggle for shaking off the yoke of Denmark and re-establishing the national independence. The bishops and higher clergy were the strongest supporters of Danish rule, and when Gustavus Vasa achieved the freedom of Sweden and was elected king (1523) by the Diet of Strelngnas he was looked upoh by the bishops as a dangerous enemy. The king, who needed part of the immense wealth of the clergy to relieve the people of their taxes, at first endeavored to gain pope Adrian VI's co-operation for a reformation of the Church. When this was found to be useless, he commissioned the brothers Olaf and Lawrence Petersen, who had studied at Wittenberg, to introduce the Lutheran Reformation. The two brothers had returned to Sweden in 1519, gained a number of adherents, the most prominent of whom was the archdeacon Lawrence Andersen, and Olaf's sermons had made a great sensation at the Diet of Strengniis. The king appointed Olaf preacher in Stockholm, Lawrence Petersen professor of theology in Upsala, and Lawrence Andersen his chancellor. In 1526 a public discussion took place under the king's protection at Upsala, and a translation of the New Test. into Swedish was made by chancellor Andersen. The bishops, however, whose prominent champion was bishop Brask, of Linklping, made a successful resistance to the progress of the Reformation; and the people, though irritated against the power and wealth of the clergy, manifested at the same time a superstitious attachment to the old Church. To bring matters to a crisis, the king offered (1527) at the Diet of Westeras to resign; but the Estates, placed before the alternative of either accepting the king's resignation or of surrendering the Church to his discretion, chose the latter. On account of the very outspoken aversion of the lower classes of the people to a change of religion, the king proceeded, however, with great caution. According to the so-called Western Ordinance the bishops were to give efficient preachers to the congregations, otherwise the king was to see to it. The bishops were to hand in to the king a schedule of their revenues, that he might determine how much should remain to the churches and what was to fall to the crown. The priests, in secular matters. were to be under the jurisdiction of the king; the Gospel was to be read in all the schools; excommunication wvas to be pronounced only after an investigation before a royal court. An assembly of clergy at Orebro in 1529 declared in favor of the Church Reformation, but retained many usages of the old Church, as the Latin language at divine service, the elevation of the host at the eucharist, the prayer for the dead, and the episcopal constitution. In 1531 Lawrence Petersen became archbishop of Upsala, and in 1537 another assembly of the clergy at Orebro provided for a more thorough evangelical purification of divine worship. The continuing aversion of the people to the new order of things was ascribed by the king to a want of energy on the part of the bishops, and he therefore appointed George Normann, a Pomeranian nobleman, superiln tendent of all theiclergy of the kingdom, with a number of custodians and religious councillors as overseers of particular provinces. This arrangement was received with general disfavor, and led to a number of conspiracies. At the death of the king (1560) the ecclesiastical condition of the kingdom was quite undecided. The oldest son and successor of Gustavus, Eric XIV, removed some more Catholic elements from the new constitntion of the Swedish Church, and gave a hospitable asylum to persecuted Protestants of every creed; the orthodox Lutherans suspected him of an inclination towards Calvinism, which, however. did not gain any ground in Sweden. Eric's brother and successor, John III, was prevailed upon by his Catholic wife, who was a Polish princess, and by the hope of succeeding to the Polish throne, to, attempt the re-establishment of a closer connection with the Church of Rome. The king was willing to recognise the supremacy of the pope, but demanded a number of concessions for the Swedish Church. The archbishop of Upsala was gained for the plan, a strongly Romanizing liturgy was introduced, but the boldness of the Jesuits incensed clergy and people against the counter- reformation, and the king finally took offence at the refusal of the pope to accept his proposition. The death of the Catholic queen and the king's second marriage with a Lutheran princess put an end to the negotiations with Rome, though the king stubbornly clung to the new liturgy. While John was wavering between Catholicism and Protestantism, his younger brother Charles, who was regent of South Ermeland, was an unflinching protector of the Reformation, and did not hesitate to incur the anger of his royal brother by affording a place of resort to the Lutheran clergy who had been expelled from the royal dominions for their unyielding character. King John was succeeded (1592) by his son Sigismund, who was already king of Poland and had been brought up a Catholic. Popular opinion by this time had undergone a great change, and demanded, prior to the recognition of Sigismund, a guarantee of the Lutheran State Church. An ecclesiastical council at Upsala (1593), which was convened by duke Charles as regent, decreed, even before the arrival of Sigismund, the exclusion of Catholicism from Sweden, and the official authority of the Confession of Augsburg. In 1595 the Diet of Sinderkoping declared the Lutheran Church as the only tolerated State Church. In 1599 duke Charles was appointed administrator, and in 1604 he was elected king. The new king was somewhat inclined to Calvinism, but he confirmed the resolutions of the diets in favor of the exclusive rights of the Lutheran State Church, which since then has retained full control of the kingdom.
VIII. Protestantism in the Austrian States. — In the various states governed by the house of Hapsburg both the Lutheran and the Reformed Reformation spread with great rapidity. Great enthusiasm was awakened by Luther's Reformation in Bohemia. where deep-rooted opposition to Rome still pervaded the masses of the people. Both the Bohemian Brethren and the Calixtines entered into communication with the German Reformer. Though a full union between Luther and the Brethren, who had never returned to the communion with Rome, was not effected, there was a mutual recognition as evangelical Christians; and the Brethren, whose number now increased again rapidly, and who in 1533 handed in their confession of faith to Ferdinand, helped to strengthen the reformatory host in Europe. Among the Calixtines, so large a number adopted the doctrines of Luther that an assembly of the Estates in 1524 declared in favor of a continuation of the reformation begun by Huss in the way set forth by Luther. At the time of the Smalkald war, a majority of the Bohemians were attached to the Reformation; the Estates denied to king Ferdinand the aid of their troops, and united with the elector. When they had finally to submit, the king gave orders that in future only Catholics and Utraquists should be tolerated in the royal domains, and a large number of the Breth. ren deemed it best to emigrate to Poland and Russia. In the last years of his life Ferdinand showed a greater moderation towards Protestants, and his son Maximilian II was even, by Protestants as well as Catholics. regarded as a secret friend of the Reformation; but he was unable to protect the Protestants of his states against the persecutions instigated by the Jesuits. In 1575 the Calixtines and Brethren united and presented a common confession of faith, and received from Maximilian an oral pledge of recognition. In 1609 the king was forced to give to the adherents of the Confession of 1575 equal rights with the Catholics; but practically the persecutions continued. When the Estates of Bohemia refused to recognise Ferdinand as their king, and elected the Protestant elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V the Thirty Years' War broke out, in the course of which appeared the fatal decree of 1627, that left to the people only the alternative of becoming Catholics or leaving the country. Notwithstanding the rigorous persecution, which lasted for more than a hundred years, several thousand Protestants maintained themselves secretly both in Bohemia and Moravia; but to-day ninety-six per cent. of the Bohemians and ninety-five per cent. of the Moravians are connected with the Church of Rome.
In the southern provinces of Austria the Reformation likewise spread at an early period. Luther's writings were eagerly read in Vienna as early as 1520. In 1528 more than one half the nobility of the archduchy of Austria were evangelical. The Estates demanded freedom of religion in 1542 at Innspruck, in 1548 at Augsburg, and in 1556 at Vienna, and bishop Naunea, of Vienna, intended to resign because the government tolerated the appointment of Lutheran professors at the University of Vienna. Under Maximilian the Estates called the Lutheran theologian David Chytrseus to Vienna to compile a Book of Religions and a Church Agenda, and their use was sanctioned by Maximilian after long reluctance. Lower Austria was at once almost wholly won over to Protestantism; but the numerous and bitter doctrinal controversies of the Protestants made it easy for the Jesuits to enforce a counter-reformation. Gradually stringent laws demanded here, as in Bohemia, either a return to the Catholic religion or emigration; but how generally the people continued to be secretly attached to Protestantism became apparent when the victorious Hungarians and Transylvanians compelled the government, in 1606, to promise religious toleration. Whole towns at once returned to Protestantism, and in 1610 the emperor Matthias had to recognise the equal rights of the churches. The reviving hopes of Protestantism were, however, cruelly destroyed by the Thirty Years' War, which led to the utter extirpation of the Protestant congregations. In Austria, as in all other countries, the Reformers paid a special attention to the promotion of education; and for the ignorant South Slavic tribes in particular, where Primus Truber displayed a remarkable literary and reformatory activity, the Reformation promised to be the beginning of a national literature and of an aera of civilization. With the suppression of the Reformation, the Slavs relapsed into the utmost ignorance. from which only now an efficient system of State education is gradually extricating them. How thoroughly Protestantism has been eradicated in these provinces, in most of whicli it constituted at one time a majority of the population, may be seen from the fact that at present there are hardly any Protestants in Carinthia and the Tyrol, and that they are only one per cent. of the population in Stvria, two in Upper and Lower Austria, five in Carinthia, and fifteen in Silesia.
The number of Hungarian students at Wittenberg at the time when Luther began his reformation was so great that his reformatory views became at once widely known in Hungary, and found many friends. As early as 1518 several adherents of the Reformation were burned. The diet of 1523 passed a decree that all Lutherans and their patrons should be seized and burned. But the number of Protestants was already considerable: in Hermannstadt they had in 1523 the upper-hand; a new bloody law passed in 1524 remained ineffective, — and in 1525 the five royal cities declared in favor of the Reformation. The civil war which followed the death of king Louis II, who fell in the battle of Mohacs in 1526, was favorable to the progress of Protestantism. Although both rivals for the throne — archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John of Zapolya, voyvode of Transylvania — issued laws of persecution, they were unable to carry them out. The number of influential preach,ers rapidly increased. As the first preacher, Thomas Preussner, of Kasmark (about 1520), is mentioned; among the most distinguished were Matthias Devay (called Lutherus Ungaricus), Leonhard Stockel, who drew up the Confessio Pentapolitana, which the free cities of Upper Hungary in 1549 presented to the king, and John Honter, who had studied in Basle and worked in his native city, Kronstadt, as a preacher and at a printing-press. In 1529 Hermannstadt expelled all priests and monks, and Kronstadt soon followed this example. The episcopal sees which became vacant after the battle of Mohacs were partly not filled, and partly came into the hands of friends of the Reformation. Several bishops, as Kechery of Veszprim, Thurczo of Neutra, and Andrew Dudith, who had attended the Council of Trent, openly became Protestants; and even the primate of Gran, Nicholas Olah, approved Stockel's Confession of Faith. The widow of king Louis II, to whom Luther wrote a letter and dedicated his translation of the Psalms, appointed an evangelical court preacher. Neither Ferdinand, who by the peace of 1538 was confirmed in the possession of the throne, nor John of Zapolya, who was to retain during his lifetime the royal title, Transylvania, and a portion of Upper Hungary, regarded it as safe to adopt stringent measures against the Protestants. The widow of John, Isabella, who, after John's death, endeavored to retain her husband's possessions, with the aid of the Turks, for her son John Sigismund, favored the Protestants; and in that part of the country which was subject to the Turks the Reformation advanced without any obstruction. Thus the Reformation obtained a decided ascendency in all Hungary and Transylvania. At one time only three families of magnates were Catholic; the archiepiscopal see of Gral remained vacant for twenty years; the whole Saxon population of Transylvania, at the Synod of Medves (1544), adopted the Confession of Augsburg, which for a long time remained a bond of union for all the Protestants of Hungary and Transylvania. Among the Magyars, however, Calvinism finally obtained the ascendency, and in 1566 all the Hungarian Reformed churches signed the Helvetic Confession. In Transylvania; in 1564, a Lutheran superintendent was appointed for the Saxons, and a Reformed for Magyars and Szeklers. In 1571 religious freedom was also extended to the Unitarians; and from this time Transylvania has always had four religions recognised by the State (religiones receptoe). In Hungary the Jesuits succeeded in arresting the further progress of Protestantism, and in instigating new and bloody persecutions. Repeatedly the Protestant princes of Transylvania, aided by the Hungarian Protestants, compelled the kings by force of arms to confirm anew the religious freedom of Protestantism; but each time these promises were immediately broken. In 1634 the majority of the Hungarian Diet had again become Catholic, and from that time persecutions naturally became all the more oppressive. Though, in spite of all these persecutions, the Protestants maintained themselves, they constitute at present only a minority of the population — about twenty- three per cent. in Hungary proper, and twenty-four per cent. in Transylvania.
IX. Protestantism in Poland, Prussia, and Livonia.Towards the close of the Middle Ages the kings of Poland showed a firmer attachment to the Papal See than any other government of Europe. As, however, the powerful nobles were almost independent of the king, those of them who favored a religious reformation were able to give an asylum to many persecuted heretics during this period. The Hussite movement met with a great deal of sympathy, and a Polish translation of the Bible came into wide circulation. Luther's doctrines were favorably received by a large portion of the Polish nobility, which at that time was distinguished for its scholarship, and especially by the large German commercial cities of Polish Prussia. In the neighboring grand-mastership of Prussia, the domain of the Teutonic Order, the grand master Albert of Brandenburg called himself in 1523 two Lutheran preachers to Kinigsberg. The two bishops, and soon the grand master himself, confessed the Reformation, and in 1525 Albert took the duchy of Prussia in fief from Poland. The Reformation was soon generally accepted. The success of the Reformation in Livonia was equally rapid, notwithstanding the determined opposition of the archbishop of Riga. The city of Riga took the lead, and in 1538 joined the League of Smalkald. Nearly all the population soon followed. The grand master Conrad Kettler followed the example of Albert of Brandenburg, and in 1561 assumed the title of duke of Courland and Semigallia. This duchy also was a Polish fief: that part of Livonia which was situated on the other side of the Dwina was united by a special treaty with Poland on condition that it should be permitted to profess the Confession of Augsburg.
The success of the Reformation in these two fiefs encouraged its friends in Poland proper. King Sigismund, who died in 1548, was opposed to Protestantism, but unable to arrest its progress. His son, Sigismund Augustus, favored the Reformation, entered into negotiations with Calvin, and granted religious liberty to the cities of Dantzic, Thorn, and Elbing. Notwithstanding the utmost efforts made by the national Catholic party, with bishop Hosius at its head, the Diet of Petrikow, in 1565, demanded a national council for the express purpose of introducing priestly marriage, the Lord's supper under both kinds, and other reforms. In 1583 an edict of religious toleration was passed, but in the next year Hosius caused the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent by the diet, and in 1565 the Jesuits who were called by him established their first college. The progress of the counter-reformation which now set in was greatly aided by the divisions existing among the Protestants. The Reformed effected a national organization in 1547; the Lutherans in 1565. The Bohemians retained their separate Church constitution, and the Unitarians, who had able leaders in Laelius Socinus, Blandrata, and Occhino, became likewise numerous. In 1570 the Reformed, Lutherans, and Bohemians agreed at the Synod of Sandomir upon a general confession to which all three could subscribe, but which left room for the retention by each Church of its doctrinal peculiarities. This Protestant union proved sufficiently strong to secure in 1573 the adoption of a general religious treaty, which guaranteed equal rights to Catholics and Protestants. A strong reaction against Protestantism began under king Stephen Bathori (1586 to 1587). His successor, Sigismund III, by conferring offices and dignities exclusively upon Catholics, induced many nobles to renounce Protestantism. In 1717 the erection of new Protestant churches was forbidden, and in 1733 the Protestants were excluded from all public offices. The increasing persecution of all non-Catholics led finally to the interference of Prussia and Russia, and to the partition of Poland.
X. Protestantism in Italy, Spain, and France. —
1. In Italy the revival of the classical studies and the observation of the corrupt condition of the ruling Church had diffused among the educated and literary classes a widespread contempt not only of the Catholic Church, but of Christianity in general. The friends of a reformation of the Church had. however, organized societies in Rome, Venice, and other cities, and the writings of the German and Swiss Reformers met therefore with a great deal of sympathy in all parts of Italy. One party of Italian reformers, which counted among its members several cardinals, as Contarini and Pole, was averse to a separation from the Church, and hoped for an evangelical regeneration of the old Church. Another party came out in favor of a thorough reformation, first in Ferrara (under the protection of the duchess Renata, a French princess), then in Modena and many other cities. A prominent centre of reformatory movements was subsequently in the city of Naples, where the Spanish nobleman Juan Valdez displayed a remarkable activity, and where two of the greatest preachers of Italy — Bernardino Occhino, the general of the Capuchins, and the learned Augustinian Peter Martyr Vermigli — were gained for the Reformation. Translations of the principal writings of German and Swiss Reformers, mostly under assumed names, found a wide circulation, and the Italian reformers themselves published a large number of writings, the most celebrated of which is the work entitled On the Benefit of Christ. Under Paul III the evangelical Catholics, like Contarini and his friends, had for a time a leading influence upon the government of the Church; but in 1542 a decided reaction began when the pope, by the advice of cardinal Caraffa, who had formerly been a friend of Contarini, appointed an inquisition for the suppression of Protestantism. Many of the leading friends of the Reformation fled to foreign countries; among them Occhino,Vermigli, Vergerio (bishop of Capo d' Istria), and Caraccioli, a nephew of cardinal Caraffa. When Caraffa became pope, under the name of Paul IV, the persecution extended also to the Catholics of evangelical sentiments, including a number of cardinals and bishops. Under Paul V an Index Librorum Prohibitorum led to the suppression of all literature friendly to Protestantism. Protestantism in Italy, as in other countries, had been divided into Lutheranism and Calvinism, with a prevailing inclination to the latter; and Anti-Trinitarian followers of Servetus had likewise become numerous, although they had to keep their opinions secret. The division of the Protestants weakened their power of resistance, and before the end of the century the Inquisition had destroyed all vestiges of Protestant communities. Among the distinguished martyrs of the Reformation were Carnesecchi and Palearius; two Waldensian congregations in Calabria were rooted out in a terrible massacre.
2. The union of Spain under one ruler with Germany and the Netherlands facilitated the introduction of the writings of the German Reformers. Besides, from Bearn, which was wholly Protestant, the doctrines of the Swiss Reformation spread into Aragon. Seville and Valladolid became the chief seats of the Reformation. Diego de Valera, John Egidius, Ponce de la Fuente (all of Seville), Alfonso and Juan Valdez, and Augustine Castalla were among its prominent friends. Francis Enzonas and Juan Perez translated the Bible. From fear of the Inquisition, the Spanish Protestants never ventured to constitute congregations; the Inquisition, nevertheless, discovered them, and exterminated them with merciless cruelty. In 1570 Protestantism was regarded as fully extinct.
3. France, during the Middle Ages, had often taken a leading part in opposing the claims of the papacy, and in asserting the superiority of general councils over the pope; but it had shown no sympathy with a thorough reform of doctrine. When Luther's views became known in France, they were condemned (1521) by the Sorbonne. One of the French bishops, Guillaume Brionnet, took, however, an active interest in the reformation of the Church. He called to his aid men like Lefevre, Farel (who was at that time regent of the college of cardinal Le Moine at Paris), Roussel, and others; but when the charge of heresy was raised against him, he cut loose from his Reformed friends, and in 1523 pronounced against Luther. When Parliament was appealed to for the suppression of Protestantism, it lent at once its arm to the clergy for bloody persecution. In 1524 Jean le Clerc, of Meaux, the first martyr of the Reformation, was executed in Metz. In 1529 a great sensation wuas aroused by the hanging and burning of Louis de Berquin, a royal councillor and zealous adherent of the Reformation, whose writings and translations had previously (1523) been condemned by the Sorbonne. Francis I was an admirer of Erasmus, and by nature averse to any decisive attitude in religious affairs: he was, moreover, quick in detecting the advantages which an alliance between the Protestant princes of Germany and the ruler of France against the Catholic emperor of Germany might have for him and for France. On the other hand, he was afraid of disturbing the religious unity of France, and desirous of securing the pope's aid in his war against the German emperor. Thus his course in the progress of the religious controversies was wavering and undecided. At his court, and even in his family, both parties were represented, the chief patron of the Reformation being his sister Margaret, queen of Navarre. While the persecution of the Lutherans went forward, and, in January, 1535, several of the Reformed were executed in Paris in a barbarous way, Francis assured the Protestant princes of Germany that he was really in favor of a religious reformation, and that only some fanatics were punished in France. Of considerable interest are the negotiations which took place between Francis and Melancthon. The king became acquainted with Melancthon in consequence of a memorial which the latter addressed in 1531 to Guillaume Bellay, and in which he explained the essential points of the Reformation, and how they might be reconciled with the Catholic doctrine. Melancthon's Loci Communes pleased the king much. In 1535 John Sturm, then professor in Paris, invited Melancthon to France. Melancthon answered cordially, and was then formally invited by the king himself, by cardinal Bellay, Sturm, and Guillaume Bellay. Luther was in favor of accepting the invitation, but the elector sharply refused to give him permission. Melancthon therefore did not go, but in August of the same year his Consiliumn, with many alterations, was presented to the Sorbonne for their decision, in the form of a confession of faith, and it was declared by them to be thoroughly objectionable. The king, nevertheless, announced in December to the Protestant princes assembled at Smalkald that he had formed a favorable opinion of the articles of Melancthon. Soon, however, the king, chiefly through the influence of cardinal Tournon, ceased to manifest any sympathy with the cause of the Reformation. With it the connection of Frenchmen with the Lutheran Reformation seems to have come to an end, until, at a later period, the conquest of German territories gave to France a considerable number of Lutheran congregations.
The friends whom bishop Brionnet had called to Meaux to assist him in his reformatory work remained mostly, like himself, within the old Clhurch, contenting themselves with diffusing spiritual and evangelical feelings among Catholics. Lefivre (Faber Stapulensis), after having fled to Strasburg on account of the charges of heresy brought against him, was recalled by Francis I, appointed librarian at Blois, where he translated the Old Testament, and spent the end of his life at the court of Margaret of Navarre. Gerald Roussel, who fled with Lefevre to Strasburg, became subsequently bishop of Oleron, where he introduced important reforms, but never ceased to be suspected of heresy. Even Margaret of Navarre, the zealous patron of all friends of the Reformation, who reformed all the churches of her little state according to evangelical principles, never regarded it necessary to separate externally from the Catholic Church. Her course was disapproved by Calvin, but her work was continued by her daughter Jeanne d'Albret, the wife of Antoine of Bourbon, and in 1569 the Reformation was fully carried through in Bearn.
The main reformatory movement of France, which has played a conspicuous part in its ecclesiastical as well as political history, attaches itself to the name of John Calvin. He was a native of France, and became thoroughly imbued with reformatory ideas while studying 'at Bourges and Paris. He had to flee in 1533, spent a short time at the court of the queen of Navarre, returned to Paris, but had to flee again to Switzerland in 1534, when he wrote his Institutes, in the preface of which he exposes the injustice of the king. From Basle he went to Geneva, where, with the exception of a few years which he spent in Strasburg, which was then a German city, he remained until the end of his life, as the author and recognised leader of one of the two great divisions of the Reformation of the 16th century. Though he was not allowed to return to France, Geneva became the hearth and home from which the Reformation in France itself was constantly receiving new food. In the latter years of the reign of Francis the persecution of the Reformed increased in severity; and especially the Waldenses in Merindol and Cabrieres, in Provence, suffered from a most horrible persecution, which in 1545 ended in a general massacre. Notwithstanding the persecution, the number of the Reformed grew steadily; it was very large even at the death of Francis I, in 1547, and rapidly increased during the reign of Henry II. Regular congregations began to be formed in the large cities in 1555, and in 1559 a general synod held at Paris agreed upon a confession of faith and a Church order. (For the further history of the Reformed Church, SEE FRANCE.) The subsequent history of the Reformed, to whom soon the name of Huguenots was generally applied, is closely connected with the political history of France. They were forced in self-defence to act no less as a political than an ecclesiastical party. While the Catholics adhered to the fanatical Guises, the Protestants looked for protection to the Bourbons. In 1570 they received in the Peace of St. Germain equal rights, and several fortresses' as a guarantee of the peace; but two years later (1572), St. Bartholomew's Eve was the beginning of the most terrible ordeal through which they passed in their entire history, more than 30,000 of them being massacred during one month. King Henry III was driven by the arrogance of the Guises into the ranks of the Huguenots, and was soon after assassinated by the Dominican Clement. Then the first Protestant, Henry of Navarre, ascended the French throne. To save the Protestant cause, he submitted externally to the Catholic Church; but to his former coreligionists he preserved his sympathy and secured equal rights in the Edict of Nantes. During the reigns of the following kings the Huguenots again passed through a series of severe persecutions: under Louis XIV the Edict of Nantes was revoked, and a large number of families compelled to emigrate, and to settle in foreign countries. The French Revolution at last began for them the sera of religious freedom.
XI. Main and Minor Divisions. — The Reformation swept with irresistible power over all Europe. In some countries it was totally extinguished by fire and blood; in others it maintained itself as the religion of the minority; in others still it became the predominant or the exclusive religion of the people. Fifty years after its beginning it numbered many millions of adherents. All these millions agreed in protesting against the claim of Rome to be the only true Christian Church, and in the desire to restore a purer form of Christianity. The immense majority rallied around three centres — the Lutheran, the Reformed, the Anglican Reformation. These three main divisions, and even the principal subdivisions, of the 16th century have retained their identity to the present day. To the old subdivisions new ones have been added. Thus, in the 18th century, the Wesleyan Methodists sprang from the Church of England, and, with an unparalleled rapidity of growth, soon took a front rank among the most numerous subdivisions of the Reformed churches. The subdivisions have again been subdivided into a number of minor sects, and in many of them, at times, the old doctrinal platforms of the founders of the Reformers appeared to have been abandoned, leaving nothing but the name of the Church as a bond of connection with the Reformation of the 16th century. The very name, however, and the remaining consciousness of a live connection with the great movement of the 16th century have proved elements of great conservative force, and have been largely instrumental in keeping the territory which the three great branches of the Reformation conquered in the 16th century undiminished up to the present day. While it has been the prevailing tendency in the history of the subdivisions to develop independent life-organisms illustrating the vitality of the principles and theories which led to their separate existence, attempts have never been wanting to strengthen the bonds of union connecting them. Many subdivisions which had been formed in consequence of disagreeing views on particular points of belief or Church government have been reunited on the basis of the points common to all, allowing the right to disagree on points of minor importance. In modern times, attempts have even been made to find a permanent bond of union for all the subdivisions of the large groups of the Protestant churches. Thus, all the bishops of the churches in doctrinal conformity with the Church of England have twice been called to meet in Pan-Anglican councils. All the Reformed and Presbyterian churches met in 1877 for the first time in a Pan-Presbyterian Council in Edinburgh. The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church took, in 1876, the first step towards the convocation of an OEcumenical Council of Methodism.
While the large majority of the millions which in the 16th century rose up against and separated from the Church of Rome rallied around three large centres, it was but natural that many, in the search of a pure Christianity, arrived at different results. Some of these dissenters never succeeded in forming sects; others became numerous, and have, in the course of time, assumed large dimensions. To the latter class belong the Baptists, the Anti- Trinitarians, the Friends, and many others. All of these have long had to. struggle for toleration, because Protestant governments united with the Catholic in persecuting and suppressing them. More recently, however, the principle of religious liberty has gradually come to be recognised in nearly all Christian countries, and enabled individuals as well as sects to carry out the great principles which lay at the bottom of the Reformation of the 16th century to the best of their understanding, and to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience. About the middle of the present century (1845), an attempt was made to unite in one association, called the Evangelical Alliance, Christians belonging to all denominations collectively called evangelical, and to represent, on a larger scale than had ever been attempted before, the unity of all these churches in the more important articles of faith, notwithstanding their separation by external organization. A list of nine articles was drawn up, to which, it was thought, all Christians wishing to be regarded as evangelical might be expected to assent. In the list of these articles are included the inspiration of the Bible, the Trinity, the utter depravity of human nature, justification by faith alone, the eternal blessedness of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the divine institution of the Christian ministry. According to this programme, it could and did become a rallying-point for Lutherans, Reformed, and Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Methodists, Baptists, Moravians, the evangelical or Low-Church party of the Anglican churches, and a number of minor denominations. It was objected to by the so-called high and strict Church parties among Anglicans and Lutherans, by Unitarians and Universalists, by the Friends, by the Annihilationists, and by all Anti- Trinitarians and Rationalists.
XII. Central and Fundamentul Principles of the Reformation. — The parties which withdrew from the Church of Rome in the 16th century and tried to restore a purer form of Christianity took different roads and arrived at different results; yet there was one principle in which they all agreed, and which may be declared to be preeminently the central principle of the Reformation — this was the absolute authority of the Holy Scriptures. Every Reformed Church charged the Church of Rome with holding doctrines and usages which the former deemed anti-scriptural, and which on that ground it rejected. The three large divisions of the Reformation were all more intent upon eliminating from the creed of Christendom what could be proved to be anti-scriptural than to undertake the revision of every article of the creed by a scriptural test exclusively. Thus they all retained what the early councils had defined on the essence of the Godhead and the person of Christ. Gradually other parties arose which demanded a greater prominence for the necessity of the scriptural affirmative proof, and that not too great a stress should be laid upon the testimony of the early Church. Hence many doctrines which the great Reformed churches of the 16th century agreed in continuing in their creeds were by other Christian inquirers declared to lack the foundation of a clear scriptural proof, and on that ground either rejected or held as indifferent on which Bible Christians had a right to disagree. All these parties, however, held fast to the fundamental principle that the Bible was the supreme authority for the believer in Christ. Other sects and parties have made a distinction between the written Scripture and the Word or Spirit of Christ, and placed the latter above the former; others, again, have found a hidden sense in the Bible besides the literal; yet all these parties concur in recognising the central principle of the Reformation. A total change of the basis of the Reformation was attempted by the Rationalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, who wanted to have the Bible regarded and interpreted as any other book, recognising what appeared to agree with sound reason, and claiming the right to reject all the remainder. The divergence between this view and the central principle of the Reformation is so apparent and so radical that the longcontinued coexistence of both views in many of the European State churches can only be explained from the fact that the churches were enslaved by the State, and treated not as forms of religion, but as a division of the State administration. The introduction of self- government into these churches rapidly develops a tendency towards the complete separation between the Rationalistic and the Biblical conception of Christianity.
Theologians have sometimes called this principle the formal principle of the Reformation, or the principium cognoscendi. They have distinguished from it the material principle, or principium essendi, which proclaims the justification of the sinner by faith alone. Both are intimately connected. When the Church is no longer viewed as the infallible teacher of the true Christian doctrine, but the inquirer after Christian truth is pointed to the Bible and to Christ himself, the soul's salvation can only be found in a direct relation between Christ and the Christian soul. The doctrine occupies, however, a somewhat different position in the doctrinal systems of different Protestant churches. SEE JUSTIFICATION.
XIII. The Reformation's Place in the History of the Christian Church and in the History of the World. — It is agreed on all sides, and not even denied by the Catholics, that the Reformation is one of the great turningpoints in the Christian Church, and that with it begins all entirely new aera. The compulsory uniformity of the Church was forever at an end. Church history, henceforth, has not to deal only with one predominant and all-powerful Church, but with a number of rival churches, the number of which has steadily increased. For a time, the leading reformatory churches in close alliance with the governments of the countries in which they prevailed endeavored likewise to enforce conformity with their doctrines and laws; but this course was gradually recognised to be untenable, and religious toleration, and subsequently the freedom of religious confession, has become one of the characteristic features of the Reformed countries. The Catholic Church continues up to the present day to brand the principle of religious liberty as a heresy of modern times; but it is a notable fact that nearly all the Catholic countries which nominally continue to adhere to the doctrine of the Church entirely disregard what their Church declares to be the Catholic principle, and have introduced the Protestant principles of religious freedom into their legislation.
In universal history, the Reformation is by all historians designated as one of the great movements which mark the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times. A characteristic feature of the countries which adopted the Reformation is the progress towards political freedom, and the separation between Church and State. The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed a far-reaching influence upon civil legislation. It claimed the sole right of legislating on marriage affairs, exempted priests and monks from civil jurisdiction, and accumulated within its hand a very large proportion of the nation's wealth. Though the Reformed State churches pursued different courses in reforming the civil codes, the tendency to make all citizens equal before the law can be directly traced to the Reformation.
Although the Catholic Church still has a larger membership than all the Reformed churches combined, the power and the commanding influence upon the destinies of mankind are more and more passing into the hands of states the governments of which are separated from Rome. In the New World, the ascendency of the United States and British America, in both of which Protestantism prevails, over the states of Spanish and Portuguese America is not disputed even by Catholics. In Europe, England has become the greatest world-power, and in its wide dominions new great Protestant countries are springing into existence, especially in Australia and South Africa. In Germany, the supreme power has passed from the declining Catholic house of Hapsburg to the Protestant house of Hohenzollern, and the new Protestant German Empire marks an addition of the greatest importance to the aggregate power of the Protestant world. The combined influence of the three great Teutonic peoples — the United States, Great Britain, and Germany — continues to be cast in a steadily increasing ratio for the defence of that freedom from the dictation of Rome which was first won by the Reformation. That freedom is now not only fully secured against any possible combination of Catholic states, but the parliaments of most of the latter, as France, Italy, Austria, Portugal, are as eager in the defence of this freedom as the Protestant states. Thus it may be said that, after an existence of about 350 years, the Reformation has totally annihilated the influence of Rome upon the laws and the government of the civilized world.
XIV. Literature. — A great many works which are sources for the history of the Reformation have been mentioned in the articles on the Reformers and on particular churches. The following list contains works which more specially treat of the history of the Reformation: Sleidani De Statu Religionis et Reipublicoe, Carolo V Ceosare, Commentarii (Strasburg, 1555; Engl. transl. by Bohun, Lond. 1689); Sculteti Annalium Evangelii passim per Europam Decimo Sexto Salutis Partce Sceculo Renovati Decas let II [embracing the time from 1516 to 1536] (Heidelb. 1618); Burnet, Hist. of the Reformation (Lond. 1679 sq.); Gerdes, Introductio in Hist. Evangelii Sec. XVI passim per Europanum Renovati (Groning. 1744-52, tom. iv); Hagelbach, Vorlesungen uber das Wesen undd Geschichte der Reformation in Deutschland und der Schweiz (Leips. 1834-43, 6 vols.; Engl. transl. by Evelina Moore, Edinb. 1878 sq.); Clausen, Populare Vortraye uber die Reormation (Leips. 1837); D'Aubigne, Histoire de la Reformation au XVIieme Siecle (Paris, 1835-53, 5 vols.; Engl. transl. N. Y. 1843 sq.); and the supplementary Histoire de la Reformation au temps de Calvin (Paris, 1862 sq. 8 vols.; Engl. transl. N.Y. 1862-79); Beansobre, Hist. de la Reform. '(1785); Neudecker, Gesch. der Reform. (Leips. 1843), and Gesch. des Protest. (ibid. 1844, 2 vols.); Dillinger, Die Reform. (1846- 48, 3 vols.); Gaillard, Hist. of the Reform. (N.Y. 1847); Guericke, Gesch.
der Reform.(Berlin, 1855); Stebbing, Hist. of the Reform. (Lond. 1850); Waddington, Hist. of the Reform, (ibid. 1841); Hardwick, Hist. of the Ch. during the Reform. (Camb. 1856); Soames, Hist. of the Reform. (Lond. 1826); Fisher, Hist. of the Reform. (N. Y. 1873). On the doctrinal history of the Reformed churches, see Dorner, Gesch. der Prot. Theologie (1867, Engl. transl. 1871); and Schaff, Creeds of Christendom (N. Y. 1877, 3 vols.). (A. J. S.)