Rashbam (רשבם), the initials of RABBI SAMUEL BEN-MEIR, Rashi's daughter's son, who was born at Ramero about 1065, and died in 1154. He was a sober exegete, appealing to the "intelligentes." He completed the commentaries on certain Talmudic treatises left unfinished by his grandfather Rashi (q.v.), and also the commentary on Job. Rashbam's literal, grammatical, and exegetical principles in the interpretation of the Word of God convinced his grandfather to such a degree that he declared that if he had to rewrite his expositions he would adopt those principles. In this manner Rashbam wrote his commentary on the Pentateuch, tunder the title of פֵ הרשבם, The Expositions of Rashbam, which was published for the first time in the edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch, with several commentaries (Berlin, 1705). It was republished in the imperfect condition from Oppenheimer's MS., beginning with Genesis 18 and ending with De 33:3, in the excellent edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch, with sundry commentaries (Amsterdam, 1727-29). Dr. A. Geiger published from a Munich MS. a portion of the missing commentary, extending from Genesis 1:1-31, in the Kerem Chemed (Berlin. 1854), 8:41-51, which, however, has not been inserted in the excellent edition of the Pentateuch, with sundry rabbinic commentaries, published at Vienna in 1859, in which Rashbam's commentary is given. A supercommentary, entitled שמואל קרן, The Horn of Samuel, on Rashbam's exposition, by S. S. Hessel, was published in Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1727. Rashbam also wrote a Commentary on the Five Megilloth, of which that on the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes was published by A. Jellinek (Leipsic, 1855), while excerpts from the other three Megilloth were also edited by the same author (ibid. 1855). Rashbam is also said to have written a commentary on the Psalms, which was edited by Isaac Satanow, Berlin, and reprinted in Vienna in 1816; but it is very doubtfiul whether he is really the author. See Furst, Bibl. Jud. 3:239 sq.; De Rossi, Dizionario Storico degli Autori Ebrei (Germ. transl.), p. 285; Ginsburg, in Kitto's Cyclop. s.v.; Gratz, Gesch. d. Juden, 6:158 sq.; Jost, Gesch. d. Judenth. u. s. Secten, ii, 391; 3:34; Levy, Exegese bei den franzcs. Juden (Leips. 1873), p. 17 sq.; Ginsburg, Commentary on Ecclesiastes, p. 42 sq., where the first chapter of the commentary on Ecclesiastes is given in English (Lond. 1861); id. Song of Songs (ibid. 1857), p. 43 sq.; Zunz, Zur Geschichte u. Literatur (Berl. 1845), p. 70 sq.; Geiger, in נטעי נעמנים (ibid. 1847), p. 29-39; id. Parshandatha (Leips. 1855), p. 2024; Jellinek, in his edition of the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes (ibid. 1855), p. 7 sq. (B. P.)

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