Musaph Prayer (תּפַלָּה מוּסָŠ) is the name of the evening prayer of the Jewish liturgy. The sacerdotal office of the Jews is closely connected with sacrificial service. It is indeed to be regarded partly as its accompaniment, partly as its substitute during the exile. The sacrifices (תמיד) which were offered twice a day find a correspondent usage in the morning and evening prayer. Already in the Old Testament this connection is clearly manifest, especially in the psalms dating from the exile, e.g. Ps 141:2, "Let the lifting up of my hands be as an evening sacrifice." As on festival days besides the daily morning sacrifice, a particular one was offered for the feast, it was consequent that the matins of Sabbaths and festival days in the ritual of prayers should be followed by such prayers as correspond to the special festival sacrifices. These are the Musaph prayers. They may be compared to the proprium of the church oficium. In the Musaph prayer of the ordinary Sabbath express reference is made to the Mosaic ordinance regarding the special Sabbath sacrifice (see Arnheim, Vollstindiges Gebetbuch der Israeliten [Glogau, 1839], page 205). The same applies to the Musaph prayer on the day of Reconciliation (Machsor von Heidenheim, Jom Kipurim [Sulzb. 1842], p. 113), etc. There the מוּסָפַים are placed opposite to the תּמַידַים Liturgic rules concerning the Musaph prayer are given in the tract Sopherim, c. 20; fol. 40, c. 2; farther in Orach Chajimn, viz., ר פוּ (Sabbath); תק פב(New-year), etc. SEE MACHZOR; SEE TEPHILLA; SEE LITURGY.