Rutherforth, Thomas, an English philosopher and divine, was born in Cambridgeshire, Oct. 13, 1712. He was educated at St. John's, Cambridge, taking his degree of A.B. in 1729 and A.M. in 1733. He was chosen fellow and made B.D. in 1740. Two years after, he was chosen fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1745 was appointed professor of divinity, took his degree of D.D, and was appointed chaplain to the Prince of Wales. He was afterwards rector of Barrow, in Suffolk; Shenstone, in Essex; Barley, in Hertfordshire; and in 1752 archdeacon of Essex. He died Oct. 5, 1771, and was buried in the church at Barley. He was the author of Ordo Institutionum Physicarum, etc. (Camb. 1743, 4to): — Essay on the Nature and Obligations of Virtue (Lond. 1744, 8vo): — System of Natural Philosophy (Camb. 1748, 2 vols. 4to): — Credibility of Miracles Defended (1751, 8vo): — Institutes of Natural Law (Lond. 1754-56, 2 vols. 8vo; 2d American ed. Baltimore, 1832), lectures read in St. John's College, Cambridge: — also Letters, Sermons, etc. See Hutton, Dict.; Nichol, Lit. Anecdotes; Watt, Bibl. Brit.