Pictorial Bibles The value and interest added to books of almost all sorts by graphic illustrations has not escaped the attention of editors of the Holy Scriptures. In the Middle Ages this was effected by illuminating copies by hand. SEE ILLUMINATION, ART OF. Since the invention of printing and the discovery of engraving, a similar effect has been more cheaply produced by designs on wood, metal, or stone, either etched or in relief. The romantic scenes of Bible history have been so often reproduced in paint and pencil, and the remains and scenes of Bible lands are so rich in apt and important elucidations of ancient customs and institutions, that a just idea of Oriental life and manners can hardly be conveyed without some such aid to the eye. Accordingly both fancy and fact have been put into requisition for this purpose, and multitudes of volumes have appeared expressly aimed at this result. One of the earliest is the Poor Man's Bible. SEE BIBLIA PAUPERUM. The most noted is that of Hans Holbein (q.v.). In modern times artists and authors have vied with each other, and publishers have been lavish in their endeavors to enrich and beautify the sacred pages with pictorial additions, representing not only the realities of antiquarian research, but also the conceptions of creative genius. Much of this is of little real help to the student, and some of it has really misled readers by imaginary notions and false analogies. But a real gain has been effected by most of the delineations borrowed from books of travel and exploration. These have been also incorporated in a compact and convenient form in the best Bible dictionaries now so widely circulated. One of the most popular and really serviceable of all the pictorial Bibles is that edited by the late Dr. John Kitto (q.v.). More expensive and elaborate ones have been issued by several English and American houses, which are an ornament to the household and an heirloom to the family.