Laiaez, lago, a celebrated Spanish Jesuit, was born at Almancario. near Siguenca, in Castile, in 1512, and was educated at the high-school of Alcsla. In his nineteenth year he was attracted to Paris by the renown of Ignatius, and at once became one of his most ardent followers. He accompanied Loyola on his journey to Rome, and there obtained from pope Paul III the appointment to a professor's chair in the " Collegium della Sapienza." On the death of the great leader of the Jesuitical order (in 1556) Lainez was elected his suecessor, and became general of the order (June 19, 1557). A cardinal's hat and other high positions he refused, determined to devote all his time and energy to the interests of the new order. In the Council of' Trent, where, with Salmeron, he represented his order, he took an active part, and opposed the doctrine of Seripando on justification. Lainez appeared on the field of controversy more with a work on the subject than with a speech. He had the greatest number of the divines on his side. lie also took a leading part in that council in the discussion concerning the divine right of bishops and the infallibility of the pope. The historians have preserved a very full report of his speech on this point. It contains the most extravagant assertions of pontifical power and authority. Lainez maintained that Jesus Christ is sole ruler of his Church; that when he left the world he constituted Peter and his successors his vicars; that, in consequence, the pope is absolute lord and master, supreme and infallible; that bishops derive from him their power and jurisdiction; and that, in fact, there is no power whatever in the Church excepting that which emanates from him, so that even general councils have no authority, are not infallible, do not enjoy the influence of the Holy Spirit, unless they are summoned and controlled by papal authority (compare Pallav. lib. 18:s. 15; Sarpi, lib. 7:s. 20; Le Plat, 5:524). Lainez also took an active part (in 1561) in the Conference of Poissy (q.v.), where he aimed to conciliate the Huguenots (q.v., especially p. 392). At Venice he afterwards expounded the Gospel of St. John for the express edification of the nobility; and, aided by Lippomano, he succeeded in laying the foundation of a college of Jesuits. He devoted great attention to the schools, and directed the thoughts of his order towards education, well aware that man is most influenced during his whole life by his early impressions. Ins some parts of Germany-at Ingolstadt for instance-the Jesuits soon acquired the reputation of most successful teachers. This new direction given to the order by Lainez came near, however, involving them in serious difficulties: the Jesuits had at first attached themselves to the doctrinal views of the Thomists; but, desiring to be independent in doctrine as well as life, the Inquisition soon found reasons to criticise the freedom with which they pursued their speculations on this point, and Lainez himself was suspected by the Spanish Inquisition (see Llorente, 3:83). He died at Rome Jan. 19, 1565. It was under the guidance of Lainez that the spirit of intrigue entered freely into the society. lie possessed a peculiar craftiness and dexterity in managing affairs, and was frequently led by it into low and unworthy tricks. His ruling passion was ambition, which he knew well how to conceal under a veil of humility and piety. By his artful policy he transformed the character of the Jesuitical order into a terrible army, that, for the sake of advancing its own interests, shrunk from no attempt to gain its ends; an order which has become a reproach to the Church that gave it birth. The Jesuits in the 19th century are recognised as a bold band-an order which dares to undermine states, to rend the Church, and even to menace the pope. SEE JESUITS. Lainez wrote several theological works, but none of them had been completed, and nothing from his pen, except some speeches, has ever been printed. See Michel d'Esne, Vie de Lainez (Douai, 1597); Nicolini, Hist. Jesuits, p. 506 sq.; Versuch einer neuen Gesch. des Jesuiterordens, vol. ii; Mosheim, Eccles. 1iist. 3:90, n. 20; Ranke, Hist. of the Papacy, 16th and 17th Centuries, i, 145,153, 163, 399, 585; Hardwick, Hist. Ref: ch. viii; Pierer, Universal- Lexikon, 10:31; and for the Roman Catholic version, Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen Lexikon, 6:316. (J. H. W.)

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