SEE JULIAN THE LITTLE.
( ῾Ηρώδης, hero-like, a name that appears likewise among the Greeks, Dio. Cass. 71, 35; Philost. Soph. 2, 1, etc.), the name of several persons of the royal family of Judaea in the time of Christ and the apostles (see Noldius, De vita et gestis Herodum, in Havercamp's edit. of Josephus; Reland, Palaest. p. 174 sq.; Jost, Gesch. d. Israeliten, 1, 160 sq. Other monographs are named by Volbeding, Index Progammatum, p. 16,77, and by Fürst, Bibliotheca Judaica, 1, 386; 2, 127-130. See also De Saulcy, Hist. d'Hierode, Par. 1867; Güder, Ierodes, Bern, 1869), Whose history is incidentally involved in that of the N. Testament, but is copiously detailed by Josephus notices of it also occur in the classical writers, especially Strabo (16, c. 2, 16). We therefore devote a large space to consideration of the subject.
The history of the Herodian family presents one side of the last development of the Jewish nation. The evils which had existed in the hierarchy that grew up after the Return, found an unexpected embodiment in the tyranny of a foreign usurper. Religion was adopted as a policy; and the hellenizing designs of Antiochus Epiphanes were carried out, at least in their spirit, by men who professed to observe the law. Side by side with the spiritual "kingdom of God" proclaimed by John the Baptist, and founded by the Lord, a kingdom of the world was established, which in its external splendor recalled the traditional magnificence of Solomon. The simultaneous realization of the two principles, national and spiritual, which had long variously influenced the Jews, in the establishment of a dynasty and a church, is a fact pregnant with instruction. In the fulness of time a descendant of Esau established a false counterpart of the promised glories of the Messiah.
Various accounts are given of the ancestry of the Herods. The Jewish partisans of Herod (Nicolas Damascenus, ap; Josephus, Ant. 14, 1, 3) sought to raise him to the dignity of a descent from one of the noble families which returned from Babylon; and, on the other hand, early Christian writers represented his origin as utterly mean and servile. Africanus has preserved a tradition (Routh, Rell. Sacr. 2, 235), on the authority of "the natural kinsmen of the Savior," which makes Antipater, the father of Herod, the son of one Herod, a slave attached to the service of a temple of Apollo at Ascalon, who was taken prisoner by Idummean robbers, and kept by them, as his father could not pay his ransom. The locality (comp. Philo, Leg. ad Caium, § 30), no less than the office, was calculated to fix a heavy reproach upon the name (comp. Routh, 1. c.). This story is repeated with great inaccuracy by Epiphanius (Hoer. 20). Neglecting, however, these exaggerated statements of friends and enemies, it seems certain that the family was of Idumaean descent:'(Josephus, Ant. 14, 1, 3), a fact which is indicated by the forms of some of the names that were retained in it (Ewald, Geschichte, 4, 477, note). But, though aliens by race, the Herods were Jews in faith. The Idumaeans had been conquered and brought over to Judaism by John Hyrcanus (B.C. 130; Josephus, Ant. 13, 9,1); and from the time of their conversion they remained constant to their new religion, looking upon Jerusalem as their mother city, and claiming for themselves the name of Jews (Josephus, Ant. 20, 7, 7; War, 1, 10, 4; 4, 4, 4).
The general policy of the whole Herodian family, though modified by the personal characteristics of the successive rulers, was the same. It centered in the endeavor to found a great and independent kingdom, in which the power of Judaism should subserve the consolidation of a state. The protection of Rome was in the first instance a necessity, but the designs of Herod I and Agrippa I point to an independent Eastern empire as their end, and not to a mere subject monarchy. Such a consummation of the Jewish hopes seems to have found some measure of acceptance at first SEE HERODIAN; and by a natural reaction the temporal dominion of the Herods opened the way for the destruction of the Jewish nationality. The religion which was degraded into the instrument of unscrupulous ambition lost its power to quicken a united people. The high priests were appointed and deposed by Herod I and his successors, with such a reckless disregard for the character of their office (Jost, Gesch. d. Judenthums, 1, 322, 325, 42 1), that the office itself was deprived of its sacred dignity (compare Ac 23:2 sq.; Jost, 1, 430, etc.). The nation was divided, and amidst the conflict of sects a universal faith arose, which more than fulfilled the nobler hopes that found no satisfaction in the treacherous grandeur of a court. See the name of each member of the family in its order in this CYCLOPEDIA.
1. HEROD THE GREAT, as he is usually surnamed, mentioned in Mt 2:1-22; Lu 1:5; Ac 23:35 was the second son of Antipater and Cypros, an Arabian lady of noble descent (Josephus, Ant. 14:7, 3). See ANTIPATER. In B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater procurator of Judea, and the latter divided his territories among his four sons, assigning the district of Galilee to Herod (Josephus, Ant. 14, 9, 3; War, 1, 10, 4). At the time when he was invested with the government he was fifteen years of age, according to Josephus (Ant. 14, 9, 2); but this must be a mistake. Herod died, aged sixty-nine, in B.C. 4, consequently he must have been twenty-six or twenty-five in the year B.C. 47, when he was made governor of Galilee (πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι, given by Dindorf in the ed. Didot, but no stated authority). One of his first acts was to repress the brigands who were infesting his provinces, and to put many of their dealers to death upon his own authority. This was made known to Hyrcanus, and Herod was summoned to take his trial before the Sanhedrim for his deeds of violence. Herod, instead of appearing before the Sanhedrim clothed in mourning, came in purple, attended by armed guards, and bearing in his hands a letter from the Roman commander Sextus Caesar for his acquittal. This overawed the assembly; but Sameas, a just man (Josephus, Ant. 14:9, 4), stepped forward, and, boldly addressing the assembly, predicted that, should the offender escape punishment, he would live to kill all those who were his judges, and would not grant the pardon which the assembly seemed inclined to extend to him. He, however, escaped, and took refuge with Sextus Caesar, who soon appointed him governor (στρατηγός) of Caele-Syria. He then determined to march against Jerusalem, and would have done so had not his father Antipater and his family restrained him from committing any fresh acts of violence. In B.C. 44, after Caesar's death, Cassius took the government of Syria. Herod and his father Antipater willingly assisted Cassius in obtaining the taxes levied upon the Jews for the support of the troops. For this Herod was confirmed in the government of Caele-Syria (Josephus, War, 1, 11, 4). In B.C. 41 Antony came to Syria, and Herod, by making him valuable presents, soon formed with him a close personal intimacy (Josephus, Ant. 14:12,2). Hyrcanus, to whose beautiful granddaughter Mariamne Herod was betrothed, induced Antony to make Herod and his brother Phasael tetrarchs of Judaea (Josephus, Ant. 14, 13, 1; War, 1, 12, 5). The invasion of the Parthians, who sided with Antigonus the Asmonsean, compelled Herod to give up Judaea and fly to Rome. Antony was then in great power, and took Herod under his protection, and, seeing that he might prove useful to him, obtained a decree of the senate appointing him king of Judaea, to the extinction of all the living Asmonaean princes (Josephus, Ant. 14, 9-14; War, 1, 10-14; Dion Cass. 48). These events took place in B.C. 40, and Herod, only staying seven days at Rome, returned speedily to Jerusalem within three months from the time he had first fled.
It was not, however, so easy for Herod to obtain possession of Jerusalem, or to establish himself as king of Judaea, as it had been to obtain this title from the Romans. The Jews still held firmly to Antigonus as the representative of the Asmonaean line, and it was not for several years that Herod made any material advance whatever. With the assistance of the Romans Herod made preparations to take Jerusalem. — He had endeavored to conciliate the people by marrying Mariamne, thinking that by so doing the attachment of the Jews to the Asmonaean family would be extended to him. After six months' siege the Romans entered the city (B.C. 37), and, to revenge the obstinate resistance they had received, began to ransack and plunder, and it was no easy task for Herod to purchase from the conquerors the freedom from pillage of some part of his capital. Antigonus was taken and conveyed to Antioch, where, having been previously beaten, he was ignominiously executed with the axe by the order of Antony, a mode of treatment which the Romans had never before used to a king (Dion Cass. 69, 22; Josephus, Ant. 15, 1, 2) Thus ended the government of the Asmonaeans, 126 years after it was first set up (Josephus, Ant. 14, 16, 4). Immediately on ascending the throne Herod put to death all the members of the Sanhedrim, excepting Pollio and Sameas (the famous Hillel and Shammai of the Rabbinical writers), who had predicted this result, and also all the adherents of Antigonus who could be found. Having confiscated their property, he sent presents to Antony to repay him for his assistance and to further secure his favor. He then gave the office of high-priest, which had become vacant by the death of Antigonus, and the mutilation of Hyrcanus, whose ears had been cut off by Antigonus (comp. Le 21:16-24), to an obscure priest from Babylon named Ananel. At this insult Alexandra, the mother of Mariamne and Aristobulus, to whom the office of high-priest belonged by hereditary succession, appealed to Cleopatra to use her powerful influence with Antony, and Herod was thus compelled to depose Ananel, and to elevate Aristobulus to the high-priesthood. The increasing popularity of Aristobulus, added to the further intrigues of Alexandra, so excited the jealousy of Herod that he caused him to be drowned while bathing, and expressed great sorrow at the accident. SEE ARISTOBULUS. Alexandra again applied to Cleopatra, who at last persuaded Antony to summon Herod to Laodicea to answer for his conduct. Herod was obliged to obey, but was dismissed with the highest honors (Josephus, Ant. 15:3,1-8; comp. 14 Wa., 1, 22, 2). After the defeat of Antony at Actium, in B.C. 31, Herod had an audience at Rhodes with Octavius, who did not think that Antony was quite powerless while Herod continued his assistance to him (Josephus, War, 1, 20, 1). Herod so conciliated him that he obtained security in his kingdom of Judaea, to which Octavius added Gadara, Samaria, and the maritime cities Gaza and Joppa. Shortly after the regions of Trachonitis, Batanea, and Auranitis were given him (Josephus, Ant. 15:5, 6, 7; 10, 1; War, 1, 20, 3, 4; comp. Tacit. Hist. 5, 9). Herod's domestic life was troubled by a long series of bloodshed. Hyrcanus, the grandfather of his wife Mariamne, was put to death before his visit to Octavius, and Mariamne, to whom he was passionately attached, fell a victim to his jealousy soon after his return. SEE HYRCANUS; SEE MARIAMNE. His remorse for the deed is well described by Josephus, who says that Herod commanded his attendants always to speak of her as alive (Ant. 15, 7, 7; War, 1, 22, 5). In B.C. 20, when Augustus visited Judaea in person; another extensive addition was made to his territories. The district of Paneas was taken away from its ruler Zenodorus for leaguing himself with the Arabs, and given to Herod. In return, Herod adorned this place by erecting a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus (Josephus, Ant. 15, 10,.3, War, 1, 20, 4; Dion. Cass. 54, 9). Not long after this, the death of his wife was followed by other atrocities. Alexander and Aristobulus, the sons of Mariamne, were put to death; and at last, in B.C. 4, Herod ordered his eldest son, Antipater, to be killed. SEE ALEXANDER; SEE ARISTOBULUS; SEE ANTIPATER. Herod's painful disease no doubt maddened him in his later years, and in anticipation of his own death he gave orders that the principal Jews, whom he had shut up in the Hippodrome at Jericho, should immediately after his decease be put to death, that mourners might not be wanting at his funeral (Josephus, Ant. 17. 6, 5). Near his death, too, he must have ordered the murder of the infants at Bethlehem, as recorded by Matthew (Mt 2:16-18). The number of children in a village must have been very few; and Josephus has passed this story over unnoticed; yet it is worthy of remark that he has given an account of a massacre by Herod of all the members of his family who had consented to what the Pharisees foretold, viz. that Herod's government should cease, and his posterity be deprived of the kingdom (Ant. 17, 2, 4). A confused account of the massacre of the children and the murder of Antipater is given in Macrobius: "Augustus cum audisset inter pueros, quos in Syria Herodes, rex Judaeorum, intra bimatum jussit intefici, filium quoque ejus occisum, ait: Melius est Herodis porcum (?ὕν, swine) esse quam filium (? υἱόν, son)" (Sat. 2, 4). Macrobius lived in the 5th century (c. A.D. 420), and the words intra bimatum (a bimatu et infra, Mt 2:16. Vulg.) seem to be borrowed; the story, too, is erong, as Antipater was of age when he was executed (Alford, ad-loc.). Macrobius may have made some mistake on account of Herod's wish to destroy- the heir to the throne of David. The language of the evangelist leaves in complete uncertainty the method in which the deed was effected (ἀποστείλας ἀνεῖλεν). The scene of open and undisguised violence which has been consecrated by Christian art is wholly at variance with what may be supposed to have been the historic reality.
Herod was married to no less than ten wives, by most of whom he had children. He died a few days before the Passover, B.C. 4, his deathbed being the scene of the most awful agonies in mind and body. According to the custom of the times, he made his sons the heirs to his kingdom by a formal testament, leaving its ratification to the will of the emperor. Augustus assenting to its main provisions, Archelaus, became tetrarch of Juduea, Samaria, and Idumnea; Philip, of Trachonitis and Ituraea; and Herod Antipas, of Galilee and Perrua. His body was conveyed by his son Archelaus from Jericho, where he died, to Herodium, a city and fortress 200 stadia distant, and he was there buried with great pomp (Josephus, Ant. 17, 2; War, 1, 38, 9).
On the extirpation of the Asmonaean family, finding that there was then no one who could interfere with him, Herod had introduced heathenish customs, such as plays, shows, and chariot-races, which the Jews condemned as contrary to the laws of Moses (Josephus, Ant. 15, 1); and on the completion of the building of Caesarea he also introduced Olympic games and consecrated them to Caesar, ordering them to be celebrated every fifth year (Josephus, Ant. 15, 9, 6; 16:5, 1). With regard to the prejudices of the Jews, Herod showed as great contempt for public opinion as in the execution of his personal vengeance. He signalized his elevation to the throne by offerings to the Capitoline Jupiter (Jost, Gesch. d. Judenthums, 1, 318), and surrounded his person by foreign mercenaries, some of whom had formerly been in the service of Cleopatra (Josephus, Ant. 15, 7,3; 17:1, 1; 8, 3). His coins and those of his successors bore only Greek legends; and he introduced heathen games even within the walls of Jerusalem (Josephus, A nt. 15, 8, 1). He displayed ostentatiously his favor towards foreigners (Josephus, Ant. 16, 5, 3), and oppressed the old Jewish aristocracy (Josephus, Ant. 15, 1, 1). The later Jewish traditions describe him as successively the servant of the Asmonaeans and the Romans, and relate that one Rabbin only survived the persecution which he directed against them, purchasing his life by the loss of sight (Jost, 1, 319, etc.).
Notwithstanding that he thus alienated his subjects from him, he greatly improved his country by the number of fine towns and magnificent public buildings which he had erected. He built a temple at Samaria, and converted it into a Roman city under the name of Sebaste. He also built Gaba in Galilee, and Heshbonitis in Persea (Josephus, Ant. 15, 8, 5), besides several other towns, which he called by the names of different members of his family, as Antipatris, from the name of his father Antipater, and Phasaelis, in the plains of Jericho, after his brother Phasael (Josephus, Ant. 16, 5, 2). On many other towns in Syria and Greece he bestowed money, but his grandest undertaking was the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was commenced in the 18th year of his reign (B.C. 21), and the work was carried on with such vigor that the Temple itself (ναός), i.e. the Holy House, was finished in a year and a half (Josephus, Ant. 15:11,1, 6). The cloisters and other buildings were finished in eight years (Josephus, Ant. 15:11, 5). Additions and repairs were continually made, and it was not till the reign of Herod Agrippa II (c. A.D. 65) that the Temple (τὸ ἱερόν) was completed (Josephus, Ant. 20, 9, 7). Hence the Jews said to our Lord, "Forty and six years was this Temple in building [ᾠκοδομήθη — and is not even yet completed], and wilt thou raise it up in three days!" (Joh 2:20). This took place in A.D. 26, not long after our Lord's baptism, who "was about thirty years of age" (Lu 3:23), and who was born some two years before the death of Herod, in B.C. 4, according to the true chronology. This beautiful Temple, though built in honor of the God of Israel, did not win the hearts of the people, as is proved by the revolt which took place shortly before Herod's death, when the Jews tore down the golden eagle which he had fastened to the Temple, and broke it in pieces (Josephus, Antig. 17, 6, 2, 3)
The diversity of Herod's nature is remarkable. On regarding his magnificence, and the benefits he bestowed upon his people, one cannot deny that he had a very beneficent disposition; but when we read of his cruelties, not only to his subjects, but even to his own relations, one is forced to allow that he was brutish and a stranger to humanity (comp. Josephus, Ant. 16, 5, 4). His servility to Rome is amply shown by the manner in which he transgressed the customs of his nation and set aside many of their laws, building cities and erecting temples in foreign countries, for the Jews did not permit him so to do in Judaea, even though they were under so tyrannical a government as that of Herod. His confessed apology was that he was acting to please Caesar and the Romans, and so through all his reign he was a Jewish prince only in name, with a Hellenistic disposition (comp. Josephus, Ant. 15, 9, 5; 19:7, 3). It has even been supposed (Jost, Gesch. d. Judenth. 1, 323) that the rebuilding of the Temple furnished him with the opportunity of destroying the authentic collection of genealogies which was of the highest importance to the priestly families. Herod, as appears from his public designs, affected the dignity of a second Solomon, but he joined the license of that monarch to his magnificence; and it was said that the monument which he raised over the royal tombs was due to the fear which seized him after a sacrilegious attempt to rob them of secret treasures (Josephus, Ant. 16, 7,1). He maintained peace at home during a long reign by the vigor and timely generosity of his administration. Abroad he conciliated the goodwill of the Romans under circumstances of unusual difficulty. His ostentatious display, and even his arbitrary tyranny, was calculated to inspire Orientals with awe. Bold and yet prudent, oppressive and yet profuse, he had many of the characteristics which make a popular hero; and the title which may have been first given in admiration of successful despotism now serves to bring out in clearer contrast the terrible price at which the success was purchased.
Josephus gives Herod I the surname of Great ( ῾Ηρώδης ὁ μέγας). Ewald suggests that the title elder is only intended to distinguish him from the younger Herod (Antipas), and compares the cases of ῾Ελκίας ὸμέγας (Ant. 18:8, 4) and Agrippa the Great, in contradistinction to Helcias, the keeper of the sacred treasure (Ant. 20:11, 1), and to Agrippa II. The title "Agrippa the Great" is confirmed by coins, on which he is styled ΜΕΓΑΣ (Eckhel, Doct. Nun. Vet. 3, 492; Akerman, Nusm. Chronicles 9:23), and so, says Ewald, "it may similarly have been given upon the coins of Herod, and from this the origin of the surname may have been derived" (Geschichte, 4, 473, note). There are, however, no coins of Herod I with the title great. It is best to suppose that the title in Josephus is merely a distinguishing epithet, and not meant to express greatness of character or achievements.
2. HEROD ANTIPAS ( ῾Ηρώδης, Matt., Mark, Luke; Αντίπας, Josephus) was the son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan (Joseph. Ant. 17, 1, 3; War, 1, 28, 4). His father had already given him "the kingdom" in his first will. but in the final arrangement left him the tetrarchy of Galilee and Persea (Josephus, Ant. 17, 8,1; War, 2, 9,1; Mt 14:1; Lu 3:1,19; Lu 9:1; Ac 13:1), which brought him the yearly revenue of 200 talents (Josephus, Ant. 18, 5, 1). On his way to Rome he visited his brother Philip, and commencing an intrigue with his wife Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus, the son of Mariamne, he afterwards incestuously married her. He had previously been married to a daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia Petrsea, who avenged this insult by invading his dominions, and defeated him with great loss (Josephus, Ant. 18, 5, 1). An appeal to the Romans afforded the only hope of safety. Aretas was haughtily ordered by the emperor to desist from the prosecution of the war, and Herod accordingly escaped the expected overthrow. Josephus says that the opinion of the Jews was that the defeat was a punishment for his having imprisoned John the Baptist on account of his popularity, and afterwards put him to death, but does not mention the reproval that John gave him, nor that it was at the instigation of Herodias that he was killed, as recorded in the Gospels (Joseph. Ant. 18, 5, 4; Mt 14:1-11; Mr 6:566; Lu 3:19;. 9:7-9). The evangelists evidently give the true reason, and Josephus the one generally received by the people. In A.D. 38, after the death of Tiberius, he was persuaded, especially at the ambitious instigation of Herodias. to go to Rome to procure for himself the royal title. Agrippa, who was high in the favor of Caligula, and had already received this title, opposed this with such success that Antipas was condemned to perpetual banishment at Lyons, a city of Gaul (Joseph. Ant. 18, 7, 2), and eventually died in Spain, whither his wife Herodias had voluntarily followed him (War, 2, 9, 6). He is called (by courtesy) kiny by Matthew (Mt 14:9) and by Mark (Mr 6:14). See No. 5.
Herod Antipas was in high favor with Tiberius; hence he gave the name of Tiberias to the city he built on the lake of Gennesareth (Josephus, Ant. 18, 2, 3). He enlarged and improved several cities of his dominions, and also built a wall about Sepphoris, and round Betharamphtha, which latter town he named Julias, in honor of the wife of the emperor (Josephus, Ant. 18; 2,1 1 comp. War, 2, 9, 1).
It was before Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover (comp. Joseph. Ant. 18:6, 3), that our Lord was sent for examination when Pilate heard that he was a Galilaean, as Pilate had already had several disputes with the Galileans, and was not at this time on veer good terms with Herod (Lu 13:1; Lu 23:6-7), and "on the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together" (Lu 23:12; comp. Josephus, Ant. 18, 3, 2; Ps 83:5). The name of Herod Antipas is coupled with that of Pilate in the prayer of the apostles mentioned in the Acts (4, 24-30). His personal character is little touched upon by either Josephus or the evangelists, yet from his consenting to the death of John the Baptist to gratify the malice of a wicked woman, though for a time he had "heard him gladly" (Mr 6:20), we perceive his cowardice, his want of spirit, and his fear of ridicule. His wicked oath was not binding on him, for Herod was bound by the law of God not to commit murder. He was in any case desirous to see Jesus, and "hoped to have seen a miracle from him" (Lu 23:8). His artifice and cunning are specially alluded to by our Lord, "Go ye and tell that fox" (τῇ ἀλώπεκι ταύτῃ, Lu 13:32). Coins of Herod Antipas bear the title TETPAPXOY. SEE ANTIPAS.
3. HEROD ARCHELAUS (Α᾿ρχέλαος, Matt.; Josephus; ῾Ηρώδης, Dion Cassius; coins), son of Herod the Great and Malthace, uterine and younger brother of Herod Altipas, and called by Dion Cassius ῾Ηρώδης Παλαιστηνός (4, 57). He was brought up with his brother at Rome (Josephus, Ant. 17, 1, 3). His father had disinherited him in consequence of the false accusations of his eldest brother Antipater, the son of Doris; but Herod, on making a new will, altered his mind, and gave him "the kingdom," which had before been left to Antipas (Josephus, Ant. 17, 8, 1). It was this unexpected arrangement which led to the retreat-of Joseph to Galilee (Mt 2:22). He was saluted as "king" by the army, bit refused to accept that title till it should be confirmed by Augustus (Joseph. Ant. 17, 8, 2,4; War, 1, 1). Shortly after this a sedition was raised against him, which he quelled by killing 3000 persons, and he then set sail with his brother Antipas to Rome (Josephus, Ant. 17, 9, 2, 4; War, 2, 2,3). Upon this the Jews sent an embassy to Augustus, to request that they might be allowed to live according to their own laws under a Roman governor. Our Lord seems to allude to this circumstance in the parable of the nobleman going into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom: "But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us" (Lu 19:487). While he was at Rome, Jerusalem was under the care of Sabinus, the Roman procurator, and a quarrel ensued in consequence of the manner in which the Jews were treated. Quiet was again established through the intervention of Varus, the president of Syria, and the authors of the sedition were punished (Josephus, Ant. 17, 10). Augustus, however, ratified the main points of Herod's will, and gave Archelaus Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the cities of Caesarea, Sebaste, Joppa, and Jerusalem, the title of ethnarch, and a promise that he should have the royal dignity hereafter if he governed virtuously (Joseph. Ant. 17, 11, 4; War, 2, 6,3). Archelaus never really had the title of king (βασιλεύς), though at first called so by the people (Josephus, Ant. 17:8, 2), yet we cannot object to the word (βασιλεύει in Matthew, for Archelaus regarded himself as king (Josephus, War, 2, 1, 1), and Josephus speaks of the province of Lysanias, which was only a tetrarchy, as βασιλείαν τὴν Λυσανίου (War, 2, 11, 5). Herod (Antipas) the tetrarch is also called ὁ βασιλεύς (Mt 14:9; Mr 6:14). When Archelaus returned to Judaea he rebuilt the royal palace at Jericho, and established a village, naming it after himself, Archelaus (Joseph. Ant. 17, 13, 1). Shortly after Archelaus's return he violated the Mosaic law by marrying Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, and the Jews complaining again loudly of his tyranny, Augustus summoned him to Rome, and finally, A.D. 6, sent him into exile at Vienna in Gaul, where he probably died, and his dominions were attached to the Roman empire (Josephus, Ant. 17, 13, 2; War, 2, 7; compare Strabo, 16, 765; Dion Cassius, 55, 25, 27). Jerome, however, relates that he was shown the tomb of Archelaus near Bethlehem (Onomasticon, s.v.). Coins with the title CONAPXOY belong to Archelaus. SEE ARCHELAUS.
4. HEROD PHILIP I (Φίλιππος, Mr 6:17; ῾Ηρώδης, Josephus) was the son of Herod the Great by a second Mariamne, the daughter of Simon the high-priest (Josephus, Ant. 18:5, 4), and must be distinguished from Philip the tetrarch, No. 6. He was the husband of Herodias, by whom he had a daughter, Salome. Herodias, however, contrary to the laws of her country, divorced herself from him, and married her uncle Antipas [see Nos. 2 and 5] (Josephus, Ant. 18:5, 4; Mt 14:3; Mr 6:17; Lu 3:19). — He was omitted in the will of Herod in consequence of the discovery that Mariamne was conscious of the plots of Antipater, Herod the Great's son by Doris (Josephus, War, 1, 30,7). SEE PHILIP.
5. HERODIAS ( ῾Ηρώδιας, Mt 14:1-11; Mr 6:14-16; Lu 3:19) was the daughter of Aristobulus, one of the sons of Herod I by the first Mariamne, and of Berenice, the daughter of Salome, Herod's sister, and was consequently sister of Herod Agrippa I (Josephus, Ant. 18:5,4; War, 1, 28, 1). She was first married to her uncle, Herod Philip I, the son of Herod I and the second Mariamne, by whom she had a daughter Salome, probably the one that danced and pleased Herod Antipas, and who afterwards married her uncle Philip II. Herodias soon divorced herself from him, and married Herod Antipas, who was also her uncle, being the son of Herod I and Malthace, and who agreed, for her sake, to put away his own wife, the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia (Josephus, Ant. 18:5,1, 4). John the Baptist reproved her for her crimes in thus living in adultery and incest, and she took the first opportunity to cause him to be put to death, thus adding thereto the crime of murder. Her marriage was unlawful for three reasons: first, her former husband, Philip, was still alive (διαστασα ζῶντος, Josephus, Ant. 18, 5,4); secondly, Antipas's wife was still alive; and, thirdly, by her first marriage with Philip she became the sister-in-law of Antipas, who was consequently forbidden by the Jewish law to marry his brother's wife (Le 18:16; Le 11:21; comp. Alford on Mt 14:4). When Antipas was condemned by Caius to perpetual banishment, Herodias was offered a pardon, and the emperor made her a present of money, telling her that it was her brother Agrippa (I) who prevented her being involved in the same calamity as her husband. The best trait of her character is shown when, in true Jewish spirit, she refused this offer, and voluntarily chose to share the exile of her husband [No. 2] (Josephus, Ant. 17, 7, 2). SEE HERODIAS.
6. HEROD PHILIP II (Φίλιππος, Luke and Josephus) was son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem ( ῾Ιεροσολυμῖτις), and was with his half brothers Archelaus and Antipas brought up at Rome (Josephus, Ant. 17, 1,3; War, 1, 28, 4). He received as his share of the empire the tetrarchy of Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and certain parts about Jamnia, with a revenue of 100 talents (Josephus, Ant. 17, 11, 4; War, 2, 6, 3). He is only mentioned once in the N.T. (Luke 3:I, Φιλίππου τετραρχοῦντος). He was married to Salome, the daughter of Herod Philip I and Herodias, but left no children (Joseph. Ant. 18, 5, 4). He reigned over his dominions for 37 years (B.C. 4-A.D. 34), during which time he showed-himself to be a person of moderation and quietness in the conduct of his life and government (Josephus, Ant. 18, 4, 6). He built the city of Paneas and named it Caesarea, more commonly known as Caesarea-Philippi (Mt 16:13; Mr 8:27), and also advanced to the dignity of a city the village Bethsaida, calling it by the name of Julias, in honor of the daughter of Augustus. He died at Julias, and was buried in the monument he had there built (Josephus, Ant. 18, 2, 1; 4,6; War, 2, 9, 1). Leaving no children, his dominions were annexed to the Roman province of Syria (Josephus, Ant. 18 , 56). Coins of Philip II bear the title TETPAPXOY. SEE PHILIP.
7. HEROD AGRIPPA I ( ῾Ηρώδης, Acts; Α᾿γρίππας, Josephus) was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great (Josephus, Ant. 17, 1, 2; War, 1, 28, 1). He is called "Agrippa the Great" by Josephus (Ant. 17, 2, 2). A short time before the death of Herod the Great he was living at Rome and was brought up with Drusus, the son of fiberius, and with Antonia, the wife of Drusus (Josephus, Ant. 18, 6, 1). He was only one year older than Claudius, who was born in B.C. 10, and they were bred up together in the closest intimacy. The earlier part of his life was spent at Rome, where the magnificence and luxury in which he indulged involved him so deeply in debt that he was compelled to fly from Rome, and betook himself to a fortress at Malatha, in Idumaea. Through the mediation of his wife Cypros and his sister Herodias, he was allowed to take up his abode at Tiberias, and received the rank of edile in that city, with a small amnnity (Joseph. Ant. 16:6,2). But, having quarreled with his brother-in-law, he fled to Flaccus, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterwards he was convicted, through the information of his brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his influence with the proconsul, and was again compelled to fly. He was arrested, as he was about to sail to Italy, for a sum of money which he owed to the Roman treasury, but made his escape and reached Alexandria, where his wife succeeded in procuring a supply of money from Alexander the alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at Puteoli. He was favorably received by Tiberius; but he one day incautiously expressed the wish that Caius might soon succeed to the throne, which being reported to Tiberius, he was arrested and thrown into prison, where he remained till the accession of Cains in A.D. 37 (Josephus, Ant. 18, 6,10). Caius shortly after gave him the tetrarchy of Philip, the iron chain with which he had been fastened to a soldier being exchanged for a gold one (Josephus, Ant. 18, 6,10). He was also invested with the consular dignity, and a league was publicly made with him by Claudius. He then started to take possession of his kingdom, and at Alexandria was insulted by the people, who dressed up an idiot, and bore him in mock triumph through the streets to deride the new king of the Jews (Philo, in Flaccuns, 6). The jealousy of Herod Antipas and his wife Herodias was excited by the distinctions conferred upon Agrippa by the Romans, and they sailed to Rome in the hope of supplanting him in the emperor's favor. Agrippa was aware of their design, and anticipated it by a countercharge against Antipas of treasonous correspondence with the Parthians. Antipas failed to answer the accusations, and, after his exile, Agrippa received from Caius the tetrarchy of Galilee and Pereea (Josephus, Ant. 18:7, 2); and in A.D. 41, for having greatly assisted Claudius, he received his whole paternal kingdom (Judeea and Samaria), and, in addition, the tetrarchy of Lysanias II (comp. Lu 3:1). Josephus says in one passage that Caius gave him this tetrarchy (Ant. 18, 6, 10), but afterwards, in two places, that Claudius gave it to him (Ant. 19, 5, 1; War, 2, 11, 5). Caius probably promised it, and Claudius actually conferred it. Agrippa now possessed the entire kingdom of Herod the Great. At this time he begged of Claudius the kingdom of Chalcis for his brother Herod (Josephus, Ant. 19, 5, 1; War, 2, 11, 5).
Agrippa loved to live at Jerusalem, and was a strict observer of the laws of his country, which will account for his persecuting the Christians, who were hated by the Jews (Josephus, Ant. 19, 7, 3). Thus influenced by a strong desire for popularity, rather than from innate cruelty, "he stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the Church." He put to death James the elder, son of Zebedee, and cast Peter into prison, no doubt with the intention of killing him also. This was frustrated by his miraculous deliverance from his jailers by the angel of the Lord (Ac 12:1-19). Agrippa I, like his grandfather, displayed great taste in building, and especially adorned the city of Berytus (Josephus, Ant. 19, 7, 5). The suspicions of Claudius prevented him from finishing the impregnable fortifications with which he had begun to surround Jerusalem. His friendship was courted by many of the neighboring kings and rulers. In A.D. 44 Agrippa celebrated games at Caesarea in honor of the emperor, and to make vows for his safety. At this festival a number of the principal persons, and such as were of dignity in the province, attended. Josephus does not mention those of Tyre and Sidon as recorded in the Acts (Ac 12:20). Though Agrippa was "highly displeased," it does not appear that any rupture worthy of notice had taken place. On the second day Agrippa appeared in the theatre in a garment interwoven with silver. On closing his address to the people, they saluted him as a god, for which he did not rebuke them, and he was immediately seized with violent internal pains, and died five days after (Josephus, Ant. 19, 8, 2). This fuller account of Josephus agrees substantially with that in the Acts. The silver dress (ἐξ ἀργύρου πεποιημένην πᾶσαν,Josephus; ἐσθῆτα βασιλικήν, Acts); and the disease (τῷ τῆς γαστρὸς ἀλγήματι τὁν βίον κατέστπεψεν, Joseph.; γενόμενος σκωληκόβρωτος ἐξέψυξεν, Acts). The owl (Βουβῶνα ἐπὶ σχοινίου τινός), which on this occasion appeared to Agrippa as the messenger of ill tidings (ἄγγελος κάκων, Josephus, Ant. 19:8, 2), though on a former one it had appeared to him as a messenger of good news (Josephus, Ant. 18, 6, 7), is converted by Eusebius (H. E. 2, ch. 10), who professes to quote Josephus, into the angel of the Acts ( ἐπάταξεναὐτὸν ἄγγελος Κυρίου, Ac 12:23. For an explanation of the confusion, compare Eusebius, 1. c., ed. Heinichen, Excurs. 2, vol. 3:p. 556; Alford, ad loc.). SEE AGRIPPA.
8. HEROD AGRIPPA II (Α᾿γρίππας, Acts; Josephus) was the son of- Herod Agrippa I and Cypros (War, 2, 11, 6). At the time of his father's death (A.D. 44) he was only seventeen years of age, and the emperor Claudius, thinking him too young to govern the kingdom, sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator, and thus made it again a Roman province (Josephus, Ant. 19, 9, 2; Tacit. Hist. 5, 9). After the death of his uncle Herod in A.D. 48, Claudius bestowed upon him the small kingdom of Chalcis (Josephus, Ant. 20, 5, 2; War, 2, 12,1), and four years after took it away from him, giving him instead the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias (Josephus, Ant. 20, 7, 1; War, 2, 12, 8) with the title of king (Ac 25:13; Ac 26:2,7). In A.D. 55 Nero gave him the cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, and Julias, a city of Peraea, with fourteen villages near it (Josephus, Ant. 20, 8, 4; comp. War, 2, 13, 2).
Agrippa II exhibited the Herodian partiality for building. He much enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and in honor of Nero called it Neronias. He also supplied large sums of money towards beautifying Jerusalem (which he encircled with the "third wall") and Berytus, transferring almost everything that was ornamental from his own kingdom to this latter place.
These acts rendered him most unpopular (Josephus, Ant. 20, 9,4). In A.D. 60 king Agrippa and Bernice (q.v.) his sister, concerning the nature of whose equivocal intercourse with each other there had been much grave conversation (Juvenal, Sat. 6, 155 sq.), and who, in consequence, persuaded Polemo, king of Cilicia, to marry her (Josephus, A nt. 20:7, 3), came to Caesarea (Ac 25:13). It was before him and his sister that the apostle Paul made his defense, and somewhat (ἐν ὀλίγῳ) "persuaded him to be a Christian." Agrippa seems to have been intimate with Festus (Josephus, Ant. 20, 7, 11), and it was natural that the Roman governor should avail himself of his judgment on a question of what seemed to be Jewish law (Ac 25:18 sq., 26; comp. Josephus, A t. 20, 8, 7). The "pomp" (πολλὴ φαντασία) with which the king came into the audience chamber (Ac 25:23) was accordant with his general bearing.
The famous speech which Agrippa made to the Jews, to dissuade them from waging war with the Romans, is recorded by Josephus (War, 2, 16, 4). At the commencement of the war he sided with the Romans, and was wounded by a sling-stone at the siege of Gamala (Josephus, War, 4, 1, 3). After the fall of Jerusalem he retired with his sister Berenice to Rome, and there died in the seventieth year of his age, and in the third year of Trajan (A.D. 100). He was on intimate terms with Josephus, who gives two of his letters Life, 65), and he was the last Jewish prince of the Herodian line.
As regards his coins, Eckhel gives two with the head of Nero, one with the legend ΕΗΙΙΙ ΒΑΕΙΑΕ ΑΡΠΙΗΗΙΑ ΝΕΠΘΝΙΕ, confirming the account of Josephus as regards the city of Caesarea-Philippi, and the other bearing the pruenomen of Marcus, which he may have received on account of his family being indebted to the triumvir Antony, or else, as Eckhel thinks, more likely from Marcus Agrippa (Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. 3:493, 494; comp. Akerman, Num. Chronicles 9:42). There are other coins with the heads of Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. SEE MONEY. SEE AGRIPPA.
9. BERENICE SEE BERENICE (q.v.).
10. DRUSILLA SEE DRUSILLA (q.v.).