Shoshan'nim (Heb. Shoshannim', שֹׁשִׁנַּי, lilies, as often), a technical term, found as such in the phrase "To the chief musician upon Shoshannim," which is a musical direction to the leader of the temple choir that occurs in Ps 45; Ps 69, and most probably indicates the melody "after" or "in the manner of" (עִל, 'al, A.V. "upon") which the Psalms were to be sung. SEE SHOSHANNIM- EDUTH. As "Shoshannim" literally signifies "lilies," it has been suggested that the word denotes lily shaped instruments of music (Simonis, Lex. s.v.), perhaps cymbals (rather trumpets), and this view appears to be adopted by De Wette (Die Psalmen, p. 34). Hengstenberg gives to it an enigmatical interpretation, as indicating "the subject or subjects treated, as lilies
figuratively for biride in 45; the delightful consolations and deliverances experienced in 69, etc." (Davidson, Introd. 2, 246), which Dr. Davidson very truly characterizes as "a most improbable fancy." The Sept. and Vulg. have in both Psalms ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀλλοιωθησομένων, and pro ius qui immutabuntur respectively, reading apparently עִל משֻׁנַּי ם. Ben Zeb (Otsar Hashshor, s.v.) regards it as an instrument of psalmody, and Junius and Tremellius, after Kirnchi, render it "hexachorda," an instrument with six strings, referring it to the root shesh, "six," and this is approved by Eichhorn in his edition of Simonis. SEE PSALMS.