Window (usually חִלּוֹן; chiallon; Chald. כִּו, kav, Da 6:10; — θυρίς) The "window of an Oriental house consists generally of an aperture (as the word challon implies) closed in with lattice-work named in Hebrew by the terms arubbah (אֲרבָּה, Ec 12:3, A.V. "window;" Ho 13:3, A. V. "chimney"), charakkinz חֲרִכַּי, Song 2:9), and eshnab (אֶשׁנָב, Judges 5, 28; Pr 7:6, A.V. "casement"), the two former signifying the interlaced work of the lattice, and the third the coolness produced by the ftee current of air through it. Other Heb. terms rendered "window" צֹהִר, tsohar (Ge 6:16; a lightor opening to admit it, elsewhere "noon"), and שֶׁקֶŠ, shekeph (1Ki 7:5) or שָׁקוּŠ, shukuph (6, 4; 7:4), which means timbers or beams. SEE ARK; SEE TEMPLE.
Glass has been introduced into Egypt in modern times as a protection against the cold of winter; but latticework is still the usual, and with the poor the only, contrivance for closing the window (Lane, Modern Egypt. 1, 29). When the lattice-work was open, there appears to have been nothing in early times to prevent a person from falling through the aperture (Ac 20:9). The windows generally look into the inner court of the house, but in every house one or more look into the street, and hence it is possible for a person to observe the approach hence it is possible of another without being himself observed (Jg 5:28; 2Sa 6:16; Pr 7:6; Song 2:9). In Egypt these outer windows generally project over the doorway (Lane, Modern Egypt. 1, 27; Carne, Letters, 1, 94). When houses abut on the town-wall, it is not unusual for them to have projecting windows surmounting the wall and looking into the country, as represented in.Conybeare and Howson's St. Paul, 1, 124. Through such a window the spies escaped from Jericho (Jos 2:15), and Paul from Damascus (2Co 11:33). In the Talmud, Tyrian windows are mentioned (Baba Bathria, 3, 6). See Hartmann, Hebrier, 3, 341 sq.; Oldermann, De Specularibus Voterum (Helmist. 1719). SEE HOUSE.
Wine, both natural and artificial, is frequently mentioned in the Bible, and in modern times, especially in connection with the temperance cause, its character and use have been a subject of no little nor always temperate controversy. We propose here to treat it in the light of Scripture, history, and morals, unbiased by the disputes into which learned and good men have allowed themselves to fall upon the subject.
I. Bible Terms. — The produce of the wine-press was described in the Hebrew language by a variety of words indicative- either of the quality or of the use of the liquid. It may at once be conceded that the Hebrew terms translated "wine" refer occasionally to an unfermented liquor; but inasmuch as there are frequent allusions to intoxication in the Bible, it is clear that fermented liquors were also in common use. It is also obvious that the Bible generally speaks in terms of strong condemnation of the effects of wine; but it is a fair question whether the condemnation is not rather directed against intoxication and excess than against the substance, which is the occasion of the excess.
The following are the words more or less so rendered in the A. V., with a few others of cognate signification and application.
1. Yayin, יִיַן (A.V. invariably "wine," except Jg 13:14. "vine;" Song 2; Song 4, "banqueting"). This word, the most commonly employed in the Old-Test. Scriptures for wine, is also the most comprehensive, including, like the corresponding English word, wines of all sorts, although used also in a more restricted; sense to denote red wine.
(1.) It is etymologically derived, according to Gesenius, from יוֹן, an unused root, having the force offervendi, cestuendi; according to Fürst, from וַין, like the Arabic וִין, Aeth, וֵין, Gr. Γαινος, "et sic porro cseteris in linguis, Arm. gini; Lat. vinmuni; Eng. wine; Sept. οινος, ἀσκός, γλεῦκος "It has been the current opinion that the Indo-European languages borrowed the term from the Hebrews. The reverse, however, is thought by some to be the case (Renan, Lang. Sen. 1, 207), and the word has been referred either to the root we, "to weave," whence come viere, viimem, vitis, vitta (Pott, Etym. Forsch. 1, i20, 230), or to the root wan, "to love"(Kuhn, Zeitschrf. vergl. Sprachf. 1,-191 192). However this may be, the etymological connection and substantial identity of the above Heb., Greek, Latin, and English words cannot be doubted.
(2.) In most of the passages in the Bible where yàyin is used (83 out of 138), it certainly means fermented grape-juice, and in the remainder it may fairly be presumed to do so. In four only (Isa 16:10; Jer 11:232; La 2:12) is it really doubtful. In no passage can it be positively shown to have any other meaning. The corresponding English word "wine" properly means "the fermented juice of the grape." It always has this meaning, except when expressly modified by the immediate connection, in which it is used. The same is true of its equivalent congeners-Greek, oivog; Latin, vinum; German, wein; French, 6, etc.
The intoxicating character of yàyin in general is plain from Scripture. To it nre attributed the "darkly flashing eye"(Ge 49; Ge 12 A. V. "red," but see Gesenius, Thesaur. Append. p. 89), the unbridled tongue (Pr 20:1; Isa 28:7), the excitement of the spirit (Pr 31:6; Isa 5; Isa 11; Zec 9:15; Zec 10:7), the enchained affections of its votaries (Ho 4:11), the perverted judgment (Pr 31:5; Isa 28:7), the indecent exposure (Hab 2:15-16), and the sickness resulting from the heat (chemdh, A.V. "bottles") of wine (Ho 7:5). So in actual instances Noah planted a vineyard, and drank of the yàyin and was drunken (Ge 9:21). Nabal drank yàyin and was very drunken (1Sa 25:36-37); the "drunkards of Ephraim" were "overcome with yàyin" (Isa 28:1), or rather, knocked down, or, as Gill paraphrases it, "smitten, beaten, knocked down with it as with a hammer, and laid prostrate on the ground, where they lie fixed to it, not able to rise." Jeremiah says, "I am like a drunken man, and like a man whom yàyin hath overcome"(Jer 23:9). The intoxicating quality of yàyin is confirmed by Rabbinical testimony. The Mishna, in the treatise on the Passover, informs us that four cups of wine were poured out and blessed, and drunk by each of the company at the eating of the Paschal lamb, and that water was also mixed with the wine, because it was considered too strong to be drunk alone (Pesachiz, 7:13; 10:1). In Hieros. Sabb. (11, 1) we read, "It is commanded that this rite be performed with red wine;" Babylon Sabb. (77, 1), "Sharon wine is of famous report, with which they mix two parts of water;" Babylon. Berachoth (fol. 1), "Their wine (יין) was very strong, and not fit for drinking without being mixed with water." The Gemara adds, "The cup of blessing is not to be blessed until it is mixed with water;" the Jerusalem Talmud says, "It became a man nobly to entertain his wife and children (at the Passover), that at this feast they might be merry with wine" (יין). To meet the objection, How can intoxication be hindered? the rabbins replied, "Because wine between eating does not intoxicate a man" (Hieros. Talm.). See Dr. Tattam's Reply to a Pamphlet by Rev. W. Ritchie on the Scripture Testimony against Intoxicating Wine, p. 8, 9.
But, although usually intoxicating, yet it was not only permitted to be drunk, but was also used for sacred purposes, and is spoken of as a blessing. Thus, in Jacob's blessing on Judah, "His eyes shall be red with yàyin, and his teeth white with milk" (Ge 49:12). So in God's promise to restore his people to their own land "I will bring again the captivity of my people, and they shall plant vineyards and drink the yàyin thereof"(Am 4:13). "Drink thy yàyin," says the preacher, "with a merry heart, for God now accepteth thy works" (Ec 9:7). The Nazarite, at the expiration of his vow, was permitted to drink yàyin (Nu 6:13-20); the Israelites were permitted to drink yàyin at their feasts (De 14:24-26); yàyin was used in the sacred service of Jehovah, being poured out as a drink-offering to him (Ex 19:25; Le 23:13; Nu 15:5). Hence, it not only "maketh glad the heart of man" (Ps 104:15), but also "cheereth both God and man"(Jg 9:13); its cheering effects being symbolically transferred to the Divine Being.
Some, indeed, have argued from these passages that yàyin could not always have been alcoholic. But this is begging the question, and that in defiance of the facts. Although invariably fermented, it was not always properly inebriating, and in most instances, doubtless was but slightly alcoholic, like the vin ordinaire of France, or our own cider.
2. Tirôsh, תַּירוֹשׁ (Ge 27:28-38; Nu 18:12; De 7:13; De 11:14; De 12:17; De 14:23; De 18:4; De 28:5; De 33:28; Jg 9:13; 2Ki 18:32; 2Ch 31:5; 2Ch 32:28; Ne 5; Ne 11; Ne 10:37; Ps 4:7; Isa 26:17; Isa 62:8; Jer 31:12; Ho 2:8-9,22; Ho 7:14; Joe 2:19,24; rendered "new wine" in Ne 10:39; Ne 13:5,12; Pr 3:10; Isa 24:7; Isa 65:8; Ho 4:11; Ho 9:2; Joe 1:10; Hag 1:11; Zec 9:17; "sweet wine," in Mic 6:15), properly signifies must, the freshly pressed juice of the grape (the γλεῦκος, or sweet wine of the Greeks, rendered "new wine?" in Ac 2:13). The word (rendered in the Sept. by three distinct terms, οινος, ώξ, ώξ, μέθυσμα) occurs sometimes in connection with yàyin, sometimes with oil, and sometimes with words denoting the edible productions of the earth.
(1.) Etymologically, tirôsh is usually referred to the root yarôsh, יָרִשׁ, "to get possession of," applied to wine on account of its inebriating qualities, whereby it gets possession of the brain. So Gesenius, "Mustum, novum vinuim ita dictum quia inebriat, cerebrum occupat"(Thesaur. p. 633); and Fürst, "Mustum uvis expressum, A. V. יָרִשׁ, occupare, acquirere, comparare" (Concord. p. 525, 2). But according to Bythner, as quoted by Lees (Tirôsh, p. 52), it refers to the vine as being a possession (κατ᾿ ἐξοχήν) in the eyes of the He. brews. Neither of these explanations is wholly satisfactory, but the second is less so than the first, in as much as it would be difficult to prove that the Hebrews attached such pre-eminent value to the vine as to place it on a par with landed property, which is designated by the cognate terms yerushshash and morashah. Nor do we see that any valuable conclusion could be drawn from this latter derivation; for, assuming its correctness, the question would still arise whether it was on account of-the natural or the manufactured product that such store was set on the vine.
(2.) As to the exclusively liquid character of the substance denoted, both yàyin and tirôsh are occasionally connected with expressions that would apply properly to a fruit; the former, for instance, with verbs significant of gathering (Jer 40; Jer 10; Jer 12) and growing (Ps 104:14-15); the latter with gathering (Isa 62; Isa 9, A. V. "brought it together"), treading (Mic 6:15), and weathering (Isa 24:7; Joe 1:10). So, again, the former is used in Nu 6:4, to define the particular kind of tree whose products were forbidden to the Nazarite, viz. the "pendulous shoot of the vine;" and the latter in Jg 9:13, to denote the product of the vine. It should be observed, however, that in most, if not all, the passages where these and similar expressions occur there is something to denote that the fruit is regarded not simply as fruit, but as the raw material out of which wine is manufactured. Thus, for instance, in Ps 104:15, and Jg 9:13, the cheering effects of the product are noticed, and that these are more suitable to the idea of wine than of fruit seems self-evident; in one passage, indeed, the A.V. connects the expression "make cheerful" with bread (Zec 9:17); but this is a mere mistranslation, the true sense of the expression there used being to nourish or make to grow. So, again, the treading of the grape in Mic 7:15 is in itself conclusive as to the pregnant sense in which the term tirôsh is used, even if it were not subsequently implied that the effect of the treading was, in the ordinary course of things, to produce the yàyin which was to be drunk. In Isa 62:9, the object of the gathering is clearly conveyed by the notice of drinking. In Isa 24:7, the tirôsh, which withers, is paralleled with yàyin in the two following verses. Lastly, in 65:8, the nature of the tirôsh, which is said to be found in the cluster of the grapes, is not obscurely indicated by the subsequent eulogium, "a blessing is in it." That the terms "vine" and "wine" should be thus interchanged in poetical language calls for no explanation. We can no more infer from such instances that the Hebrew terms mean grapes as fruit than we could infer the same of the Latin vinum because in some two or three passages (Plautus, Trin. 2, 4, 125; Varro, De Ling. Lat. 4:17; Cato, De Re Rustica, c. 147) the term is transferred to the grape out of which wine is made.
Moreover, tirôsh generally follows "corn " in the triplet "corn, wine, and oil," and hence the term applied to the consumption of corn is carried on, in accordance with the grammatical-figure zeugma, to the other members of the clause, as in De 12:17. In the only passage where the act of consuming tirôsh alone is noticed (Isaiah 62, 8, 9) the verb is shathah (שָׁתָה), which constantly indicates the act of drinking (e.g. Ge 9:21; Ge 24:22; Ex 7:21; Ru 2:9), and is the general term combined with akál (אָכִל) in the joint act of "eating and drinking", (e.g. 1Sa 30:16; Job 1:4; Ec 2:24). We can find no confirmation for' the cense of sucking assigned to the term by Dr. Lees (Tirôsh, p. 61); the passage quoted in support of that sense (Ps 75:8) implies, at all events, a kind of sucking allied to drinking rather than to eating, if indeed the sense of. drinking be not the more correct rendering of the term. An argument has been drawn against the usual sense assigned to tirôsh, from the circumstance that it is generally connected with "corn," and therefore implies an edible rather than a drinkable substance. The very opposite conclusion may, however, be drawn from this circumstance; for it may be reasonably urged that in any enumeration of the materials needed for man's support, "meat and drink" would be specified rather than several kinds of the former and none of the latter. "Bread and water" occur together very often (e.g. Eze 4:17; 1Sa 25:11, etc.). Is water, then, a solid?
There are, finally, passages which seem to imply the actual manufacture of tirôsh by the same process by which wine was ordinarily made. For, not to insist on the probability that the bringing together, noticed in Isa 62:9 would not appropriately apply to the collecting of the fruit in the wine-vat, we have notice of the "treading" in connection with tirôsh in Mic 6:15, and again of the "overflowing" and the "bursting out" of the tirôsh in the vessels or lower vat (יֶקֶב, yekeb, Sept. ὑπολήνιον), which received the must from the proper press (Pr 3; Pr 10; Joel 2, 24). 'This, according to the author of Tirôsh Lo Yàyin, is an "image of abundance;" the "vats piled up with fruits so fill that what was put on would roll of to the ground, because they could hold no more!"(p. 54).
(3.) As to the intoxicating character of this drink, the allusions to its effects are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz. Ho 4:11, "Whoredom and wine (yàyin), and new wine (tirôsh) take away the heart," where tirôsh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yàyin.
The inevitable impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that both yàyin and tirôsh, in their ordinary and popular acceptation, referred to fermented, intoxicating wine. In the condemnatory passages no exception is made in favor of any other kind of liquid passing under the same name, but not invested with the same dangerous qualities. Nor, again, in these passages is there any decisive condemnation of the substance itself, which would enforce the; conclusion that elsewhere an unfermented liquid must be understood. The condemnation must be understood, of excessive use in any case for even where this is not expressed, it is implied; and therefore the instances of wine being drunk, without any reproof of the act may with as great a probability, imply the moderate use of an intoxicating beverage, as the use of an unintoxicating one.
The notices of fermentation are not very decisive. A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It has been suggested that the -object of placing the wine in bottles was to prevent fermentation, but that in the case of old bottles fermentation might ensue from their being impregnated with the fermenting substance" (Tirôsh, p. 65). This is not inconsistent with the statement in Mt 9:17, but it detracts from the spirit of the comparison which implies the presence of a strong, expansive, penetrating principle. It is, however, inconsistent with Job 32:19, where the distension is 'described as occurring even in new bottles. It is very likely that new vine was preserved in the state of must by placing it in jars or bottles, and then burying it in the earth. But we should be inclined to understand the passages above quoted as referring to wine drawn off before the fermentation was complete, either for immediate use, or for the purpose of forming it into sweet wine after the manner described by the Geoponic. writers (7, 19). The presence of the gas-bubble, or, as the Hebrews termed it, "the eye that sparkled in the cup" (Pr 23:31), was one of the tokens of fermentation having taken place, and the same effect was very possibly implied in the name chemer (הֶמֶר).
The testimony of the rabbins is to the same effect. They say, "Tirosh, תירושׁ, is new wine; the liquor of the grapes first pressed out, which easily takes possession of the mind of man" (Sanhedr. 76, 1). "If thou abuse it, thou shalt be poor; if thou rightly use it, thou shalt be head" (Yoma, 76, 2). Again, in the, Gernara. "Wherefore is it called tirôsh? Because all who are drawn to it shall be poor." Such is the testimony of the rabbins, "who ought to know something of their own language." In accordance with this, the Targumists Onkelos and Jonathan render tirôsh, in every instance of its occurrence (except in three cases where there is no word, or the word for vineyard), by the word המר, chamar (see Tattam, Reply, p. 5, 6).
3. Chehme?, חֶמֶר. (from חָמִר, cestuavitferbuit), or in, its Chaldee form, chamar, חֲמִר '(Sept. οϊvνος, καλός), is "in vinum a fervendo et fermentando dictum"(Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 493). The word occurs eight times-twice. (De 32:14; Isa 27:2) in its Hebrew and six times (Ezr 6:9; Ezr 7:22; Da 5:1-2,4,23) in the Chaldee form. In De 32:14 it is (in the A. V., after the Vulg.) treated as an adjective, and rendered "pure", "the pure blood of the grape," instead of "the blood of the grape-wine," chemer. The rabbins call it "pure or neat wine" (i.e. no water being mixed with the juice of the grape), "because it disturbs the head and the brain" (Tattam). They regarded chemer and tirôsh "as equivalent terms." This pure, powerful wine, was permitted to the Israelites (De 32:14); and is spoken of with approbation by Isaiah, "In that day sing ye unto him. A vineyard of red wine (chemer); I, the Lord, do keep it"(Isa 27:2-3). Cyrus and Arta xerxes commanded that chemer should be given to the people of Israel "for the service of the God of heaven (Ezr 6:9).
Shekár, שֵׁכָר (from , שֵׁכָר inebriavit se; Sept. σίκερα, οινος μεθυσμα, μέθη -; Vulg. vinun), is "fermetum an inebriating drink, whether wine prepared or distilled from barley or from honey or from dates (Geseniuts, Thesaur. p. 1440). So Fürst who adds, "or any other kind, of intoxicating drink comprehended under the name τῶν σικέρωνς "Jerome says, Sicera (שֵכִר) Hebraeo sermone omnis potio, qule inebriare potest, sivrilla quae frumento conficitulr, sive pomorum succo, aut quum favi decoquuitur in dulcem et barbaaram potionem, aut. palmarum fructus exprimuntur in liquorem coctisque frugibus aqua pinguior coloratur (Ep. ad Nepotianum). In the A.V. the word is once rendered "strong- wine"(Nu 28:7); and elsewhere, occurring along with yàyin, "strong drink" (6:3; De 29:29; Jg 13:4,7,14; Isa 5:11; Isa 56; Isa 12; Mic 2:11; and the passages cited below). Onkelos, On Numbers 28:7, calls it "old wine." Rabbi Solomon, rabbi Eleasar, Aben - Ezra, and others call it "intoxicating wine." "The word means strong drink, from whatever substance made" (Tattam). It was used as a drink-offering in the service of God (Nu 28:7), and was, notwithstanding its highly intoxicating property, permitted to the Israelites (De 14:26). SEE DRINK; SEE STRONG.
A vain attempt has been made, by connecting the word etymologically with sugar, to prove, in the face of the clearest evidence to the contrary, that it was a sweet, non-intoxicating syrup (see Lees, Works). The word is employed in the following passages in such a manner as to show decisively that it denotes an intoxicating drink: Le 10:9, where the priests are forbidden to drink wine or shekár when they go into the tabernacle; 1Sa 1:15, where Hannah, charged with drunkenness by Eli, replies it is not so "I have drunk neither wine nor shekár" Ps 69:12, where the psalmist complains, "I was the song of the drinkers of shekár" (A. V. "drunkards"); Pr 20:1, "Wine is a mocker, shekár is raging, and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise;"31:4, 5, "It is not for kings to drink wine, nor for princes shekár, lest they drink and forget the law;" Isa 5:22, "Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle shekar" 28:7: "They also have erred through wine, and through shekár are out of the way: the priest'and the prophet-have erred through shekár, they are swallowed up of wine. they are out of the way through shekáru;" 29:9, "They are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with shekár."
5. 'Asis, עָסַיס (from עָסִס, to tread; Sept. νᾶμα, γλυκασμός, οινος νέος, μέθη; Targ. חֲמִר מֵרִת, "pure wine;" Vulg. "dulcedo, mustum"), is must, that which is expressed from grapes by treading, or from pomegranates (Gesenisus. Thesaur. p. 1054). Henderson says, "By עָסַיס is meant the fresh wine, or juice of the grape or other fruit which has just been pressed out, and is remarkable for its sweet flavor and its freedom from intoxicating qualities" (Comment. on Joel 1, 5). Its extraction from pomegranates is referred to in Song 8:2 ("juice"), Yet its intoxicating quality seems intimated in Isa 49:26, "They shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine" (asis); Joe 1:5, "Awake, ye drunkards, and weep… because of the new wine (asis), for it is cut off from your mouth." It is promised by God as a blessing (Joe 3:17-18; Am 9:13).
6. Sôbè, סֹבֶא (from סָבָא, pofavit, idque intemperantius, gurgitavit, to drink to excess, to tope [Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 932]; Sept. οιμος; Vulg. vinum), occurs only in three places (Isa 1; Isa 22, "wine;" Ho 4:18, "drink;" Na 1:10, "drunken"), but the verb and participle often-the latter to denote drunk, a drunkard, a toper. Gesenius renders the noun in Isa 1; Isa 22 vinum, but in Ho 4:18 compotatio, a drinking-bout, a carouse; so Henderson, Dathe, etc. The Sept. must have followed a various reading in this place. Sôbè, then, means some (or perhaps any) kind of intoxicating drink.
7. Mesek, מֶסֶך (from מָסִך, to mix, or mingle), is wine mixed with water or aromatics (Sept. κέρασμα; Vulg. inistum). It occurs only once (Ps 60:12,9); but the participial noun מַמסָך, nmimsdak, is found in Pr 23:30; Isa 56:11, in a similar sense-wine highly spiced, to improve its flavor and enhance its intoxicating power. See below.
8. Shemanrim, שׁמָרַים (from שָׁמִר, to keep, preserve lay up; Sept. τρυγέας, φύλαγμα, δόξα; Villg. faces, vendemice; A. V. "lees," "dregs," "wine on the lees"), occurs five times, and always in the plural. It is used both of lees and of wine preserved on the lees: of lees, Ps 75:8; Jer 48; Jer 11; Zep 1; Zep 2, in all which passages it is used in a figurative sense; in the second and third, the form of expression is proverbial, being used of individuals and nations— "de iis qui desides, atque otiosi sunt, vel certe vita utuntur quieta, tranquilla, metaphora a vino petita, quod diu in cella reconditum fbecibus superjaciet et intactum asservatur, quo validius fit vinum odorque fragrantior" (Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 1444). It is used of wine, Isa 25:6 (bis), where the prophet foretells the rich provision of Gospel blessings under the figure of "a feast of fat things, of wines on the lees, shemarim, well refined (מַזקקַים, defecated i.e. "vinum vetus et nobilissimum a tdcibus purgatum"(Gesenius), or "curm feecibus servatium (Hefenwein), quod defecatum et clarificatun in conviviis opiparis apponitur"(Ftirst, Concord. p. 1177). The word is used of lees, according to some, "from their preserving the strength and flavor of wine"(Alexander); according to others as "id quod ad ultimum usque reservatur et remanet faeces, utpote quae in imo vasis fundo subsident" (Fürst). This "vetus et nobilissimum vinum" is spoken of approvingly in the last-cited passage.
9. Ashishah, אֲשַׁישָׁה (Sept. λάγανον ἀπὸ πηγάνου, πέμμα, ἀμορίτης, i.e. a cake from the frying-pan, a baked cake, a sweet cake, is a variation of rendering truly. The Targ. of Jonathan on Ex 16:31 uses אֲשַׁישׁיָן for the Heb. צפַּיחית a flat cake. The traditio Judaica is גִּרַבא דַחִמרָא,a ajar of wine. The A. V. has "flagons," "flagons of wine"). The plural of the word occurs both in the masculine and feminine forms. Critics are pretty generally agreed that it does not denote wine or any other drink, but a cake, such as was "prepared from dried grapes, or raisins pressed or compacted into a certain form. Cakes of this kind are mentioned as delicacies with which the weary and languid are refreshed (2Sa 6:19; 1Ch 16:3; Song 2:5), and were offered in sacrifice to idols (Ho 3:1). They differed from צַמּוּק, i.e. grapes dried but not compacted into the form of cakes; and also from דּבֵלָה, i.e. figs pressed into cakes." So Gesenius, who derives the word from אָשִׁשׁ, to press, although Ginsburg would derive it from a similar form denoting to burn. The evidence seems in favor of a cake, especially a grape cake, in which latter sense it certainly occurs in Ho 3:1, where, however, it is written more fully, or rather with the addition of עֲנָבַים, grapes, which fills up its meaning, אֲשַׁישֵׁי עֲנָבַים =Z cakes of grapes. Dr. Tattam, resting on the authority of rabbins whom he quotes, seems inclined to abide by the rendering of the A.V. (see Reply, p. 13, 14). SEE CAKE.
10. Three other words may here be noticed. חמֶ , chomeets (Sept. ὄξος, but in Pr 10:26 ὄμφαξ, i.e. sour grapes; so the Syr.; Vulg. acetum; A. V. "vinegar," rightly), occurs five times. This, it appears, was obtained either from yàyin or shekár (Nu 6:3), and was used by those engaged in the labors of the field to soften and render more palatable the dry bread which formed the food of the reapers (Ru 2:14). It was also used as a beverage, probably mixed, with water (Nu 6:3), in which case it would resemble the posca of the Komans, which was not an intoxicating drink, and was used only by the poorer classes (Plaut. Mil. Glor. 3, 2, 23). In Mt 27:34 our Lord is said to 'have had vinegar mingled with gall offered to him to drink when on the cross. Mark (Mr 15:23) says it was wine mingled with myrrh; Luke that it was vinegar offered by the soldiers in mockery (Lu 23:36); and John that it was vinegar (Joh 19:29). Possibly these accounts refer to two separate occurrences-the one an act of cruelty on the part of the soldiers, who, in response to our Lord's exclamation, "I thirst," offered him some of their own posca; the other an act of intended kindness; designed to alleviate his sufferings by an anodyne. SEE VINEGAR.
Anabim, עֲנָבַים (A.V. "wine" in Ho 3:1; elsewhere correctly "grapes"). SEE GRAPE.
Yekeb, יֶקֶב (A. V. "wine" in De 16:13; elsewhere correctly "press"). SEE WINE-PRESS.
11. In the New Test. several words are employed denoting wine.
(1.) Οινος, comprehending every sort of wine.
(2.) Γλεῦκος, sweet, or "new wine," which, as well as the former, seems, from the use made of it (Ac 2:13), to signify wine of an intoxicating quality. "These men are full of new wine," to which charge Peter replies, "These men are not drunken as ye suppose" (Ac 5:15), although Dr. Lees's, interpretation is fairly admissible that the language is that of mockery, as if we should say of a drunken man, He has taken too much water. The gleukos was the fruit of the grape, so kept as to preserve its sweetness, "perhaps made of a remarkably sweet, small grape, which is understood by the Jewish expositors to be meant by sorek (שׂרֵך Ge 49; Ge 11), or sorekáh (שׂרֵכָה, Isa 5; Isa 2), and still found in Syria and Arabia"(Alford, On Acts 2, 13). So Suidas, τὸ ἀποσταλάγμα τῆς σταφυλῆς πρὶν πατηθῆ. It could not be new wine, in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. It might have been applied, just as mustum was by the Romans, to wine that had been preserved for about a year in an unfermented state (Cato, De Re Rustica, c. 120). But the explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape; for both in Hesychius and the Etymologicum Magnum the term γλεῦκος is explained to be the juice that flowed spontaneously from the grape before the treading commenced. The name itself, therefore, is not conclusive as to its being an unfermented liquor, while the context implies the reverse for Peter would hardly have offered a serious defense to an accusation that was not seriously made; and yet if the sweet wine in question were not intoxicating, the accusation could only have been ironical (see Walch, De Vatura τοῦ γλεύκους [Jen. 17551).
As considerable stress is laid upon the quality of sweetness as distinguished from strength, we may' observe that the usual term for the inspissated juice of the grape, which was characterized more especially by sweetness, was debásh (דּבִשׁ), rendered in the A.V. "honey"(Ge 43:11; Eze 27:17). This was prepared by boiling it down either to a third of its original bulk, in which case it was termed sapa by the Latins and ἕψημα or σίραιον by the Greeks, or else to half its bulk, in which case it was termed deiutum (Pliny, 14:11). Both the substance and the name, under the form of dibs, are in common use in Syria at the present day. We may further notice a. less artificial mode of producing a sweet liquor from the grape, namely, by pressing the juice directly into the cup, as described in Ge 40:11.
Lastly, there appears to have been a beverage, also of a sweet character, produced by macerating grapes, and hence termed the "liquor" (מַשׁרָה) of grapes (Nu 6:3). These later preparations are allowed in the Koran (16, 69) as substitutes for wine.
(3.) Γέννημα, or γένημα, τῆς ἀμπέλου, fruit of the vine=wine (Lu 22:18).
(4.) Οινος ἄκρατος, pure wine (Re 14:10)— οινον ἄκρατον ειναι λέγομεν, ῳ μὴ μέμικται τὸ Þδωρ, ἤ παντάπασιν ὀλίγον μέμικται (Galen in Wettstein, cited by Alford). Here the phrase is used figuratively. See below.
(5.) Ο᾿ξος, sour wine, or vinegar (Mt 27:48; Mr 15:36, etc.).
(6.) Σίκερα (A.V. "strong drink;" Heb. שֵׁכָר), "any strong drink made of grapes"(Robinson, Alford, etc.).
II. Historical Notices of the Use of Wine in the Bible. The first instance we have of wine in the Old Test. is in the case of Noah, who "planted a vineyard, and did drink of the wine (yàyin), and was drunken"(Ge 9:20-21). The culture of the vine no doubt existed before, but the patriarch now resumes the occupation which had been interrupted by the Flood. "Nowhere does the vine grow spontaneously in such abundance and excellence as in the region of Ararat, in Armenia, and the Eastern Pontus; but, no doubt, the culture of the vine was of remote antiquity, invented by one nation and spread to other countries; for thus only can the remarkable circumstance be accounted for that wine bears the same name in almost all Eastern and Western nations" (Kalisch, On Genesis 9:20, 21). "It may be added that the Egyptians attributed the manufacture of wine to Osiris, the Phoenicians and Greeks to Bacchus, the Romans to Saturn" (ibid.). SEE VINE.
The second notice of wine is in the history of Lot, whose daughters "made their father drink wine" (yàyin), so that he became stupidly intoxicated (Ge 19:32, etc.). It next occurs in Isaac's blessing pronounced on Jacob: "The Lord give thee . . . plenty of corn and wine" (yàyin)
(Ge 27:28). The next notice of the juice of the grape (although, be it observed, the product is not called wine) is in connection with Egypt (Ge 40; Ge 11), when the chief butler says, "I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup." Are we to take these words according to their strict literality? Did the kings of Egypt, at the time, drink the unfermented juice of the grape only? However that maybe, and although an affirmative answer seems demanded, yet we know that the vine was cultivated in Egypt from very ancient times, representations of the process of the manufacture of wines being found on tombs belonging: to the 4th dynasty; that wine was used almost universally by the rich; that it was freely drunk at the banquets of both men and women, and even excessively, as the monuments abundantly testify; that it was drunk even by the priests, and offered in the temples to their gods. All this is now well ascertained, notwithstanding the contradictory statements of Herodotus on some points (see Rawlinson, Herod. 2, 103, 126; Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt. 1, 144, etc.). It has been inferred from a passage in Plutarch (De Isid. 6) that no wine was drunk in Egypt before the reign of Psammetichus, and this passage has been quoted in illustration of Ge 40; Ge 11. The meaning of the author seems rather to be that the kings subsequently to Psammetichus did not restrict themselves to the quantity of wine prescribed to them by reason of their sacerdotal office (Diod. 1, 70).
In the laws of Moses wine is frequently mentioned as forming the usual drink-offering that accompanied the daily sacrifice (Ex 29:40), the presentation of the first-fruits (Le 23:13), and other offerings (Nu 15:5). It appears from Nu 28:7 that strong drink might be-substituted for it on these occasions. Tithe was to be paid of wine (tirsh) as of other products, and this was to be consumed "before the Lord," meaning within the precincts of the Temple, or perhaps, as may be inferred from Le 7:16, at the place where the Temple was situated (De 12:17-18). The priest was also to receive first- fruits of wine (tirtsh), as of other articles (18, 4; comp. Ex 22:29); and a promise of plenty was attached to the faithful payment of these dues (Pr 3:9-10). ''Wine offered to God as a drink-offering (Nu 15:5,7,10) furnishes the key to the peculiar language of Jotham's parable, "wine that cheereth God and man"(Jg 9; Jg 13) an exposition much preferable to that which renders the words "the gods and men;" for wine was offered to God as the drink of the Great King, the symbol of our best spiritual things which we offer in his worship. Wine was forbidden to the priests during the performance of their sacred' duties in the tabernacle (Le 10:9), which prohibition seems to have originated in. the offence of Nadab and Abihu, who, most probably, "transgressed through wine." At other times the priests were at liberty to drink wine. To the Nazarites, while under their vow, not only wine, but vinegar, and the fruit of the vine generally, in every form, was prohibited (Nu 6:3-4). The Israelites were at liberty to drink wine even at their national sacred festivals when rejoicing before the Lord (De 14:22-26). The Rechabites are mentioned as very peculiar in their abstinence from wine, as well as their refraining to live in houses, and are commended, not for their abstinence, but for their obedience to the command of their ancestor (Jeremiah 35). The cultivation of the vine was incompatible with the conditions of a nomad life, and it was probably on this account that Jonadab, wishing to perpetuate that kind of life among his posterity, prohibited the use of wine to them. The case is exactly parallel to that of the Nabathaeans, who abstained from wine on purely political grounds (Diod. 19:94). The use of wine at the paschal feast was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The cup was handed round four times according to the ritual prescribed in the Mishna (Pesach. 10:1), the third cup being designated the "cup of blessing"(1Co 10:16), because grace was then said (Pesach. 10:7). The contents of the cup are specifically described by our Lord as "the fruit"(γέννημα) of the vine (Mt 26:29; Mr 14:25; Lu 22:18), and in the Mishna simply as wine. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions, as implied in the notice of the warming-kettle (Pesach. 7:13). Hence in the early Christian Church it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water, a custom as old, at all events, as Justin Martyr's time (Apol. 1, 65). SEE PASSOVER. The rabbins have a curious tradition, that at the great feast which shall inaugurate the coming of the Messiah he shall drink wine made from grapes which grew in Paradise during the six creative days, and preserved in Adam's cave for that great occasion (Othonis Lex. s.v. "Vinum;" Buxtorf, Syn. Jud. p. 460).
The Pastoral Epistles contain directions as to the moderate use of wine on the part of all holding office in the Church; as that they should not be πάροινοι (1Ti 3:3; A.V." given to wine"), meaning insolent and violent under the influence of wine; "not given to much wine" (1Ti 3:8); "not enslaved to much wine" (Tit 2:3). The term
νηφάλεος in 1Ti 3:2 (A. V. "sober"), expresses general vigilance and circumspection (Schleusner, Lex. s.v.; Alford, ad loc.). Paul advises Timothy himself to be no longer an habitual water-drinker, but to take a little wine for his health's sake (1Ti 5:23). No very satisfactory reason can be assigned for the place which this injunction holds in the epistle, unless it were intended to correct any possible misapprehension as to the preceding' words, "Keep thyself pure." The precepts above quoted, as well as others to the same effect addressed to the disciples generally (Ro 13:13; Galatians 5, 21; 1Pe 4:3), show the extent to which intemperance prevailed -in ancient times, and the extreme 'danger to which the Church was subjected from this quarter.
It appears to have been an ancient custom to give medicated or drugged wine to criminals condemned to death, to blunt their senses, and so lessen the pains of execution. To this custom there is supposed to be an allusion, Pr 31:6, "Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish-;"and an illustration of the custom is furnished by the soldiers giving Jesus "wine mingled with myrrh," or, which is the same, "vinegar" i.e. sour wine; "mingled with gall," i.e. a bitter drug, without specifying the kind (Mr 15:23; Mt 27:34). "Omnes a synedrio ad mortem damnati potarunt יין חי, vino vivo (h.e. optimo, torti) ut diriperetur intellectus ejus, ad confirmandum id dicitur, Pr 31:6, etc. De perituro dicetur, id fieri, ut obliviscatur mortis, qum est infortunium ipsius" (Schöttgen, Hor. Heb. p. 236). To the same custom some suppose there is a reference in Am 2; Am 8, where the "wine of the condemned" (A. V.) is spoken of. The margin reads, instead of condemned, "fined or mulcted;" so Gesenius; Henderson, amerced. The wicked here described, in addition to other evil practices, imposed unjust fines upon the innocent, and spent the money thus unjustly obtained upon wine, which they quaffed in the house of their gods; as, Dathe renders: "pecunias hominibus innocentibus extortas compotationibus absumunt in templis deorulm suorum."
Mixed wine is often spoken of in Scripture. This was of different kinds. Sometimes it was mixed with water to take it down (Isa 1:22); sometimes with milk (Song 5:1); and sometimes, by lovers of strong drink, with spices of various kinds, to give it a richer flavor and greater potency (Isa 5:22; Ps 75:8). Both the Greeks and Romans were in the habit of flavoring their wines with spices, and such preparations were described by the former as wine ἐξ ἀρωμάτων κατασκευαζόμενος (Athen. 1, 31 e), and by the latter as aromatites
(Pliny, 14:19, 5). The authority of the Mishna may be cited in favor both of water and of spices, the former being noticed in Berach. 7:5; Pesach. 7:13; and the latter in Shen. 2, 1.
The "royal wine," literally wine of the kingdom, יֵין מִלכַוּת (Es 1; Es 7), denotes most probably the best wine, such as the king of Persia himself was accustomed to drink. "Wine of Lebanon" is referred to in such a way as to indicate its peculiar excellence-"the scent thereof shall be as the wine of Lebanon" (Ho 14:7). Hence it is thought to have been distinguished by its grateful smell. But זֵכֶר means, as the margin renders it, memorial, and includes odor, flavor, and refreshing influence. Modern travelers attest the excellence of the wine of Lebanon. The "wine" of Helbon, or Chalybon, is mentioned as one of the importations of Tyre (Eze 27:18), and was very famous. It was greatly valued by the Persian monarchs (Strabo, 15:735), as it still is by the residents of Damascus (Porter, Damascus, 1, 333).
The wines of modern Palestine are represented by travelers as being of excellent quality. The sweet wines are particularly esteemed in the East, because they are grateful to the taste, very exhilarating, and some of them will keep for a long time. They were therefore preferred by those who were addicted to drinking, and commonly selected for the tables of kings. Their inebriating quality is alluded to by the prophet Isaiah: "I will feed them that oppress you with their own flesh, and they shall be drunken as with sweet wine"(Isa 49:26). "The testimony of travelers respecting the spirituous nature of the wines of Palestine accords with that of the sacred writers.... It is observed by Thevenot that the people of the Levant never mingle water with their wine at meals, but drink by itself what water they think proper for abating its strength. While the Greeks and Romans by mixed wine understood wine united and lowered with water, the Hebrews, on the contrary, meant by it wine made stronger and more inebriating by the addition of powerful ingredients... The wines of Palestine are generally kept in bottles made of leather, or goat-skins sewed or pitched together. In these the process of fermentation took place, and the wine acquired its proper degree of strength. In absence of anything like chemical analysis, these are the data from which we must draw our conclusions concerning the nature of the wines referred to by the sacred writers. Some of them are represented to have been sweet wines, which, if not the strongest, are known to have been very strong. The grapes from which they were produced were remarkable for their richness and excellence; the climate of the country being such as to favor the growth and development of those principles which, during fermentation, were converted into alcohol. As the grapes of that country are now known to furnish very rich and spirituous wines, we may infer that the ancient were similar in their character; since there is abundant evidence that the climate has not suffered any material change for three thousand years. We should not omit, in confirmation of this view of the spirituous nature of the wines of Palestine, to advert to the modes in which they were kept. It is now well known that when mixtures of alcohol and water are put into bladders, the water evaporates and leaves the alcohol in a more concentrated form. It is asserted that wine which has been kept in bottles closed by pieces of bladder firmly tied over the mouth, in a few weeks acquire the strength and flavor which would be imparted to it only by several years preservation in the ordinary way. Now, it is probable that the leather bags into which these wines are put would produce a similar effect upon the liquor which, after then process of fermentation had ceased, would soon attain its complete and appropriate alcoholic character" (Prof. Silliman, Amer. Jour. of Science and Arts, 1834).
"The wine was generally contained in large ox-skins ranged round the store-room, and quite distended with liquor. The larger skins seem to have answered to casks; the smaller goat and kid skins, to barrels and keg's in the comparison, to be chiefly used in conveying to customers the smallest quantities required. Individuals rarely keep large stores of wine in their houses, but get a small supply of a goat-skin or two from the winestore. This seems also to have been the case 'with the ancient Jews, for Nehemiah, although holding the rank of governor, had no store of wine, for we read he had a supply every ten days (Ne 5:18). The large skins in the Wine-store we have mentioned are supported above the floor on frames of wood" (Kitto, Pict. Bible. note on Job 32:19). 'Similar methods of storing and keeping wine were common to the Greeks and Romans. See Smith, Dict. of Class. Antiq s.v. "Vinum."
III. Teaching of the Scriptures in respect to the Use of Wine. —
1. As appears from the foregoing examination, the Bible makes no distinction between intoxicating and non-intoxicating wines never refers or alludes to such a distinction. Yet wine, יִיַן - οινος, is constantly spoken of in precisely the same way that corn and oil and milk are spoken of--namely, as a blessing sent by God for the use of man. It was enjoined to be used in the service of God. It is employed as a symbol of the highest spiritual blessings (Isa 55:1-2). The use of it was common among the Jews, as it is among the people of all wine-producing countries. It was forbidden to the Nazarites alone, and that only while under their vow. The use of it is in one case distinctly prescribed by Paul to Timothy (1Ti 5:23). Jesus Christ came "drinking wine" as well as "eating bread" (Lu 7:33-34), and in one instance miraculously produced a supply of wine when it was needed (John 2). We attach great importance, religiously and theologically, to these facts. Jesus was no ascetic. He gave no countenance to asceticism. By drinking wine-freely using the blessings of God's providence-he testified against: the error, afterwards called Gnostic and Manichaean, which would attach impurity. to that which enters the mouth, and vindicated the liberty of his followers to use "every creature of God" as good and fit for food, and to be received with thanksgiving by them as those who "believe and know the truth" (1Ti 4:3-4). But this error repelled, and this liberty asserted, none are obliged to drink wine or to eat meat if they prefer not. There is liberty on this side also. They may abstain if they choose. Paul expressed his readiness to abstain from "flesh" and "wine" to secure the good of a brother, or to avoid occasioning him injury (Romans 14; 21; comp. 1Co 8:13). The same liberty is ours; and if a great practical good may be attained by abstinence, Christian benevolence calls us in this direction.
But while liberty to use wine, as well as every other earthly blessing, is conceded and maintained in the Bible, yet all abuse of it is solemnly and earnestly condemned. In the book of Proverbs the warnings against such abuse are frequent and severe (Pr 20:1; Pr 23:29,35; Pr 31:4-7). It is the same in the New Test. (1Co 6:10; Ga 5:21); "Be not drunk with wine; not given to much wine." Such are its precepts — precepts which would have little or no force, or even meaning, were wine not intoxicating, and were there not some peculiar danger incident to its use. If wine were not intoxicating, the apostle might as well have exhorted them against drinking too much milk or too much water. He takes for granted the right to use; he recognizes the danger incident to the use; but instead of prohibiting, he cautions and exhorts against excess. Moderation in eating and drinking, is the broad Christian law. Abstinence from some kinds of food may become a duty under peculiar circumstances. Self- denial, in relation to things lawful, is often imperative. Wine is good; is a gift of God. It may be used with advantage; it may be abused, but not innocently or with impunity. It may be declined in the exercise of Christian liberty; it ought to be declined if doing so helps forward the cause of humanity, morality, and religion, and promotes the glory of God. In view, however, of the almost impossibility of procuring genuine wine in the United States without extravagant cost, and the fact that in order to its preservation it is invariably more alcoholic than the light wines of Bible times usually were, and especially in view of the dangerous tendency to intoxicating habits involved in the use of wine as a beverage, not only to the drinker, but to his family and friends, it cannot be doubted that the wisest and most Christian course is to abstain wholly from it. This is in accordance with the apostolic precept of self-restraint (1Co 8:13).
2. There is no positive proof that the fluid used by our Lord in instituting the sacred communion was alcoholic; it is nowhere expressly called wine, but simply the "fruit of the vine"(Mt 26:29). That it was wine, properly so called, however, is a fair presumption 'from the fact that this was the customary liquor of the Jews in the Passover meal, as we learn from the definite prescription of the Talmud ("There shall not be less than four cups of wine" [yàyin], Mishna, Pesach. 10, 1). Many modern Jews, it is said, use the liquor of steeped raisins for paschal purposes; but there is no trace of such a custom in ancient times.
Therefore the use of any other fluid in the communion at the present day must be justified, if at all, from prudential considerations growing out of the modern temperance reform; just as we consider ourselves at liberty to vary the kind of bread (originally unleavened), the posture of the communicant, and other unessential details, to suit the convenience of the occasion and the parties. These considerations are undoubtedly of the gravest character, especially the danger of relapse to, reformed inebriates partaking or even approaching the communion table, where the taste or fumes of alcohol are liable to revive their appetite. . If, as it is -confidently claimed by many, unfermented grape-juice can be procured at a moderate cost and without great inconvenience, and can be preserved with ordinary care a sufficient length of time, and is not offensive to the sense, or otherwise particularly objectionable, there is no reason why ceremonious scruples should be allowed to stand in the way of its employment. Whether individuals not susceptible to such a danger as the above are excusable in withholding themselves from the communions where alcoholic wine is used, is quite another question, which it does not lie within the scope of this article to discuss.
IV. Literature. — This is quite copious. We mention, in addition to the works noticed above, 'only the most important and modern. General treatises on the manufacture, etc., of wines have been written by Henderson (Lond. 1831), Redding (ibid. 1851), Denman, (ibid. 1864), Thudichum (ibid. 1872), and others, but they are chiefly of a commercial character. The moral aspects of the subject have been considered in numberless books and periodical articles; among the latter we may especially refer to those in the Biblical Repository, Oct. 1836, and Oct. 1839; and the Bibliotheca Sacra, Jan. 1869; Jan., April, and June, 1880. Dr. F. R. Lees in various works, has strongly asserted that the wines of antiquity were largely non-alcoholic, and this view has incautiously been adopted by several later writers. as Ritchie, Nott, Stuart, Burns, etc., and by many temperance advocates; but it has been powerfully combated by others, especially Tattam, Crosby, and scholars generally. The latest and most complete treatise on this question is that of Wilson, The Wines of the Bible (Lond. 1877), which, after minutely examining all the classical and scriptural references, arrives at the conclusion that "so far as the wines of the ancients are concerned, unfermented wine is a myth." The effort of Samson, The Divine Law as to Wine (N. Y. 1880), to meet this testimony by garbling the ancient statements and contradicting the modern is feeble and unworthy. Tristram observes, "All the terms for wine [in the Bible] are used in collocations which clearly show that fermentation is implied; nor is there the slightest ground in criticism for the pretence that the unfermented juice of the grape vas ordinarily used "(Nat. Hist. of the Bible, p. 411). An article by Rev. H. Bumstead, in the Bibliotheca Sacrat for January, 1881, fairly meets the scientific, philological, and moral aspects of the "wine question" as presented by Rev. A. B. Rich, D.D., in the January, April, and July numbers of the same journal. It shows, at least, that alcohol when taken in moderate quantity and in its natural combinations, is not properly a poison, but is assimilated and healthily disposed of in digestion; that tirôsh denotes the produce of the vine in general, while yàyin always signifies the fermented juice of the grape; and that to no one of the words translated "wine" does the Bible attach an indiscriminate and absolute condemnation. SEE TEMPERANCE.