Rutherford, Samuel, a Scottish minister and Covenanter, was born in the parish of Nisbet, Roxburghshire, about 1600. He was ordained minister of Anworth in 1627, but was silenced in 1636 for preaching against the articles of Perth. During the Rebellion he was a zealous defender of Presbyterianism, and in 1639 was appointed professor of divinity in the New College, St. Andrew's. He was commissioner to the assembly of divines at Westminster, 1643-47; principal of New College, St. Andrew's, 1649; and shortly after was raised to the rectorship. He died in 1661. Besides other works, he was the author of Exercitationes Apologeticoe pro Divina Gratia, etc. (Amst. 1636, 8vo; Francf. 1651, 1660, 8vo): — Plea for Paul's Presbytrie in Scotland (Lond. 1642): — Due Rights of Presbyteries (1644, 1645, 4to): — Tryal and Triumph of Faith (1645, 4to; Edinb. 1845, 12mo), twenty-seven sermons: — Divine Right of Church Government, etc. (Lond. 1646, 4to): — Christ's Dying, etc. (1647, 4to), sermons: — Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist (ibid. 1648, 2 parts, 4to): — A Free Disputation against Pretended Liberty of Conscience (1649, 4to): Disputatio Scholastica de Divina Providentia, etc. (Edinb. 1649, 1650, 4to): — Life of Grace (1659, 4to):--Joshua Redivivus, or (352) Religious Letters (1664, 2 parts, 12mo; 1671, 8vo; with his dying words and Mr. M'Ward's preface, Glasg. 1765, 8vo; 9th ed. with biographical sketches, edited by Rev. A. Bonar, 1862, 2 vols. 8vo): — A Garden of Spices: — extracts from above by Rev. L.R. Dunn (Cincinnati, 1869, 12mo). See Murray, Life, etc.; Scots Worthies; Livingston, Characteristics; Watt, Bibl. Brit.; Thompson, Biog. Dict. of Eminent Scotsmen; Allibone, Dict. of Brit. and Amer. Authors, s.v.