Phil'ip (Φίλιππος, lover of horses), the name of several men mentioned in the Apocrvpha and Josephus. Those named in the N.T. will be noticed separately below.
1. The father of Alexander the Great (1 Macc. 1:1; 6:2), king of Macedonia, B.C. 359-336. SEE ALEXANDEIT (the Great).
2. A Phrygian, left by Antiochus Epiphanes as governor at Jerusalem (B.C. cir. 170), where he behaved with great cruelty (2 Macc. 5:22), burning the fugitive Jews in caves (6:11), and taking the earliest measures to check the growing power of Judas Maccabaeus (8:8). He is commonly (but it would seem incorrectly) identified with,
3. The foster-brother (σύντροφος, 9:29) of Antiochus Epiphanes, whom the king upon his death-bed appointed regent of Syria and guardian of his son Antidchus V, to the exclusion of Lysias (B.C. 164; 1 Macc. 6:14,15, 55). He returned with the royal forces from Persia (vi, 56) to assume the government, and occupied Antioch. But Lysias, who was at the time besieging "the Sanctuary" at Jerusalem, hastily made terms with Judas, and marched against him. Lysias stormed Antioch, and, according to Josephus (Ant. 12:9, 7), put Philip to death. In 2 Macc. Philip is said to have fled to Ptol. Philometor on the death of Antiochus (2 Macc. 9:29), though the book contains traces of the other account (13:23). SEE ANTRIOCHUS (Epiphanes).
4. Philip V, king of Macedonia, B.C. 220-179. His wide and successful endeavors to strengthen and enlarge the Macedonian dominion brought him into conflict with the Romans when they were engaged in the critical war with Carthage. Desultory warfare followed by hollow peace lasted till the victory of Zama left the Romans free for more vigorous measures. Meanwhile Philip had consolidated his power, though he had degenerated into an unscrupulous tyrant. The first campaigns of the Romans on the declaration of war (B.C. 200) were not attended by any decisive result, but the arrival of Flamininus (B.C. 198) changed the aspect of affairs. Philip was driven from his commanding position, and made unsuccessful overtures for peace. In the next year he lost the fatal battle of Cynoscephalae, and was obliged to accede to the terms dictated by his conquerors. The remainder of his life was spent in vain endeavors to regain something of his former power, and was imbittered by cruelty and remorse. In 1 Macc. 8:5 the defeat of Philip is coupled with that of Perseius as one of the noblest triumphs of the Romans.