Lippe sometimes also (but less properly) LIPPEDETMOLD, a small principality of Northern Germany, surrounded on the W. and S. by Westphalia, and on the E. and N. by Hanover, Brunswick, Waldeck, and a detached portion of Hesse-Cassel, extends over an area of 438 square miles, and has a population (1885) of 123,250, mainly belonging to the Reformed Church. The earliest inhabitants were the Cherusci; subsequently it was a part of the country of the Saxons. The first establishment of Christianity in that province dates back to Charlemagne. In the very beginning of his war against the Saxons, in 772, he took the castrum AEresburgum (probably Radtberg, on the Diemel, near the southern frontier of the principality), and there destroyed the statue of the idol Irmansaul. In 776 he went to Lippspringe, and the following year to Padrabrun (Paderborn), both on the southern frontier of the province, obliging whole tribes of the conquered Saxons to receive baptism. In 783 Charlemagne again vanquished the Saxons in the great battle of Theotmelli (Detmold), in the very heart of the present principality. The Saxon army was entirely destroyed, and Charlemagne, in commemoration of this event, erected a church which is still in existence. The next Christmas he spent at Skidroburg-supra- Ambram, now Schieder, on the Emmer, where it is said he also erected a church. But his most important measure for Christianizing the country was his establishment of the bishopric of Paderborn, embracing the district of Lippe within its diocese, for which the house of the princes of Lippe furnished many a bishop.
The Reformation early found strong supporters in Lippe. The first city of the province to adopt it was Lemgo, moved to such a course by Luther's theses against indulgences. By 1524 the Reformation was further advanced in this part of Germany by the adherents it had gained in the town of Herford, adjoining Lemgo, where the works of Luther and Melancthon had been circulated freely. Foremost among Luther's supporters there were his colleagues the Augustine monks. One of them, Dr. John Drever, a native of Lemgo and a personal friend of Luther, distinguished for his learning and eloquence, was the first to preach the Gospel in Herford. In spite of the priests, the people introduced the singing of the German hymns of Luther into their churches, and all attempts to put an end to this by violence gave way before the unanimous will of the people. The first to take the decided step of separation was Moriz Piderit, a priest, and formerly one of the most determined adversaries of the evangelical doctrines, and by his influence the city was carried for Luther's doctrines. Lippstadt embraced them nearly at the same time. The monks of the Augustine convent in that city, who had sent two of their number to Wittemberg to be instructed by Luther, on their return preached the Gospel with great success to the people of Lippe and of neighboring places; and they so quickly advanced the cause of the Reformers, that when an inquisitor was sent to Lippe from Cologne in 1526 to stay the heresy, he found the evangelical party so strong that he gave up all attempts to control it, and returned to his home. In 1533 the town was besieged by the dukes of Cleves and Juliers, and the count of Lippe forced to surrender. The evangelical ministers were of course driven away, but it was not long before permission was granted for the preaching by Lutheran ministers again. After the death of the zealous Roman Catholic count Simon V, in 1536, the Reformation made more rapid progress in the province. The landgrave Philip of Hessia and count Jobst von Hoya, two determined partisans of the Reformation, became guardians of the children of the deceased count, and caused them to be diligently instructed in the Protestant doctrines; and when, in 1538, both the nobility and the people loudly demanded a reform in the Church of the count de Hoya, John Timann, surnamed Amstelrodamus, and Adrian Buxschoten, both of Bremen, were called and sent to Lippe to frame a plan of evangelical church organization, which was submitted to the States and to Luther, and, upon approval (1538), it was promulgated throughout the principality, and Protestant ministers were everywhere appointed. Under John von Eyter, of Wittemberg, then general superintendent of Lippe, a new church organization was drawn up and printed in 1571, with the authorization of the authorities, and it is still in our day in force among the Lutheran communities of the country.
In 1600, during the reign of count Simon VI (ruled 1583-1613), who had imbibed Calvinistic views at the court of Cassel, Calvinism found an entrance in Lippe. It commenced by the appointment of a Calvinistic minister to preach at Horn in 1602. This preacher at once forbade the use of the Lutheran Catechism in the schools, administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in strict Calvinistic form, and established the Reformed mode of worship in spite of the local authorities and of the pope. In 1605 the same step was taken at Detmold, and was supported by the government, notwithstanding the opposition of the people and city authorities. In this manner Calvinism was established throughout the country, the nobility alone and the city of Lemgo remaining Lutheran. It was not, however, until 1684 that Calvinism was sanctioned as the state religion. In that year count Simon Henrich promulgated the Reformed ecclesiastical organization, which recognizes as its formula of confession the Catechism of Heidelberg, and is in force in our day. The city of Lemgo resisted these measures, and succeeded in obtaining in 1717 an edict assuring its inhabitants the fullest religious liberty, the right of appointing their own ministers, etc. But as Rationalism had obtained full control of the Reformed Church of Lippe in the 18th century, upon reaction towards the middle of the 19th century the whole country, including Lemgo, was subjected to the Reformed consistory, which, however, by the admission of one Lutheran member, became a mixed consistory. As an outline of doctrine, the Heidelberg Catechism was introduced.
In 1885 the principality numbered about 2700 Roman Catholics, 6500 Lutherans, 1150 Israelites; the remainder belonged to the Reformed Church. The latter is divided into three classes, at the head of each of which is a superintendent; at the head of the whole clergy is a superintendent general at Detmold. The supreme ecclesiastical board for both Reformed and Lutherans is the consistory at Detmold. The principality has 43 Reformed, 5 Lutheran, and 6 Catholic parishes; the Catholics belong to the diocese of Paderborn, in Westlphalia. See Herzog, Real-Encyklopädie, 8:423; Falkmann und Preuss, Lippesche Regesten (Lemgo, 1860-63, 2 volumes, 8vo); Falkmann, Beitrage zur Gesch. der Furstenth. (ibid. 1847-56); and his Graf Simon VI zur Lippe (Detm. 1869, volume 1). (A.J.S.)