Liturgy (Greek λειτουργία), a function, service, or duty of a public character. These public services or duties among the (reeks were frequently, if not always, connected with religious ideas or ceremonies of some kind, even when the duties themselves were of a secular character — those, for instance, which had reference to the supervision of theatrical exhibitions or the presiding in the public assemblies. The religious meaning of the word in such case was not necessarily involved. In Isa 7:25 (Sept.), the idea of religious service predominates; in Ro 13:6, that of the secular, as under God; and again, ins. Lu 1:23, and in Heb 10:11, it refers to the priestly function. At a later period we find it used by Eusebius (Life of Constantine, 4:47) in speaking of the work of the Christian ministry. By a very natural process, the word, which thus designated the public function or service performed by the ministry, became restricted in its meaning to the form itself — the form of words in which such service was rendered, and thus, certainly before the middle of the fifth century, we find in the Church, in the present sense of the word liturgies, forms for the conducting of public worship and the administration of sacraments.
I. Jewish Liturgies. — This subject has, of course, its connection with the question of a similar state of things under the Jewish dispensation. Were there liturgical forms among the Jews, and, if so, to what extent? We find among the Greeks and Romans certain set forms in connection with their sacrifices, passing, it would seem, from mouth to mouth of successive priestly generations, and a usual form of prayer for the civil magistrate (Döllinger's Heathenism and Judaisnm, 1:221-225); among the sacred books of India, hymns and prayers to be used on stated occasions (Müller's
Chips from a German Workshop, 1:297); and in the Roman and in the Mohammedan worship, formula of a similar character (Lane's Mod. Egypt. 1:120 sq.). How was it in this matter with the Jews? There was, of course, a ritual of form; but was there with it also a form of words? The reading of the law, although enjoined, could hardly be said to meet this demand. There are, however, special forms in the Pentateuch which are liturgical in the stricter sense of that expression. Some of these have reference to possible contingencies, and would therefore be only occasional in their employment. Instances of this class may be found in the formula (De 21:19), where complaint should be made to the elders by parents against a rebellious and incorrigible son. Of similar character is the formula (De 25:8-9) connected with the refusal to take the widow of a deceased brother or nearest kinsman, and so perpetuate his name in Israel. Another, again, of the same class, was that appointed to be used by the elders and priests (De 21:1-9) of any locality in which the body of a murdered person should be found; and still another, and more of the nature of a stated religious service, was the prescribed declaration and mode of proceeding connected with the going out to battle (De 20:1-8). These were occasional and contingent. For some of them there might never be the actual usage, as was probably the case with the first — that of the complaint against and the execution of a rebellious son. But there were others of a more stated character, having reference to regularly occurring seasons and ceremonies when they were required to be used. The priestly benediction, repeated, it would seem, upon every special gathering of the people (Nu 6:23-27), is an instance of this class. The form of offering of the first-fruits (De 26:1-15) is another: in this latter the person making the offering uses the formula, the priest receiving the offering; and still another is the appointed formula of commination by the tribes at Ebal and Gerizim, the Levites repeating the curse, the whole people following with the solemn amen. Distinct, moreover, from these were certain transactions, in which. without any specified form, the official was required to use certain words. The confession by the high-priest of the sins of the people over the head of the scape-goat is one of these; in any such case, a set form, passing from priestly father to son, not improbably came into use. The liturgical use of the Psalms in the Temple worship was, of course, a matter of much later arrangement. The fiftieth chapter of Ecclesiasticus describes an exceptional service, and is, moreover, too indefinite in its language to justify any conclusion as to its liturgical character. During, this period, however, between the captivity and the times of the New Testament, there comes to view another ecclesiastical development of Judaism which has its connection with this subject — that of the worship of the synagogue. This, which in all probability originated during the captivity, and in the effort to supply the want occasioned by the loss of the worship of the Temple, would in many respects be like that Temple worship; in others, and from the necessity of the case, it would be very different. The greatest of these diversities would be in the fact of the necessary presence of the sacrificial and priestly element in the service of the Temple, their absence in that of the synagogue. In the Temple the Levites sang psalms of praise before the altar, and the priests blessed the people. In the synagogue there were prayers connected with the reading of certain specific passages of Scripture, of which are distinctly discernible two "chief groups, around which, as time wore on, an enormous mass of liturgical poetry clustered- the one, the Shelma ('Hear, Israel,' etc.), being a collection of the three Biblical pieces (De 6:4-9; De 11:321; Nu 15:37-41), expressive of the unity of God and the memory of his government over Israel, strung together without any extraneous addition; the second, the Tephilla, or Prayer, by way of eminence (adopted in the Koran as Salavat, Sur. 2:40; comp. 5:15), consisting of a certain number of supplications, with a hymnal introduction and conclusion, and followed by the priestly blessing. The single portions of this prayer gradually increased to eighteen, and the prayer itself received the name Shemeonezah Esreh (eighteen; afterwards, however, increased to nineteen: the additional one is now twelfth in the prayer, and is against apostates [to Christianity] and heretics [all who refused the Talmud], including consequently the Karaites). The first addition to the Sheest formed the introductory thanksgiving for the renewed (lay (in accordance with the ordinance that every supplication must be preceded by a prayer of thanks) called lozer (Creator of Light, etc.), to which were joined the three Holies (Ophan), and the supplication for spiritual enlightening in the divine law (Ahabah). Between the Shema and the Tephillah was inserted the Geulahl (Liberation), or praise for the miraculous deliverance from Egypt and the constant watchings of providence. A Kaddish (Sanctification or Benediction) and certain psalms seem to have concluded the service of that period. This was the order of the Shaharith, or morning prayer, and very similar to this was the Maarsib, or evening prayer; while in the Minchalh, or afternoon prayer, the Shema was omitted. On new moons, Sabbath and feast days, the general order was the same as on week days; but since the festive joy was to overrule all individual sorrow and supplication, the intermediate portion of the Tephillah was changed according to the special significance and the memories of the day of the solemnity, and additional prayers were introduced for these extraordinary occasions, corresponding to the additional sacrifice in the Temple, and varying according to the special solemnity of the day (lMusssah, Neilath, etc.)" (Chambers). Compare Etheridge, Introduction to Hebrew Literatures, page 367 sq.; Prideaux, 2:160-170. It is likewise to be noted that in the Temple worship there were occasions and opportunities in which the individual worshipper might confess the plague of his own heart, make individual supplication, or offer individual thanksgiving. Thus it was at the time of the coming of Christ. The Jewish liturgies since then, under the influence of Rabbinism, and in view of the fact that the synagogue, so far as possible, supplies the absence of the Temple, have been very much enlarged, and extend to numberless particularities. It may, in fact, be said that the whole life of the modern Jew is regulated by Rabbinic forms, that there is a rubric for every moment and movement of social as of individual existence. "The first compilation of a liturgy is recorded of Amram Gaon (A.D. 870-880); the first that has survived is that of Saadja Gaon (d. A.D. 942). These early collections of prayers generally contained also compositions from the hand of the compiler, and minor additions, such as ethical tracts, almanacs, etc., and were called Silddurimn (Orders, Rituals), embracing the whole calendar year, week-days and new moons, fasts and festivals. Later, the term was restricted to the week-day ritual, that for the festivals being called Machzor (Cycle). Besides these, we find the Selichoth, or Penitential Prayers; Kinoth, or Elegies; Hoshanahs, or Hosannahs (for the seventh day of the Feast of Tabernacles); and Bakashoth, or Special Supplications, chiefly for private devotion. The Karaites (q.v.), being harshly treated in these liturgies, especially by Saadja, have distinct compilations. The first of these was made by David ben-Hassan about A.D. 960 (compare Rule, Karaites, page 88, 104 sq., 118, 135 sq., 173 note). The public prayers were for a long time only said by the public reader (Chasan, Sheliach Zibbur ), the people joining in silent responses and amens. These readers by degrees — chiefly from the 10th century — introduced occasional prayers (Piutim) of their own, over and above those used of yore. The materials were taken from the Halachah as well as the Haggadah (q.v.); religious doctrine, history, saga, angelology, and mysticism, interspersed with Biblical verses, are thus found put together like a mosaic of the most original and fantastic, often grand and brilliant, and often obscure and feeble kind; and the pure Hebrew in manyy eases made room for a corrupt Chaldee. We can only point out here the two chief groups of religious poetry viz. the Arabic on the one hand, and the French-German school on the other. The most eminent representative of the Pajtanic age (ending c. 1100) is Eleazar Biribi Kalir. Among the most celebrated poets in his manner are Meshulam b.- Kalonymos of Lucca, Solomon b.-Jehuda of Babylon, R. Gerson, Elia b.- Menahem of Mans, Benjamin b.-Serach, Jacob Zom Elem, Eliezer b.- Samuel, Kalonymos b.-Moses, Solomon Isaaki. Of exclusively Spanish poets of this period, the most brilliant are Jehuda Halevi Solomon b.- Gabirol, Josef ibn-Abitur, Isaac ibn-Giat, Abraham Abn-Esra, Moses ben- Nachman, etc. When, however, in the beginning of the 13th century, secret doctrine and philosophy, casuistry and dialectics, became the paramount study, the cultivation of the Pint became neglected, and but few, and for the most part insignificant, are the writers of liturgical pieces from this time downwards" (Chambers). Comp. Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters, page 59 sq. These liturgies, adopted by the Jews in different countries, were naturally subject to great variation, not only in their order, but also in their contents. Even in our day there exists the greatest variety imaginable in the synagogues of even one and the same country, due, in a measure, also to the influence of the reformatory movements. SEE JUDAISM. Particularly worthy of note are the rituals of Germany (Poland), of France, Spain, and Portugal (Sefardim), Italy (Rome), the Levant (Romagna), and even of some special towns, like Avignon, Carpentras, Montpellier. The rituals of Barbary (Algiers, Tripoli, Oran, Morocco, etc.) are of Spanish origin. The Judaeo-Chinese liturgy, it may be observed by the way, consists only of pieces from the Bible. Yet, in the main body of their principal prayers, all these liturgies agree. As illustrative of these unessential diversities, we give the prayer of the Shemonah Esreh, which has been added to the number since the destruction of the second Temple, but which now stands as the twelfth, and shows its manifest reference to the followers of the Nazarene: "Let there be no hope to those who apostatize from the true religion; and let heretics, how many soever they be, all perish as in a moment; and let the kingdom of pride be speedily rooted out and broken in our days. Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, who destroyest the wicked, and bringest down the proud" (Prideaux). "Let slanderers have no hope, and all presumptuous apostates perish as in a moment; and may thine enemies, and those who hate thee, be suddenly cut off; and all those who act wickedly be suddenly broken, consumed, and rooted out; and humble thou them speedily in our days. Blessed art thou, O
Lord, who destroyest the enemies and humblest the proud" (Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Prayer-book). That in the German and Polish Jews' Prayer-book is more brief, and less pointed in its application to apostates, i.e. Jews converted to Christianity. There are translations and commentaries on them in most of the modern languages. In the orthodox congregations, these forms of prayer, whether for the worship of the synagogue or for domestic and private use, are all appointed to be said in Hebrew. One of the best moves in this direction is the effort within the last century to remedy this evil by parallel translations. In this country the service-books in the synagogues are usually of this kind: either the Hebrew on one page and the English on the other, or both in parallel columns on the same page.
II. Early Christian Litiurgies. —
1. Their Origin. — So far as regards the primitive or apostolic age, the only trace of anything of that kind is the Lord's Prayer, and the Amen alluded to in 1Co 14:16; this latter an undoubted importation from the synagogue. As, moreover, we find the Master, with the twelve, singing a hymn, one of the psalms probably, on the night of the last supper, it is not improbable that such portions of Old-Testament Scripture, with which the early believers had been already familiar in the synagogue, should have still found favor in the Church. Even in free prayer fragments and sentences of old devotional forms, almost spontaneous through earlier use and sacred association, would naturally find utterance. This, however, would be the exception. Christian prayer, for its own full and peculiar utterance, must find its own peculiar modes of expression; and it would baptize into a new life and meaning and of those familiar expressions, the fragments of an earlier devotion. That men, however, who had been accustomed to liturgical worship under the old system should gradually go into it under the new, is not at all surprising; and to this special inducements before very long were presented. The demand for some form of profession of faith, of a definition of the faith, as dissensions and heresies arose, would be one of these occasions. The form of prayer given by the Master, in its present usage, would become the nucleus of others. The fact, again, that the most solemn act of Christian communion, the Lord's Supper, involved in the distribution of the elements a form of action, and that this action, in its original institution, had been accompanied by words, would have a like influence. That every thing in this respect, if not purely extemporaneous, was exceedingly simple in the time of Justin Martyr, is very manifest from his own writings. The same remark is applicable to the statement of Pliny (Ep. ad Treaj. in Ep. 10:97).
2. Primitive Type. — The earliest form in which liturgical arrangement, to any extent, is found, is that which presents itself in the Apostolical Constitutions. The following is the order of daily service, as given in these Constitutions: After the morning psalm (the sixty-third of our enumeration), prayers were offered for the several classes of catechumens, of persons possessed by evil spirits, and candidates for baptism, for penitents, and for the faithful or communicants, for the peace of the world, and for the whole state of Christ's Church. This was followed by a short bidding prayer for preservation in the ensuing day, and by the bishop's commendation or thanksgiving, and by his imposition of hands or benediction. The morning service was much frequented by people of all sorts. The evening service was much the same with that of the morning, except that Psalm 140 (Psalm 141 of the present enumeration) introduced the service, and that a special collect seems to have been used sometimes at the setting up of the lights. SEE SERVICE. This work, a fabrication by an unknown author, and taking its present form about the close of the third century contains internal evidence (see Schaff, Church History, 1:441) that much of its material belongs to an earlier date. It may be regarded as affording a type of the liturgical worship in use during the latter part of the anteNicene period. Bunsen (Christianity and Mankind, volume 2) has attempted to construct, out of fragments of this and other liturgies, the probable form of worship then prevailing. Krabbe, in his prize essay on this subject, regards the eighth book as of later date than the others. Kurtz, agreeing with Bunsen, substantially finds in this work the earliest extant form of liturgical arrangement, and the type of those of a later period. While, therefore, apocryphal as to its name and claims, yet in the character of its material, in its peculiarity of structure, in the estimation which it enjoyed, and in its influence upon later forms of devotion, it is of great historical significance. Taking it as it comes to our day, the eighth book contains an order of prayer, praise, reading, and sermon, followed by the dismissal successively of the catechumens, the penitents, and the possessed. After this comes the order of the Lord's Supper for the faithful, beginning with intercessory prayer, this followed by collects and responses, the fraternal kiss, warnings against unworthy reception of communion, with suitable hymns, prayers, and doxologies. Much of this material, as already hinted, is probably of a much earlier date than that of its unknown last compiler. The hymn Gloria in Exselsis may have been the same of which Justin and Pliny speak, or an enlargement of it. This liturgy is remarkable, as contrasted with subsequent liturgies, in that it wants the Lord's Prayer. The general spirit and tone pervading all its forms afford grateful indication of the interior Christian life of that period.
3. Classification. — This brings us to the particular liturgies which found acceptance and usage in particular communities. One remark in connection with these needs to be made. Whatever may have been the liturgical influences of the synagogue in shaping the worship of the early Church, they had, by this time, been superseded by another of a much more objectionable character, that of the Temple. In other words, the sacerdotal idea of the Christian ministry, and the sacrificial idea of the Lord's Supper, were making themselves felt, not only in the substance, but in the minutia of form which the liturgies were assuming. Of these liturgies there is to be made the general division of Eastern and Western.
(a.) Liturgies of the Eastern Churches. — Chronologically those of the Oriental Church first demand examination.
(1.) The earliest, perhaps, is that of Jerusalem or Antioch, ascribed to the apostle James; the first word in it, ὁ ἱερεύς — a word never used by apostolic men in speaking of the Christian ministry — puts the seal of reprobation upon every such claim. The same may be said as to another anachronism, the word ὁμοούσιος applied to the third person of the Trinity. Putting aside, therefore, such claim, as also the stranger notion that the apostle in 1Co 2:9, quotes from this liturgy. rather than that the liturgist quotes from him, we may still recognize in this early form of Christian-worship features of peculiar interest. It is still used on St. James' day in some of the islands of the Archipelago, and is the pattern of two others, those of Basil and Chrysostom. Portions of it may have existed at an earlier period, but in its present form it dates from the last half of the fourth century. For the distinction between the orthodox Greek and the Monophysite Syrian forms of this liturgy, see Palmer, Origines Liturgicae, volume 1. The latter, the Monophysite form, it is to be observed, is still in use, and in both are portions of the material to be found in that of the Apostolical Constitutions.
(2.) The second of these liturgies is that of the Alexandrian Church, called that of St. Mark, but, quite as clearly as that of St. James, betraying its later origin. In this, as in the other two, there may be materials previously existing; but the probabilities indicate Cyril of Alexandria as the author of it in its present shape. The effort has been made to separate in it the apostolic from the later elements, as is also attempted by Neale with that of St. James. As the object of this effort seems to be to prove the sacerdotal character of apostolic Christianity, so all sacerdotal elements become proof of apostolic authorship. The conclusion is as false as the premise. 'The special historical interest of this liturgy of St. Mark is its relation to those of the Coptic and Ethiopic churches, of which it forms the main constituent. The remark of Palmer as to its claim to inspired authorship is well worthy of attention. "In my opinion," says he, "this appellation of St. Mark's liturgy began about the end of the fourth or beginning of the fifth century, after Basil had composed his liturgy, which was the first that bore the name of any man. Other churches then gave their liturgies the names of their founders, and so the Alexandrians and Egyptians gave hr theirs the name of Mark, while they of Jerusalem and Antioch called theirs St. James's, and early in the fifth century it appears that Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, perfected and improved the liturgy of St. Mark, from whence this improved liturgy came to be called by the Monophysites St. Cyril's, and by the orthodox St. Mark's." The peculiarity of this last, in Neale's estimation, is the difference from other liturgies in the position of the great intercession for quick and dead. That such intercession found place in any of them is evidence of their post-apostolic origin.
(3.) The third and last of these liturgies is that of Caesarea or Byzantium, composed probably by Basil of Caesarea, and held to have been recast and enlarged by Chrysostom; but more properly, perhaps, both these are to be regarded as elaborations of that of St. James. They, moreover, have historical and moral significance in the fact that, through the Byzantine Church, they have been received into that of Russia, and are used in its patriarchates, each for special occasions, at the present time. Such additions, of course, have been made as have been rendered necessary through peculiarities of Greek worship, and accumulation of ritualistic minutiae coming into use since these liturgies in their original forms were introduced. They now contain expressions not to be found in the writings of Chrysostom: e.g. the appellation of in other of God, given to the Virgin Mary, which was not heard of until after the third General Council at Ephesus [A.D.431] — the body which condemned the doctrines of Nestorius — held 24 years after the death of Chrysostom.
From these Oriental liturgies have sprung others, variously modified to meet doctrinal and other exigencies. The largest number is from that of Jerusalem, the next from that of Basil. The most important is that of the Armenians, Monophysite, those of the Nestorians, and that of Malabar. For discussion as to the special origin of these subordinate forms, and the principles of classification, see Palmer's Origines Liturgicae, volume 1; Neale's Primitive Liturgies; Riddle, Christian Antiquities, book 4, chapter 1, sec. 6.
(b.) Liturgies of the Western Church. — In the West liturgical development went on with less rapidity.
(1.) That of the Roman Church, under the influence of the sort of feeling alluded to above in the quotation from Palmer, after it came into use, received the name of Peter, and was traced to his authorship. In point of fact, it probably first assumed definite shape under Leo the Great during the first half of the fifth century, was added to by Gelasius during the latter half of the same century, elaborated again by Gregory the Great not very long after, and through his influence secured its reputation and position. "His Ordo et Canon Missae, making allowance for the unavoidable changes taking place in it during the centuries intervening, was settled under Pius V, 1570, as the Missale Romanortum. It was revised under Clement VII and Urban VIII, and forms at the present time the liturgical text of Romish worship" (Palmer, in Herzog). The Liturgy of Milan seems to have been very much the same as that of Rome prior to the alterations of the latter under Gregory. These differences, at the greatest, were not of an essential character. The question of the independence of the Milanese and the supremacy of the Romans was probably the great issue upon which these differences turned. As nothing less than apostolicity could enable the liturgy of Milan to sustain itself in such a conflict, its origin was traced to Barnabas, and miracles, it was believed, had been wrought for its preservation against the efforts of Gregory and Hadrian to bring it to the form of that of Rome. The severest point of this conflict was doubtless when Charlemagne abolished the Ambrosian Chant throughout the West by the establishment of singing-schools under Roman instructors to teach the Gregorian. The attachment of the people and clergy of Milan, however, to their liturgy could not be overcome, and it is still in their possession. Alexander VI established it expressly as the "Ritus Ambrosianus." Of even greater interest than the Roman liturgy are the Gallican and the Mozarabic.
(2.) The former of these, the Gallican, claims, and it would seem justly, an antiquity greater than that of Rome. The connection of Gaulish Christianity with that of Asia, whether through the person of Irenaeus or by earlier missionaries, would lead to a liturgical development of an independent character. It was displaced by the Roman liturgy during the Carolingian sera, and for a long time was almost lost sight of and forgotten. It does not seem to have been used or appealed to in the various conflicts of prerogative between the French monarchs and the pope, and no allusion to its existence is made in the Pragmatic Sanction. Public attention was again called to it during the controversies of the 16th century. Interest both of a literary and doctrinal character has been exhibited in connection with this liturgy. But there seems to be but little probability of its restoration to use. While unlike in certain specialities, its differences from the Roman liturgy are, not essential. Like the others preceding, it has been traced to the hand of an apostle — to the Church at Lyons, through that of Ephesus, from the apostle John! The apex upon which this inverted historical pyramid rests is the single fact, which has been questioned, that Christianity was introduced into Gaul by missionaries from the Church at Ephesus.
(3.) The Mozarabic, that of the Spanish churches under Arabic dominion, has so many resemblances to the Gallic liturgy that it would seem probable they proceeded from the same source. It is described by Isidore Hispalensis in the 6th century. During the Middle Ages, and in the time of the cardinal Ximenes, it received an addition of several rites. As Spanish territory was reconquered from the Moors, and came more fully under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the papacy in other respects, the effort was made, and eventually succeeded, although at times warmly resisted by the people, to displace the Mozarabie, and introduce the Roman liturgy. In the beginning of the 16th century cardinal Ximenes endowed a college and chapel at Toledo for the celebration of the ancient rites, and this is now, perhaps, the only place in Spain where the primitive liturgy of that country and of Gaul is in some degree observed. The old British liturgy, which was displaced by the Gregorian after the decision of Oswy in 664, seems, like the Mozarabic, to have been essentially the same with the Gallican.
(4.) One other liturgical composition of some interest, dating from the close of the 4th century, is that of the Cathari, published by E. Kunitz (Jena, 1852). It is of interest as giving a more favorable view of the community for which it was composed than had been previously entertained. It is to be remembered in connection with all these liturgies of the West, as already remarked of those of the East, that they are the names of many subordinate offshoots in use and prevalence in different portions of the Church. The discretionary power of the bishops, both at this and at earlier periods, to modify and adapt prevalent liturgies to peculiar exigencies of time and place, naturally produced after a time this kind of diversity. The ecclesiastical confusion of mediaeval times, and clerical ignorance and carelessness, would of course increase it. The traces, however, of the parent stock in any such case would not be difficult of recognition.
4. Structure of Liturgies. — The variations of detail which are found in the parent liturgies of the Christian world are all ingrafted on a structural arrangement which they possess in common, much as four buildings might differ in the style and form of their decorations, and yet agree in their plans and elevation, in the position of their several chambers, and in the number of their principal columns.
i. There is invariably a division of the liturgy into three portions — the office of the Prothesis, the Pro-Anaphora, and the Anaphora, the latter being the "Canon" of the Western Church, and the office of the Prothesis being a preparatory part of the service corresponding to the "Praeparatio" of the Western Liturgy, and not used at the altar itself. In the Pro- Anaphora the central features are two, viz.:
(1) the reading of holy Scripture, and
(2) the recitation of the Creed. In the Anaphora they are four, viz.: (1) the Triumphal Hymn, or TRISAGION; (2) the formula of Consecration; (3) the Lord's Prayer; and (4) the Communion.
These four great acts of praise, benediction, intercession, and communion gather around our Lord's words of institution and his pattern prayer, which form, in reality, the integral germ of the Christian liturgies. They are also associated with other prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings, by which each is expanded and developed, the whole blending into a comprehensive service, by means of which the worship of the Church ascends on the wings of the eucharistic service, and her strength descends in eucharistic grace. The order in which these different portions of the liturgy are combined in the four ancient parent forms is shown by the following table:
ii. There is also, in the second place, a substantial agreement among all the four great parent liturgies as to the formula of consecration ( SEE CONSECRATION; and comp. Blunt, Dict. of Doct. and Hist. Theol. page 425-426).
iii. Another point in which the four parent liturgies of the Church uniformly agree is in the well-defined sacerdotal character of their language. This is sufficiently illustrated by the preceding comparative view.
iv. The intercessory character of the primitive liturgies is also a very conspicuous feature common to them all. The holy Eucharist is uniformly set forth and used in them as a service offered up to God for the benefit of all classes of Christians, living and departed. "Then," says St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "after the spiritual sacrifice is perfected, the bloodless service upon that altar of propitiation, we entreat God for the common peace of the Church; for the tranquillity of the world; for kings; for soldiers and allies; for the sick; for the afflicted; and, in a word, for all who stand in need of succor we all supplicate and offer this sacrifice. Then we commemorate also those who have fallen asleep before us, first, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, that at their prayers and intervention God would receive our petition. Afterward also on behalf of the holy fathers and bishops who have fallen asleep before us; and, in a word, of all who in past years have fallen asleep among us, believing that it will be a very great advantage to the souls for whom the supplication is put up while that holy and most awful sacrifice is presented" (Catech. Lect. 23:9, 10). St. Cyril was speaking thus in Jerusalem, where the liturgy used was that of St. James, and in that liturgy we find a noble intercession exactly answering to the description there given (Neale's Translation, page 52; Blunt's Annot. Book of Com. Prayer, page 156). A similar intercession is to be found in the other liturgies, and it is evident that its use was one of the first principles of the Church of that day.
III. Modern Greek and Eastern Liturgies. — Three liturgies are in use in the modern Greek or Constantinopolitan Church, viz., those of Basil and of Chrysostom, and the liturgy of the Presanctified. The liturgy bearing the name of Basil is used by the Constantinopolitan Church ten times in the year, viz., on the eve of Christmas Day; on the festival of St. Basil; on the eve of the Feast of Lights, or the Epiphany; on the several Sundays in Lent, except the Sunday before Easter; on the festival of the Virgin Mary; and on Good Friday, and the following day, which is sometimes termed the great Sabbath. The liturgy ascribed to Chrysostom is read on all those days in the year on which the liturgies of Basil and of the Presanctified are not used. The liturgy of the Presanctified is an office for the celebration of the Lord's Supper on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent, with the elements which had been consecrated on the preceding Sunday. The date of this liturgy is not known, some authors ascribing it to Gregory Thaumaturgus in the third century, while others ascribe it to Germanus, patriarch of Constantinople, in the eighth century. These liturgies are used in all those Greek churches which are subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, and in those countries which were originally converted by Greeks, as in Russia, Georgia, Mingrelia, and by the Melchite patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem (King's Rites of the Greek Church, page 131-134; Richard et Giraud's Bibliotheque Sacrae, 15:222-224). The Coptic Jacobites, or Christians in Egypt, make use of the Liturgy of Alexandria, which formerly was called indifferently the Liturgy of St. Mark, the reputed founder of the Christian Church at Alexandria, or the Liturgy of St. Cyril, who caused it to be committed to writing. The Egyptians had twelve liturgies,which are still preserveds among the Abyssinians; but the patriarchs commanded that the Egyptian churches should use only three, viz., those of Basil, of Gregory the Theologian, and of Cyril. The earliest liturgies of the Church of Alexandria were written in Greek, which was the vernacular language, until the fourth and fifth centuries; since that time they have been translated into the Coptic and Arabic languages. The Abyssinians or Ethiopians receive the twelve liturgies which were formerly in use among the Coptic Jacobites: they are commonly found in the following order, viz.,
1. The liturgy of St. John the Evangelist. 2. That of the three hundred and eighteen fathers present at the Council of Nice. 3. That of Epiphanius. 4. That of St. James of Sarug or Syrug.
5. That of St. John Chrysostom. 6. That of Jesus Christ. 7. That of the Apostles. 8. That of St. Cyriac. 9. That of St. Gregory. 10. That of their patriarch Dioscurus. 11. That of St. Basil. 12. That of St. Cyril.
The Armenians who were converted to Christianity by Gregory, surnamed the Illuminator, have only one liturgy, which is supposed to be that of the Church of Casarea in Cappadocia, in which city Gregory received his instruction. This liturgy is used on every occasion, even at funerals. The Syrian Catholics and Jacobites have numerous liturgies, bearing the names of St. James, St. Peter, St. John the Evangelist, St. Mark, St. Dionysius, bishop of Athens, St. Xystus, bishop of Rome, of the Twelve Apostles, of St. Ignatius, of St. Julius, bishop of Rome, of St. Eustathius, of St. Chrysostom, of St. Maruthas, etc. Of these, the liturgy of St. James is most highly esteemed, and is the standard to which are referred all the others, which are chiefly used on the festivals of the saints whose names they bear. The Maronites, who inhabit Mount Lebanon, make use of a missal printed at Rome in 1594 in the Chaldeo-Syriac language: it contains thirteen liturgies under the names of St. Xystus, St. John Chrysostom, St. John the Evangelist, St. Peter, St. Dionysius, St. Cyril, St. Matthew, St. John the Patriarch, St. Eustathius, St. Maruthas, St. James the Apostle, St. Mark the Evangelist, and a second liturgy of St. Peter. The Nestorians have three liturgies — that of the Twelve Apostles, that of Theodorus, surnamed the Interpreter, and a third under the name of Nestorius. The Indian Christians of St. Thomas are said to make use of the Nestorian liturgies (Richard et Giraud, Bibliothèque Sacree, 15:221-227).
IV. Liturgies of the Churchl of Rome. — There are various liturgical books in use in the modern Church of Rome, the greater part of which are common and general to all the members in communion with that Church, while others are permitted to be used only in particular places or by particular monastic orders.
1. The Breviary (Latin breviarium) is the book containing the daily service of the Church of Rome. It is frequently, but erroneously, confounded with Missal and Ritual. The Breviary contains the matins, lauds, etc., with the several variations to be made therein, according to the several days, canonical hours, and the like. It is general, and may be used in every place; but on the model of this have been formed various others, specially appropriated to different religious orders, such as those of the Benedictines, Carthusians, Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits, and other monastic orders. The difference between these books and that which is by way of eminence designated the Roman Breviary, consists chiefly in the number and order of the psalms, hymns, ave-marias, pater-nosters, misereres, etc., etc. Originally the Breviary contained only the Lord's Prayer and the Psalms which were used in the divine offices. To these were subsequently added lessons out of the Scriptures, according to the institutes of the monks, in order to diversify the service of the Church. In the progress of time the legendary lives of the saints, replete with ill- attested facts, were inserted, in compliance with the opinions and superstition of the times. This gave occasion to many revisions and reformations of the Roman Breviary by the councils, particularly of Trent and Cologne, and also by several popes, as Gregory IX, Nicholas III, Pius V, Clement VIII, and Urban VIII; as likewise by some cardinals, especially cardinal Quignon, by whom various extravagances were removed, and the work was brought nearer to the simplicity of the primitive offices. In its present state the Breviary of the Church of Rome consists of the services of matins, lauds, prime, third, sixth, nones, vespers, complines, or the post- communion, that is of seven hours, on account, of the saying of David, Septies in die laudenz dixi — "Seven times a day do I praise thee" (Ps 119:164). The obligation of reading this service-book every day, which at first was universal, was by degrees reduced to the beneficiary clergy alone, who are bound to do it on pain of being guilty of mortal sin, and of refunding their revenues in proportion to their delinquencies in discharging this duty. The Roman Breviary is recited in the Latin language throughout the Romish Church, except among the Maronites in Syria, the Armenians, and some other Oriental Christians in communion with that Church, who rehearse it in their vernacular dialects.
2. The Missal, or volume employed in celebrating mass. According to a tradition generally believed by members of the Romish Church, this liturgy owes its origin to St. Peter. The canon of the mass was committed to writing about the middle of the fifth century. Various additions were subsequently made, especially by Gregory the Great, who reduced the whole into better order. This Missal is in general use throughout the Romish Church. SEE MASS.
3. The Ceremoniale contains the various offices peculiar to the pope. It is divided into three books, the first of which treats of the election, consecration, benediction, and coronation of the pope, the canonization of saints, creation of cardinals, the form and manner of holding a council, and the funeral ceremonies on the death of a pope or of a cardinal, besides various public ceremonies to be performed by the pope as a sovereign prince. The second book prescribes what divine offices are to be celebrated by the pope, and on what days; and the third discusses the reverence which is to be shown to popes, cardinals, bishops, and other persons performing sacred duties; the vestments and ornaments of the popes and cardinals when celebrating divine service; the order in which they are severally to be seated in the papal chapel; incensing the altar, etc. The compiler of this liturgical work is not known.
4. The Pontificale describes the various functions which are peculiar to bishops in the Romish Church, such as the conferring of ecclesiastical orders; the pronouncing of benedictions on abbots, abbesses, and nuns; the coronation of sovereigns; the form and manner of consecrating churches, burial-grounds, and the various vessels used in divine service; the public expulsion of penitents from the Church, and reconciling them; the mode of holding a synod; suspending, reconciling, dispensing, deposing, and degrading priests, and of restoring them again to orders; the manner of excommunicating and absolving, etc., etc.
5. The Rituale treats of all those functions which are to be performed by simple priests or the inferior clergy, both in the public service of the Church, and also in the exercise of their private pastoral duties. The Pastorale corresponds with the Rituale, and seems to be only another name for the same book.
V. Continental Reformed or Protestant Liturgies. — At the time of the Reformation there were, of necessity, great changes in the matter of public worship. The liturgies in use at its commencement included the prevalent doctrinal system, especially as connected with the Lord's Supper; and very soon changes were made having in view the repudiation of Romish error, and the adaptation of reformed worship to the restored system of scriptural doctrine. The old forms, moreover, had there been no objection to them doctrinally, were liable to the practical objection that they were locked up from popular use in a dead language. The Reformation, to a very great degree, had opened the ears of the people to the intelligent hearing and reception of Christian doctrine. Its task now was to open their mouths to the intelligent utterance of supplication — in other words, to provide forms of worship in the vernacular. This was done very largely by selection and translation from old forms, and, as was necessary, by the preparation of new material. With the English and Lutheran Reformers, the object seems to have been to make as few changes in existing forms as possible. Doubtful expressions, which admitted of a Protestant interpretation, but which, for their own merits, would never have been selected, were thus retained. It is to be said for the Reformers that they seem to have acted in view of the existing circumstances of the communities by which they were surrounded, and from one of them, the most eminent of all, Luther, we have the distinct disavowal of all wish and expectation that his work, in this respect, should be imposed upon other churches or continued in his own any longer than it was found for edification.
a. Lutheran Liturgies. — As first among the Reformers we notice these liturgical works of Luther. Different offices were prepared by him, as needed by the churches under his influence, the earliest in 1523, the latest in 1534. These were afterwards collected in a volume, and became a model for others. In his "Order of Service" provision is made for daily worship in a service for morning and evening, and a third might be held if desirable. These services consist of reading the Scriptures, preaching or expounding, with psalms and responsoria, with the addition, for Sundays, of mass or communion. He dwells earnestly, however, upon the idea, already mentioned, that these forms are not to be considered binding otherwise than in their appropriate times and localities. These views and this action of Luther were responded to by similar action on the part of the churches which through him had received the doctrines of the Reformation. These drew up liturgies for themselves, some of them bearing a close resemblance to that of Wittemberg, others differing from it widely; the differences, in one direction, being conditioned by the Zwinglian or Calvinistic element. in the opposite by the Romish. These, in particular localities, have been changed at different times as circumstances seemed to require. No one Lutheran form has ever been accepted as obligatory upon all Lutheran churches, as is the case with the liturgy of the Church of England in all its dependencies; although it is claimed that there is essential unity — an essential unity of life and spirit in all these unessential diversities as to outward form of particular states and churches. The tendency of the Rationalism of the last century was to neglect, to depreciate, and to mutilate the old liturgies, and then to procure changes which would substitute others in their stead. From this, and in connection with another movement, has followed a healthful reaction. This reaction may be seen in its effects upon the two great classes into which Lutheran Germany is now divided. It has controlled to a very great degree the efforts of the Unionists, has given form to the Union liturgy, and it is leading those who are opposed to this movement to a more careful study and diligent use of the older liturgies. The object of this new liturgy, that of the king of Prussia, first published in 1822, revised once or twice since then, is to unite the worship of the members of the Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Prussian dominions. The excitement connected with this movement, in the way of attack and defense, has given a deeper and wider interest to all liturgical questions — an interest deeply felt by the Lutheran churches of this country. Here, where the use of such forms is optional, the number of congregations returning to such use is on the increase. SEE LUTHERANISM.
In Sweden, which, although Lutheran, retains the episcopate, and may seem to demand a more special notice, there was published in 1811 a new, revised edition of the Liturgy, prepared at the time of the Reformation. This is divided into chapters, and contains the usual parts of a Church service, with forms for baptism, marriage, etc. In Denmark there is also a regularly constituted liturgy, of Bugenhagen's, which, besides morning and evening service for Sundays, contains three services for each of the three great festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost.
b. Moravian Liturgy. — The liturgy of the Moravians, as recipients, through their great leader, of the Augsburg Confession, is not without its interest in this connection. It was first published in 1632. That which has been adopted by the renewed Moravian Church is mainly the work of count Zinzendorf who compiled it chiefly from the services of the Greek and Latin churches, but who also availed himself of the valuable labors of Luther and of the English Reformers. The United Brethren at present make use of a Church litany, introduced into the morning service of every Sunday; a litany for the morning of Easter-day, containing a short but comprehensive confession of faith; two offices for the baptism of adults, and two for the baptism of children: two litanies at burials; and offices for confirmation, the holy communion, and for ordination; the Te Deum, and doxologies adapted to various occasions. All these liturgical forms in use in England are comprised in the new and revised edition of the Liturgy and Hymns for the Use of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren (London, 1849). Other services peculiar to this Church, which are called "liturgies," consist mainly of a choral, with musical responsoria as a litany. This litany is for Sundays. There is a short prayer of betrothal, a baptismal office, also a form on Easter, used in the church-yards, of expressing their confidence in regard to the brethren departed of the year preceding. The daily service, which is in the evening, is a simple prayer-meeting. In this, as in the Sunday service, the prayers and exhortations are extemporaneous.
c. Calvinistic Liturgies. — The liturgy of Calvin, which, like that of Luther, constitutes the type of a class, differs from this latter in two important respects the absence of responsive portions, and the discretion conferred upon the officiator in the performance of public worship. This discretion seems to have been limited, however, to the use of one form of prayer rather than another, given in the Directory. These prayers were read by the pastor from the pulpit. The service began with a general confession, was followed by a psalm, prayer again, sermon, prayer, the Apostles' Creed, and benediction. Two additional prayers were provided for occasions of communion, one coming before, the other after; also a very long one of deprecation in times of war, calamity, etc. For the administration of the Lord's Supper there is an exhortation as to its intent — "fencing the tables," as it is called in Scotland. This is followed by the distribution of the elements, with psalms and passages of Scripture appropriate to the occasion. The offices of baptism and marriage are simple, but not discretionary as to their form. In accordance with what seems to be the peculiar Genevan characteristic, they are not wanting in length.
The present liturgy of Geneva is a development of that of Calvin, with certain modifications. It has no responses. Several additional prayers have been added. A distinct service for each day in the week is provided, also for the principal festivals, and for certain special occasions. So also as to the churches in sympathy with the system of Calvin. They have liturgies similar to that of Geneva, although not identical. Such is the case with the churches of Holland and Neufchatel, and the Reformed churches of France. A new edition of the old French Liturgy of 1562 was published in 1826, with additional forms for special occasions. The liturgy of the Church of Scotland is in some respects different. It was drawn up at Frankfort by Knox and others, after the model of Calvin's, and was first used by Knox in a congregation of English exiles at Geneva. It was afterwards introduced by him into Scotland; its use enjoined in 1564, and such usage was continued until after his death. An edition of this liturgy was published in 1841 by Dr. Cumming. It differs from that of Calvin in that it more clearly leaves to the minister officiating to decide whether he shall use any form of prayer given or one of his own compositions extemporaneously or otherwise. It begins with the confession, as in Calvin's, and with the same form. This is followed by a psalm, by prayer, the sermon, prayer, psalm, and benediction. The book contains various offices and alternate forms; among other things, an order of excommunication. and a treatise on fasting, with a form of prayer for private houses, and grace before and after meals. The new book of Scotland of 1644 may be regarded as a modification of those of Knox and Calvin. In the Directory of the Westminster Assembly the discretionary power is greatly enlarged. Scriptural lessons are to be read in regular course, the quantity at the discretion of the minister, with liberty, if he see fit, of expounding. Heads of prayer in that before the sermon are prescribed, and rules for the arrangement of the sermon. The Lord's Prayer is recommended as the most perfect form of devotion. Private and lay baptism are forbidden. The arrangement of the Lord's table is to be such that communicants may sit about it, and the dead are to be buried without prayer or religious ceremony.
d. Intermediate between these two great families of liturgies, the Lutheran and Calvinistic, are those of the other Reformed churches on the Continent. It may be said, in general, that the German-speaking portion of these churches approach and partake of the Lutheran spirit and forms, and the Swiss of the Calvinistic, though there are individual exceptions. In 1523, the same year with Luther's work already mentioned, Zwingle and Leo Judah published at Zurich offices for baptism, the Lord's Supper, marriage, common prayer, and burial. This was followed by a more complete work in 1525, and subsequently by others. Similar works were published at Berne, Schaffhausen, and Basle at a later period. The peculiarity of these, according to Ebrard, quoted in Herzog, "is the liturgical character in the celebration of the Lord's Supper, in which they compare favorably with the Calvinistic liturgies; also the custom of announcing the dead, and the special prayers for the festivals." The liturgical issues which during this century have agitated the Lutheran Church have extended to those of the Reformed, not, however, to the same extent, nor with results of such decided character.
VI. Liturgies in the English Language. — Previous to the introduction of the Reformation on Anglican ground, the public service of the English churches was, like that of other Western churches, performed in the Latin language. But, though the language was universally Latin, the liturgy itself varied greatly in the different parts of the kingdom. The dioceses of Bangor, Hereford, Lincoln, Sarum, York, and other churches, used liturgies which were commonly designated by the "Uses," and of these the most celebrated were the Breviary and Missal, etc., secundum usum Sarum, compiled by Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, about the year 1080, and reputed to be executed with such exactness according to the rules of the Romish Church that they were also employed in divine service in many churches on the Continent. They consisted of prayers and offices, some of which had been transmitted from very ancient times, and others were of later origin, accommodated to the Romish religion. Compare Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, according to the Uses of Sarusm, Bangaor York, Hereford, and the Modern Roman Liturgy (London, 1844, 8vo). Also by the same, Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglican; or, Occasional Offices of the Church of England, according to the Ancient Use of Salisbury; the Prymer in English, and other Prayers and Forms (London, 1846, 3 volumes, 8vo).
The first attempt in England to introduce e the vernacular was made in 1536, when, in pursuance of Henry VIII's injunctions, the Bible, Paternoster, Creed, and Decalogue were set forth and placed in churches. to be read in English. In 1545 the King's Primer was published, containing a form of morning and evening prayer in English, besides the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Ten Commandments, the Seven Penitential Psalms, Litany, and other devotions, and in 1547, on the accession of Edward VI, archbishop Cranmer, bishop Ridley, and eleven other eminent divines, martyrs, and confessors, were commissioned to draw up a liturgy in the English language "free from those unfounded doctrines and superstitious ceremonies which had disgraced the Latin liturgies;" and this was ratified by act of Parliament in 1548, and published in 1549. This liturgy is commonly known and cited as the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI. In the great body of their work Cranmer and his associates derived their materials from the earlier services which had been in use in England; " but in the occasional offices they were indebted to the labors of Melancthon and Bucer, and through them to the older liturgy of Nuremberg, which those reformers were instructed to follow" (Dr. Cardwell's Two Books of Common Prayer, set forth... in the reign of King Edward the Sixth, compared, page 14, Oxford, 1838). In consequence, however, of exceptions being taken at some things in this book, which were thought to savor too much of superstition, it underwent another revision, and was further altered in 1551, when it was again confirmed by Parliament. This edition is usually cited as the Second Prayer-book of Edward VI. it is very nearly the same with that which is at present in use. The two Liturgies, A.D. 1549 and A.D. 1552, with other Documents, set forth by Authority in the Reign of King Edward VI, were very carefully edited for the Parker Society by the Rev. Joseph Ketley, M.A., at the Cambridge University Press, in 1844, in octavo. The two acts of Parliament (2 and 3 Edwiard VI, c. 1, and 5 and 6 Edward VI, c. 1) which had been passed for establishing uniformity of divine service were repealed in the first year of Queen Mary, who restored the Latin liturgies according to the popish forms of worship. On the accession of Elizabeth, however, the Prayer-book was restored, and has been in use ever since. For the later history of the subject, including liturgical books in England, Scotland, and America, SEE COMMON PRAYER.
Among the curiosities of the subject we notice the following:
(a.) Liturgy of the Primitive Episcopal Church. — "The Book of Common Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the Use of the Primitives Episcopal Church, revived in England in the Year of our Redemption One thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, together with the Psalter or Psalms of David," though bearing the imprint of London, was printed at Liverpool, but was never published. It was edited by the Reverend George Montgomery West, M.A., a presbyter of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the state and diocese of Ohio, in North America. This volume is of great rarity, not more than five or six copies being found in the libraries of the curious in ecclesiastical matters. The liturgy of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America is the basis of this edition, excepting two or three alterations in the office for the ministration of baptism, and a few verbal alterations to fit it for use in England and in Ireland. "The Primitive Episcopal Church, revived in England in 1831," had a short existence of little more than twelve months.
(b.) Deistical Liturgy. — In 1752 a liturgy was published in Liverpool by some of the Presbyterians, as Antitrinitarians are often called in England, but Christ's name is hardly mentioned in it, and the third part of the Godhead is not at all recognized in it. It is known also by the name of "Liverpool Liturgy." In 1776 was published "A Liturgy on the universal Principles of Religion and Morality:" it was compiled by David Williams, with the chimerical design of uniting all parties and persuasions in one. comprehensive form. This liturgy is composed in imitation of the Book of Common Prayer, with responses celebrating the divine perfections and works, with thanksgivings, confessions, and supplications. The principal part of three of the hymns for morning and evening service is selected from the works of Milton and Thomson, though considerable use is made of the language of the Scriptures (see Orton, Letters, 1:80 sq.; Bogue and Bennett, Hist. of the Dissenters, 3:342).
VII. Literature. — Of bibliographical treatises on the literature of liturgy we may name Zaccaria, Bibliotheca Ritualis (Rome, 1776-8, 4 volumes, 4to); Guranegera , Institutions Liturgiiues (Paris, 1840-51); Ksecher, Bibliotheca Liturgica, etc., pages 699-866; Liturgies and other Documents of the Ante-Nicene Period (Ante-Nicene Library, Edinb. 1872, 8vo). Special works of note on the subject of liturgy are: J. Goar, Εὐχολόγιον, sive Rituacle Grecorum, etc., Gr. and Lat. (Par. 1647; Venice, 1740); Jos. Aloys. Assemani (R.C.), Codex Litur sicus ecclesiae universae.... in quo continentur libri rituales, missales, pontificales, officia, dypticha, etc., ecclesiarum Occidentis et Orientis (published under the auspices of pope Boniface XIV, Rome, 1749-66, 13 volumes); Euseb. Renaudot (R.C.), Liturgiarum Orientalium collectio (Paris, 1716; reprinted in 1847, 2 volumes); L.A. Muratori (R.C.), Liturgia Romana vetus (Venet. 1748, 2 volumes), contains the three Roman sacramentaires of Leo, Gelasius, and Gregory I, also the Missale Gothicum, and a learned introductory dissertation De rebus liturgicis; W. Palmer (Anglican), Origines Liturgicae (Lond. 1832 and 1845, 2 volumes, 8vo) [with special reference to the Anglican liturgy]; Thos. Brett, Collection of the Principal Liturgies used in the Christian Church in the celebration of the Eucharist, particularly the anccient (translated into English), with a Dissertation upon them (London, 1838); W. Trollope (Anglican), The Greek Liturgy of St. James (Edinb. 1848); Daniel (Lutheran, the most learned German liturgist), Codex Liturgicus ecclesiae universae in epitomem redactus (Lips. 1847 sq., 4 volumes; volume 1 contains the Roman, volume 4 the Oriental liturgies); Fr. J. Mone (I.C.), Lateinische u. Griechische Messen aus dem 2ten bis 6ten Jahrhundert (Frankf. a. M. 1850), contains valuable treatises on the Gallican, African, and Roman Mass; J.M. Neale (Anglican, the most learned English ritualist and liturgist), Tetralogia liturgica; sive St. Chrysostom, St. Jacobi, St. Marci divina missae: quibus accedit ordo Mozarabicus (Lond. 1849); the same, The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St. Basil, or according to the Use of the Churches of Alexandria, Jerusalem, Constantinople (Lond. 1859, folio, in the Greek original; and the same liturgies in an English translation, with an introduction and appendices, also at London, 1859); the same, Hist. of the Holy Eastern Ch. (Lond. 1850-72, 5 volumes, 8vo; Gen.Introd. volume 2); the same, Essays on Liturgioloqgy and Ch. History (Lond. 1863) [this work, dedicated to the metropolitan Philaret of Moscow, is a collection of various learned treatises of the author from the Christian Remembracer, on the Roman and Gallican Breviary, the Church Collects, the Mozarabic and Ambrosian liturgies, liturgical quotations, etc.]; Binterim, Denkwurdigkeiten d. Christ.-Kathol. Kirche, Freeman, Principles of Divine Service (Oxf. 1855, 8vo, enlarged in 1863); Mabillon, De Liturgia Gallicana, etc. (1865), Etheridge, Syrian Ch. Page 188 sq.; Coleman, Ancient Christianity Exemplified, page 284 sq.; and his Manual of Prelacy and Ritualismn (Phila. 1869, 12mo), page 275 sq.; Riddle, Christian Antiquities, page 396 sq., 602 sq.; Siegel, Handb. d. Christl. Kirchl. Alterthümer, 3:202 sq., Augusti, Handb. d. Christl. Archaeol. 1:191 sq.; 2:537 sq.; 3:704 sq., 714 sq.; Blunt, Dict. of Hist. and Doctr. Theol. s.v., and Eadie, Eccles. Diet. s.v.; Bunsen, Christianity and Mankind (Lond. 1854), volume 7, which contains Reliquiae Liturgicae (the Irvingite work); Readings upon the Liturgy and other Divine Offices of the Clurch (London, 1848-54); Hofling, Liturgisches Urkundenbuch (Leipz. 1854); Hefele (C. Jos.), Beitr. zu Kirchengesch. Archaeol. u. Litursgi (Tub. 1864), volume 2; Dollinger, Heathenism and Judaism; Schaff, Ch. Hist. 2, § 100; Edinb. Review, 1852 (April): The Round Table, 1867 (August 10); New Englander, 1861 (July), art. 6; Mercersburg Review, 1871 (January). art. 5; Brit. and For. Miss. Rev. 1857 (July). (C.W.)