Vinegar (חֹמֵוֹ ; Sept. and N.T. ὄξος ; Vulg. acetun). The Hebrew term chomets was applied to a beverage; consisting generally of wine or strong drink turned sour (whence its use was proscribed to the Nazarite, Nu 6:3), but sometimes artificially made by an admixture of barley and wine, and thus liable to fermentation (Mishna, Pesach. 3, 1). It was acid even to a proverb (Pr 10:26), and by itself formed a nauseous draught (Ps 69:21), but was serviceable for the purpose of sopping bread, as used by laborers (Ru 2:14), being refreshing in the heat (Pliny, 23:26; comp. 2, 49). The degree of its acidity may be inferred from Pr 25:20, where its effect on niter is noticed. SEE WINE. Similar to the chomets of the Hebrews was the acetum of the Romans — a thin, sour wine, consumed by soldiers (Veget. De Re Mil. 4:7) either in a pure state or, more usually, mixed with water, when it was termed posca (Pliny, 19:29; Spartian. Hadr. 10). This was the beverage of which the Savior partook in his dying moments (Mt 27:48; Mr 15:36; Joh 19:29-30), and doubtless it was refreshing to his exhausted frame, though offered in derision either on that occasion or previously (Lu 23:36). The same liquid, mingled with gall (as Matthew states, probably with the view of marking the fulfillment of the prediction in Ps 69:21), or with myrrh (as Mark states, with an eye to the exact historical fact), was offered to the Savior at an earlier stage of his sufferings, in order to deaden the perception of pain (Mt 27:34; Mr 15:23). See Grabner, De Posca (Misen. 1701; Pfaff, De Felle Esca (Tub. 1755); Bynieus, De Morte Jesu Chr. 3, 265. SEE CRUCIFIXION.