Mayence a German town, beautifully situated on a sloping hill on the left bank of the River Rhine, is noted in ecclesiastical annals as the seat of an archiepiscopal see, and as the seat of several important Church councils. SEE MAYENCE, COUNCILS OF.
Mayence as an Archbishopric and Bishopric. — We have no trustworthy information as to the early history of this archbishopric. Attempts have been made to prove that the Christian Church was established there by St. Crescens, based on the passage in 2Ti 4:10, "Crescens (is departed) to Galatia;" and Jerome and other writers also favor the opinion of Gaul having been Christianized by Crescens. Ado, however, in his Martyrologium, written about 860, is the first to refer to the action of Crescens at Vienna. Still we find no documents referring to it until the 10th century, which may, however, be accounted for by the fact that the city was three times destroyed by fire up to that period. According to the ecclesiastical tradition, Crescens, a pupil of the apostle Paul, came to preach there as early as the year 82, became the first bishop of Mayence, and died a martyr in 103. The list of bishops up to the 6th century is all of later origin; according to it, Crescens was succeeded by Aureus, who was murdered by the Vandals when they took the city in 451. Sidonius, about 546, began the restoration of the town and of the church; Sigbert then became bishop about 589, and is said to have received from king Childebert the onyx bearing a likeness of that prince and of his wife, which is still retained among the jewels of Mayence. In 612 Leonisius (Leutgasius) caused war between Theoderick and Theodebert. We then find in the list Ruthelmus (Rudelin), Landwald, Lupoald (Leowald), Rigbert (Richbert, † 712), Gerold, who died at the hands of the Saxons in 743. He was succeeded by his son Gerwilio or Gewilieb, who in 744 marched with Carloman against the Saxons, and defeated them on the shores of the Weser. In 745 he was deposed, Bonifacius appointed in his place, and the bishopric transformed into an archbishopric, with the sanction of pope Zachary, in 748. In 753 or 754 Bonifacius resigned in favor of his pupil Lullus, who, however, did not receive the pallium before 780; he labored diligently for the interest of the archbishopric, founded several churches and convents, and greatly increased the revenues of the Church by the adoption of the tithing system in 779. He died Oct. 16, 786. His successor was Riculf, who founded the school of the Church of St. Alban at Mayence, and died Aug. 9, 813, the very year in which Constantine called a council at Mayence (see below). Haistulf, † Jan. 28, 827, introduced canonical life in the archbishopric; yet the succeeding archbishops, down to Marculf, were not elected according to canonical rules, but by the king, with the consent of the clergy and people. This was the case with Otgar, 826-47; Rabanus Maurus, 847-56 (who called a council, by order of Louis of Germany, in the year of his accession to the archiepiscopal chair); Charles, son of king Pepin I of Aquitania, and nephew of Louis the German, 856-63, who was also archchancellor of the empire, a dignity which was retained by his successors; Liutbert, who marched against the Bohemians in 872, and against the Sorbians in 874; defeated the Normans, who had ascended the Rhine, in 883, and died Feb. 17, 889. Sunzo (Sunderhold) fell fighting against the Normans in 891. Hatto I played an important part in the history of Germany during the reign of Louis the Infant and Conrad I, and died Jan. 18, 913. His successor, Heriger, died in 927. Hildebert, who successfully disputed against Cologne and Treves the right to crown the king, and crowned Otto I at Aix-la- Chapelle in 936, died in 937. Friedrich was exiled to Hamburg or Fulda by the emperor Otto I, as a rebel; was recalled in 954, but repeatedly accused of treason, and escaped punishment only by his sudden decease in 954. He was succeeded by Wilhelm, a natural son of Otto, who died in 968. Of Hatto II (968-70), the tradition says that he was devoured by mice. Ruprecht died in 974. Willigis received the pallium from pope Benedict VII, together with the privilege of presiding at all the German councils and of crowning the king. To remind him always of his low origin (his father was said to have been a wagoner), he caused a wheel to be erected on the walls of his palace, and this is said to be the origin of the wheel on the arms of the archbishops of Mayence. In 978 he laid the foundations of the new cathedral (which, however, was burned down on the day of its consecration in 1009), and died in 1011. Next follow Archimbald (Erkenbold), 1011-21; Aribon, 1021-31; Bardo of Oppershofen, 1031-51, who finished the new cathedral, and consecrated it Nov. 10, 1037. He received on this occasion the pallium from pope John XIX, and the right to act as papal legate whenever no other person appeared invested with that authority in his diocese. The succeeding incumbent was Leopold (Luitpold), count of Bogen, 1051-59. Sigfrid I, count of Eppstein, joined a crusade in 1065; in 1069 he tried, but in vain, to procure a divorce between Henry IV and Bertha, and proclaimed — yet without effect — in 1075 the edict of celibacy of Gregory VII. After 1077 he took the part of the anti- kings, and crowned Rudolf of Suabia and Hermann of Luxemburg. He died in 1084. Wezilo (1084-88) was complained of at the Council of Halberstadt, and put under ban for maintaining that those of the secular clergy who lost their estates were no longer subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction; he subsequently receded from this position. Under Ruthard (1088-99), in 1097, a persecution broke out against the Jews in Mayence, and the archbishop, fearing the anger of the emperor for having taken an active part in it, fled to Thuringia, whence he returned only after a lapse of eight years. Adelbert I, count of Saarbruck (1109-37), was elected by Henry V, yet sided against him in 1112 on the question of investiture; he was imprisoned for his opposition, and only released in 1115, when the people of Mayence rose in arms to secure his liberation. Adelbert showed his gratitude by granting the citizens of Mayence the charter (releasing them from the jurisdiction of the church-wardens and from their taxes), which was inscribed on the door of the cathedral in 1135. In 1120 he fled again before the emperor, after whose death, in 1125, he assembled a diet for the election of a king. This is the first instance of the appearance in the history of Germany of the electors, among whom the archbishop of Mayence held the first place. Adelbert II, brother of the preceding, held the office 1138-41. Marcult; 1141-42, was the first archbishop elected according to canonical rules, with the concurrence of the people. Henry I, 1142-53, was appointed by Conrad III tutor to his son, before his departure for the crusade. He was hated by the clergy for his severity, and they accused him before the pope of squandering the funds of the Church and of immorality. He was deposed in 1153. Under Arnold I, of Seelenhowen (1153-60), the partisans of his predecessors, among them Hermann, count of the Palatinate, invaded the diocese and laid the land waste. Arnold retaliated, and peace was only restored at the emperor's return from Italy in 1155. Arnold having promised the emperor to accompany him in his next journey to Rome, and to employ his influence to settle the difficulty then existing between him and the pope, he sought to levy a tax on the diocese to defray his expenses; but the citizens resisted, and, the emperor refusing to take the part of the citizens, they murdered the archbishop in 1160. The emperor now appointed Conrad I, in spite of the opposition of the chapter; the new archbishop, however, on being requested to recognize the anti-pope, Pascal, fled to Alexander at Rome, and was made archbishop of Salzburg. His place was filled in 1165 by Christian I, count of Buch, chancellor of the emperor Frederic I. He proved true to that prince, and took his part in Italy against the pope; but was arrested there in 1180 by the count of Monte Ferrara, remained a prisoner until 1181, and died in the neighborhood of Rome in 1183. The title of archchancellor of the empire, which the archbishops of Mayence had often received since the 10th century, became permanent now. After the decease of Christian, Conrad I became again archbishop of Mayence. The late prelate had already set up a claim on the estates of the extinct house of Franconia in Thuringia and Hesse; Conrad brought it forward again in 1184, but was opposed by the landgrave Lewis III, and a lengthy strife ensued. In 1197 Conrad took part in a crusade, and died in 1200. Sigfrid II, the elder, count of Eppstein (1200-30), obtained in 1208 the direction of the bishopric of Worms, and in 1228 the right to crown the kings of Bohemia (which was exercised by his followers until 1343). Sigfrid III, of Eppstein, nephew of the preceding (1230-49), finding the finances in very bad condition, levied, with the assent of the chapter, on all benefices a tax amounting to one twentieth of their income. On the other hand, it was enacted that the archbishop could in future contract no liabilities without the consent of the chapter, and that every future archbishop should be strictly held to submit to that rule. In 1232 Sigfrid obtained from the king the abbey of Lorch, and restored the cathedral, which was consecrated in 1239. He favored the deposition of emperor Frederick II, and supported Henry Raspe, and afterwards William of Holland (this is commemorated by three statues to be seen in the cathedral of Mayence, the center one representing the archbishop, the one on his right Henry Raspe, and the other William of Holland). After the death of Henry Raspe, Sigfrid attempted to annex his possessions to Thuringia, but was opposed by landgrave Henry and Sophia of Brabant, and the dispute lasted seven years. Sigfrid died in 1249, and was succeeded by Christian II, of Bolanden, who resigned in 1251. Gerhard I (1251-59), was imprisoned in 1256 by duke Albrecht of Brunswick, and liberated in 1257 by king Richard of England, whom he afterwards supported as a candidate to the imperial crown. Under him the cathedral canons of Mayence ceased to lead the communistic life. Werner of Eppstein, nephew of Sigfrid III (1259-84), canceled part of the debts of the archbishopric, and concluded a treaty with the duchess Sophia of Brabant in 1263, by which he obtained Grunberg and Frankenburg; in 1271 he bought Wildenberg, Amorbach, Schneeberg, and Wilbach from Ulrich of Duren, and in 1278 the castle of Bockelnheim from count Henry of Sponhein; he took an active part in the election of Rudolph of Hapsburg as emperor of Germany. After a vacancy of two years, Henry II was appointed archbishop in 1286; he was disliked by the clergy for his strictness, and died in 1288. Gerhard II, of Eppstein (1289-1305), labored to have his cousin Adolph of Nassau elected emperor, but afterwards aided in his deposition and in the election of Albrecht of Austria: he used his influence with both emperors for the aggrandizement of his archbishopric. He was also somewhat distinguished as a legislator; his decrees form the Concordata Gerhardi. An electoral edict of king Albrecht having assigned him the second rank among the electors, he protested, and obtained an imperial decree, under date of Sept. 23, 1298, placing him and his successors in the first rank; the same decree confirmed them also in the title of archchancellor of Germany. Peter Aichspalter (1306-20) improved greatly the finances of the diocese by his economy, and was a strict promoter of ecclesiastical discipline. Matthias, count of Bucheck and landgrave of Burgundy (1321-28), first sided with emperor Louis of Bavaria, but afterwards with the pope, and enlarged the estates of the archbishopric. After his death, which occurred in 1328, pope John XXII appointed Henry III, count of Burneburg, but the chapter elected archbishop Balduin of Treves; the latter governed the diocese during the difficulty, and added to it a part of the village of Herzberg, half of Mark Duderstadt, Schurburg, Botzwangen, Esenheim, and Odenheim. On Nov. 12, 1336, Balduin voluntarily surrendered his claim, and Henry was now accepted by the chapter, after promising to take sides with Louis of Bavaria, and to surrender the strong places of the diocese into the hands of the chapter. In 1329 he engaged not to tax the inhabitants of Mayence, or those of the suburbs, without their consent; in 1330 he released them from the ecclesiastical punishments they had incurred for injuring the clergy, and in 1331 absolved them from their promise to repay the Jews sums advanced by them to the city. He obtained jurisdiction over Eichsfeld, Duderstadt, and Giboldhausen; on the other hand, Olmutz and Prague were detached from Mayence, and, in consequence, the archbishops of Mayence lost the right to crown the kings of Hungary. He finally got into difficulties by his fidelity to emperor Lewis, and was deposed by pope Clement VI in 1346, yet continued to exercise his functions until his death in 1353. Gerlach, who had been appointed by the pope in 1346, was now recognized by all as archbishop. The difficulties between him and his predecessor had greatly injured the diocese: the funds had become low, debts had been contracted, the clergy had become much relaxed, and the respect of the people had diminished in consequence; Gerlach, however, added to the diocese the castles of Itter and Allenfelt, Ballenburg; the village of Budensheim, and the half of Geismar. At this time the Golden Bull, in which the high position of the archbishop of Mayence as dean of the electoral college was officially recognized, was given to the public. Gerlach died Feb. 12, 1371. His successor, John I, duke of Luxemburg, died in 1373. Louis, son of margrave Frederick the Earnest, was now appointed by both the pope and the emperor, while the chapter elected Adolph I, of Nassau, bishop of Spires, who took up his residence at Erfurt; the difficulty lasted until 1380; Adolph remained archbishop of Mayence, while Louis was made archbishop of Magdeburg, and retained the regalia until his death. Adolph was long at war with landgrave Hermann of Hesse about some possessions in that province; he founded the University of Erfurt, and died in 1390. His successor, Conrad II, of Weinsberg, persecuted the Waldenses, of whom there were a number in his diocese, and entered into a league with the Palatinate, Bavaria, and Spires against the Flagellants. He died Oct. 19,1396. John II, count of Nassau, brother of Adolph I (1396-1419), took part in the deposition of emperor Wenzel, and, in consequence of being suspected of having had a share in the murder of the emperor elect, duke Frederick of Brunswick, as he sheltered the murderer, he became involved in a war with Brunswick and Hesse, which lasted until 1401: he added to his diocese Wetterau and Ardeck, besides several villages. Conrad III, count of Stein, was in 1422 appointed vicar of the empire by emperor Sigismund; but, being opposed by Louis of Heidelberg, he resigned that office in 1423: he added to the diocese the city of Steinheim, and enacted strict regulations for the conduct of the clergy. Under him the citizens of Mayence continued to complain of the exemption from taxes enjoyed by the clergy, and he did not succeed in settling the question. He died in 1434. His successor, Dietrich I, of Erbach, was more fortunate, and put an end to the troubles in 1435, with the aid of two commissioners of the Council of Basle. His whole time was taken up in quarrels with the pope and emperor; the Pragmatic Sanction of Mayence, of which he was the author, and in which he recognized the Council of Basle, the suppression of the annates, and the general restoration of canonical election, was rejected, while the Concordat of Aschaffenburg, which held the contrary views, was afterwards adopted. Dietrich died May 6, 1459, and was succeeded by Diether (Dietrich II), count of Isenburg- Budingen; the latter, however, found a rival in count Adolph of Nassau, whom Frederick, elector of the Palatinate, supported by force of arms; Diether was besieged in Heidelberg July 4, 1461, and obliged to flee. In 1462 he was deposed by pope Pius II, for refusing to collect the annates (which the pope had arbitrarily raised from 10,000 to 21,000 florins). Adolph II, count of Nassau, was now made archbishop, and a war commenced between Diether, supported by Bavaria and the Palatinate, and Adolph, upheld by Bavaria and Wurtemberg; a treaty was finally concluded, Oct. 25, 1463, Diether renouncing his claims. The city of Mayence, which was stormed by Adolph in 1462, lost all privileges. After the death of Adolph, Sept. 6, 1475, Diether was again appointed archbishop; but now commenced a strife about the city of Mayence: the cathedral chapter claimed it for its own, while the citizens demanded their liberty, and rebelled against the chapter; they were finally defeated, and the city remained subject to the archbishop, who made it his residence; he built the palace of Martinsburg, and founded the University of Mayence, which was opened in 1477; he also restored to the diocese the estates of Algesheim and Olm, and died May 7,1482. Albert I, duke of Saxony, was son of the elector Ernst (1482-84). His successor, Berthold, count of Henneberg, accompanied emperor Maximilian as archchancellor to court; he took an active part in restoring peace throughout the country, and in the institution of the imperial chamber of justice; he also introduced great improvements in the ecclesiastical and conventual discipline, and laid the grievances of the Germans with regard to ecclesiastical affairs before the court of Rome. He died Dec. 21, 1504. Jacob of Liebenstein (1504-8) added Kostheim and part of Konigsberg to the diocese. Uriel of Genimengen (1508-14) ordered the examination of the clergy, and strictly opposed concubinage among them. Albrecht of Brandenburg, archbishop of Magdeburg, was made archbishop of Mayence in 1514, he loved grandeur, wasted the funds of the diocese, and abused the sale of indulgences; he took part in the league against the Protestant princes; being attacked by the landgrave of Hesse, he purchased peace at the expense of 40,000 thalers. In 1529 he originated the Edict of Worms against the Protestants; vet he afterwards sought to restore peace among the different religious parties, and was one of the principal promoters of the peace of Nuremberg. He died Sept. 24, 1545, highly respected both by the Roman Catholics and the Lutherans, and even by Luther, with whom he had some correspondence. Sebastian of Heusenstam (1545-55) labored to improve the administration of the diocese, and also to restore the influence of Romanism; he subscribed to the Interim of 1548. During his reign Albrecht Alcibiades of Brandenburg invaded the diocese, and took Mayence; he made the citizens swear allegiance to the king of France, demanded a contribution of 600,000 florins from the archbishop and chapter, and, as they were unable to pay that amount by the time stipulated, he burnt down the archiepiscopal palace and several churches; the archbishop himself fled to Eltfeld, where he died in 1555. His successor, Daniel of Homburg, endeavored to restore the archbishopric to its former splendor; he introduced the Jesuits into Mayence and in Eichsfelde, and surrendered education into their hands; he took part also in the attempts of reconciliation between the Protestants and Romanists, added to his diocese the county of Lahr (Rieneck), the county of Konigstein, and the villages of Rennshausen and Zornheim. He died March 22,1582. He was succeeded by Wolfgang of Dalberg (1582 to April 5,1601). John Adam, of Bicken (1601 to Jan. 10, 1604), and John Suicard, of Kronenberg, strictly enforced all the old ecclesiastical rules, and persecuted the Protestants. Under Suicard the diocese began to feel the effects of the Thirty Years' War, which was then raging; it suffered especially from the inroads of Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick, against whom he called for the assistance of the Spaniards. He died July 6, 1629. Anselm Casimir, of Wambold, was obliged to flee from Mayence when that city was taken by Gustavus Adolphus, Dec. 23,1631; he retired to Cologne, and the diocese was, until the Treaty of Prague, in 1635, occupied by Swedish and French troops, who greatly impoverished the country — not more, however, than the imperial forces. In 1635 the archbishop returned to Mayence; but the diocese becoming again the theater of war in 1643, he fled again before the French armies, and in 1647 made a treaty with Turenne. Mayence remained in the possession of the French, and the archbishop went to reside at Frankfort, where he died, Oct. 9, 1647. His successor, John Philip, of Schonborn, prince bishop of Wurzburg, resigned soon after his election, for the Swedes, after the expiration of the peace of Westphalia, exerted themselves for the secularization of the diocese, and the archbishopric was only maintained through the intervention of Saxony; it lost, however, by exemption, the districts of Verden and Halberstadt. On the occasion of the coronation of Ferdinand IV at Regensburg, John Philip came in conflict with the archbishop of Cologne over their respective prerogatives. He was also in difficulty with the inhabitants of Mayence, and finally took the city by force in 1664. Philip also quarreled with Saxony about the town of Erfurt, which was finally added to his diocese in 1665. He then devoted all his attention to internal improvements; he gave regulations to the court of Mayence in 1659; in 1661 he established a theological seminary; and in 1663 was also made bishop of Worms. He died Feb. 12, 1673. His successor was Lothar Frederick, of Metternich-Burchied, coadjutor of John Philip since 1670; in 1674 he got into war with the elector of the Palatinate, about the district of Bockelnheim, but died June 3, 1675. Domian Hartard, of Leyen, died Dec. 6, 1678. Charles Henry, duke of Metternich-Winneburg, was elected in 1679, and died on Sept. 27 of the same year. Anselm Franz, of Ingelheim, surrendered Mayence to the French in 1688, and took up his residence at Erfurt; but the marshal of Uxelles having given up Mayence to the duke of Lorraine, Sept. 8,1689, the archbishop returned to it. In 1691 he joined a league against France. By a treaty concluded Aug. 24, 1692 with Brunswick, he gave up the district of Eichsfeld, with the exception of Duderstadt, Gieboldshausen, and Landau. He died in 1695. Lothar Franz, of Schonborn, nephew of John Philip, took the part of Austria against Spain in the War of Succession. In 1704 the district of Kronenberg was joined to the diocese by succession. In 1714 the strife between the archbishop and the Palatinate was brought to a close by the former giving up his claim to Bockelnheim, and receiving in exchange New Bamberg. He died Jan. 30,1729. Francis Louis, count of Neuburg, bishop of Breslau and Worms, and also archbishop of Treves, died April 19, 1732. Under Philip Charles, of Eltz-Kempenich, Alzenau, together with five villages, was added to the diocese. He died March 21, 1743. John Frederick Charles, count of Ostein, remained neutral in the Austrian War of Succession, and his diocese suffered severely from the French in consequence; in 1745 the grand duke of Tuscany succeeded in driving the French armies out of the country, but during the Seven Years' War the bishopric suffered again on account of its adherence to the queen of Hungary. The archbishop died June 4, 1763: he had added the bishopric of Fulda to Mayence. Emmerich Joseph, baron of Breidbach-Buresheim, was made also bishop of Worms in 1768; in 1769 he joined the two other ecclesiastical electors in trying to emancipate the German episcopacy from the dominion of Rome; by a decree of Dec. 23, 1766, he abolished a number of festivals, and by another of July 30, 1771, he enacted several reforms in the convents; he encouraged industry and agriculture, founded charitable institutions, and established the administration of the diocese on a regular basis; on Jan. 30, 1773, he entered into an agreement with Saxony concerning Trefurt and Mulhouse, by which he surrendered the jurisdiction of Protestant districts to Saxony. He died July 11, 1774. Frederick Charles Joseph, of Eichthal, who became also bishop of Worms, followed in the footsteps of his predecessor, introducing many reforms in the Church; he endowed the University of Mayence with the convents of Karthaus, Altenmunster, and Reichenklaren in 1781, to which, in 1784, he added seventeen prebends, and also directed that theological studies should no longer be pursued in convents, but only in the University of Mayence. The archbishops had heretofore been partisans of Austria, but he sided with Prussia when Frederick the Great opposed the plans of aggrandizement of the former power towards Bavaria; he opposed, also, the encroachments of the papal nuncios. When the French Revolution broke out, Mayence was betrayed into Custine's hands, Oct. 21, 1792; the archbishop fled to Heiligenstadt, then took up his residence at Erfurt, and died at Aschaffenburg July 25,1802. He was the last archbishop of Mayence. The archbishopric was secularized Feb. 26, 1803. By treaty France received the portion of the diocese on the left shore of the Rhine, and the remainder was divided between Prussia, Hesse, etc., with the exception of the principalities of Aschaffenburg, Regensburg, the county of Wetzlar, and some other small portions which were given to the coadjutor of the late archbishop, Charles Theodore of Dalberg, as archchancellor, metropolitan, and primate of Germany. The see was transferred to the cathedral of Regensburg, and received jurisdiction over the whole of the former ecclesiastical provinces of Mayence, Treves, and Cologne, lying on the right shore of the Rhine, with the exception of the part belonging to Prussia, and also over the whole province of Salzburg, in Bavaria. The archbishopric of Mayence became a simple bishopric, subject to the archbishop of Mechlin, and including only the territory of the old archbishopric on the left shore of the Rhine. The first bishop was Joseph Louis Colmar, appointed Oct. 3, 1802, who governed his diocese exclusively under French inspiration. Mayence was taken by the allies May 17, 1814; Colmar died Dec. 15 of the same year. A vicar-general was then appointed. In 1829 the bishopric of Mayence was, by a papal decree, detached from Mechlin and subjected to Freiburg. Joseph Vitus Burg was appointed bishop Jan. 12,1830; he divided the diocese into deaneries, and died May 23, 1833. His successor, the former vicar-general, John Jacob Humann, died Aug. 19, 1834. Peter Leopold Kaiser issued complete diocesan statutes in 1837, and died Dec. 30, 1848. Leopold Schmid, professor of theology and philosophy at the University of Giessen, was appointed bishop of Mayence by pope Pius IX, Feb. 22, 1849, but he was not confirmed (see L. Schmid, Ueb. d. jungste Mainzer Bischofswahl, Giessen, 1850); and William Emanuel von Ketteler was made bishop in his place, March 29, 1850. Since Ketteler's accession, the bishopric of Mayence is noted as the gathering-place of all Jesuit ultramontanists. How this Roman see in Germany will continue its opposition to all order of state rule, now that the Jesuits have been expelled from Germany (1873), remains to be seen. See Theoderich Gresemund, Catalogus episcoporum et archiepiscoporum Mogunt. (Schunk's Beitragen, vol. 2); J. Latomus, Gesch. d. Bischofe v. M. (in Mencke, Scriptores rerum Germ. vol. 3); Servarius, Res Moguntiacae (in Joannis, Res Mogunt. Frankf. 1722, vol. 1); Severus, Memoria pontificum Mogunt. (Mayence, 1765); Wurdtwein, Diaecesis Moguntina in archidiaconatus districta (Manh. 1769-77, 3 vols.); Schepfer, Codex eccles. Mogunt. nov. (Aschaf. 1803); D.
Untergang d. Kurfurst. M. (Frankf. 1839); Werner, Der Dom z. M. (Mayence, 1827, 3 vols.); Pierer, Universal-Lexikon, 10:741 sq.; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 8:697 sq.