Lismanini, Francis

Lismanini, Francis, a Socinian theologian, was born at Corfu in the beginning of the 16th century. He studied in Italy, joined the Franciscans, and a few years after became doctor of theology; removed to Poland, and was appointed by queen Bona, wife of Sigismund I, her preacher and confessor. He became also superior of the Franciscans of Poland, director of all the convents of the nuns of St. Clara, etc. The society of Andrew Fricesio and the reading of Ochin's works led him to question the authority of the Roman Church, yet he was not displaced on account of it, but continued in favor with the queen, and was sent by her to Rome, in 1549, to congratulate Julius III on his election as pope. On his return to Poland in 1551, Lismanini became acquainted with Socinius, and it is this association that no doubt gave rise to the mission with which he was entrusted by the king of Poland, ostensibly for the purpose of collecting works for the royal library, but in reality to study the position of the Reformation, and to report concerning it. Lismanini accordingly visited Padua, Milan, and Switzerland, where he finally left his order, embraced the Helvetic confession, and married. The king, fearing to be compromised by this overt act, broke all connection with him, ceased to supply him with funds, and Calvin, Bullinger, and Gesner in vain sought to obtain for Lismanini leave to return to Poland. It was not until 1556 that he was permitted to return, but the king's favor he never regained, notwithstanding the efforts of a large number of the Polish nobility in his behalf. His Socinian views on the doctrine of the Trinity served still more to bring him into discredit. As he attempted to make converts he was exiled from Poland. He retired to Konigsberg, where he became counselor of duke Albrecht. About 1563 he became distracted on account of family difficulties, and committed suicide by drowning. His chief production is Brevis Explicatio doctrinae de sanctissima Trinitate, quam

Stancaro et aliis quibusdam opposuit (1565, 8vo). See Bibl. antitrinitariorum, page 34; Bayle, Hist. Dict.; Friese, Beiträge z. Ref.- Gesch. in Polen, 2:1, page 247 sq.; Fock, Der Socinianismus, 1:145; Herzoog, Real-Encyklopädie, 10:426; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Gen. 31:356. (J.H.W.)

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