Isai'ah (prop. Heb. Yeshayah', ישִׁעיָה, saved by Jehovah; but this shorter form occurs, with reference to this person, only in the Rabbinic title of the book,: the text always has the name in the paragogic form — Yeshaya'hu, ישִׁעיָהוּ, Sept., Josephus, and N.T. ῾Ησαϊvας, Vulg. Isaias; Auth. Vers. N.T. "Esaias:" but the Heb. name, both in the simple and prolonged forms, occurs of other persons likewise, although differently Anglicized in the Eng. Vers.; SEE JESHAIAH; SEE JESAIAH ), one of the most important of "the Greater Prophets," who gave title to one of the books of Scripture.
I. Personal History of the Prophet. — Little is known respecting the circumstances of Isaiah's life. Kimchi (A.D. 1230) says in his commentary on Isa 1:1, "We know not.his race, nor of what tribe he was." His father's name was Amoz (Isa 1:1), whom the fathers of the Church confound with the prophet Amos, because they were unacquainted with Hebrew, and in Greek the two names are spelled alike (so Clem. Alex.; Jerome, Prce. in Amn.; August. Civ. D. 18, 27). See-Amoz. The opinion of the Rabbins (Gemara, Megilla, 10:2) that Isaiah was the brother of king Amaziah rests also on a mere etymological combination (see Carpzov, De regis Jesuice natalibus, Rost. 1735). Isaiah resided at Jerusalem, not far from the Temple (ch. 6). We learn from ch. 7 and 8 that he was married. Two of his sons are mentioned, Shear-jashub and Maher-shalal-hashbaz. These significant names, which he gave to his sons, prove how much Isaiah lived in his vocation. He did not consider his children as belonging merely to himself, but rendered them living admonitions to the people. In their names were contained the two chief points of his prophetic utterances: one recalled to mind the severe and inevitable judgment wherewith the Lord was about to visit the world, and especially his people; the other, which signifies "The remnant shall return," pointed out the mercy with which the Lord would receive the elect, and with which, in the midst of apparent destruction, he would take care to preserve his people and his kingdom. Isaiah calls his wife a prophetess. This indicates that his marriage-life was not only consistent with his vocation, but that it was intimately interwoven with it. This name cannot mean the wife of. a prophet, but indicates 'that the prophetess of Isaiah had a prophetic gift, like Miriam, Deborah' and Huldah. The appellation here given denotes the suitableness as well as genuineness of their conjugal relation.
Even the dress of the prophet was subservient to his vocation. According to 20:2, he 'Wore a garment of haircloth or sackcloth. This seems also to have been the costume of Elijah, according to 2 Kings 1,.8; and it was the dress of John the Baptist (Mt 3:4). Hairy sackcloth is in the Bible the symbol of repentance (compare Isa 20:6,6, and 1Ki 21:27). This costume of the prophets was a sermo propheticus realis, a prophetic preaching by fact. Before he has opened his lips his external appearance proclaims μετανοεῖτε, repent.
It is held traditionally that Isaiah suffered martyrdom under the wicked Manasseh, by being sawn in two under a memorable tree long said to have stood in the vicinity of Jerusalem (Gemara, Jeban. 4, 13; compare Sanhedr. f. 103 b, and the Targumites, in Assemani, Catalog. Bibl. 'Vat. 1, 452; Trypho, p. 349; Jerome, in Jes. 57; Origen, in Psalm. 27 in Matthew 23; Tertullian, Patient. 14; Augustine, Civ. Dei, 18, 24; Chronic. Pasch. p. 155). The traditional spot of the martyrdom is a very old mulberry-tree which stands near the Pool of Siloam, on the slopes of Ophel, below the south-east wall of Jerusalem. A similar account of his death is contained in the Ascension of the Prophet Isaiah, an apocryphal work, the Greek original of which was known to the early Church (Epiphan. licer. 40, 2;
Jerome, in les. 44, 4, p. 761, etc.), and of which only recently an Ethiopic version has been found and translated by Dr. Laurence, Oxford, 1819 (see Nitzsch, in the Studien und Krit. 1830, 2, 209; Engelhardt, Kirchengesch. Abhandl. 207 sq.). The same fate of Isaiah appears to be alluded to by Josephus (Ant. 10:3, 1).
II. Time of Isaiah. — The heading of this book places the prophet under the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; and an examination of the prophecies themselves, independently of the heading, leads us to the same chronological results. Chapter 6 in which is related the definite call of Isaiah to his prophetic office, is thus headed: "In the year in which king Uzziah died I saw the Lord," etc. The collection of prophecies is, therefore, not chronologically arranged, and-the utterances in-the preceding chapters (1 to 6) belong, for chronological and other reasons to the last year of the reign of Uzziah, although the utterances in chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 have been erroneously assigned to the reign of Jotham. As, however, the position of affairs was not materially changed under the reign of Jotham, we may say that the first chapter was uttered during that reign. The continuation of prophetic authorship, or the writing down of uttered prophecies, depended upon the commencement of new historical developments, such as took place under the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah. Several prophecies (namely, 7-10:4; 1:2-31; 17) belong to the reign of Ahaz (Isa 14:28-32, apparently to the occasion of his death); and most of the subsequent prophecies to the reign of Hezekiah. The prophetic ministry of Isaiah under Hezekiah is also described in a historical section contained in chapters 36-39. The data which are contained in this section come down to the fifteenth year of the reign of Hezekiah: consequently we are in the possession of historical documents proving that the prophetic ministry of Isaiah was in operation during about forty-five years, commencing in the year B.C. 756, and extending to the year B.C. 711. Of this period, at least one year belongs to the reign of Uzziah, sixteen to the reign of Jotham, fourteen to the reign of Ahaz, and fourteen and upwards to the reign of Hezekiah. It has been maintained, however, by Staudlin, Jahn, Bertholdt, Gesenius, and others, that Isaiah lived to a much later period, and that his life extended to the reign of Manasseh, the successor of Hezekiah. For this opinion the following reasons are adduced:
(1.) According to 2Ch 32:32, Isaiah wrote the life of king Hezekiah. It would hence appear that he survived that king; although it must be admitted that in 2Ch 32:32, where Isaiah's biography of Hezekiah is mentioned, the important words "first and last" are omitted; while in Isa 26:21, we read, "Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah, the son of Amoz, write."
(2.) We find (as above stated) a tradition current in the Talmud, in the fathers, and in Oriental literature, that Isaiah suffered martyrdom in the reign of Manasseh by being sawn asunder. It is thought that an allusion to this tradition is found in the Epistle to the Heb 11:37, in the expression they were sawn asunder (ἐπρίσθησαν), which seems to harmonize with 2Ki 21:16, "Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much."
(3.) The authenticity of the second portion of the prophecies of Isaiah being admitted (see below), the nature of this portion would seem to confirm the idea that its author had lived under Manasseh. The style of the second portion, it is asserted, is so different from that of the first that both could not well have been composed by the same author, except under the supposition that a considerable time intervened between the composition of the first and second portion. The contents of the latter-such as the complaints respecting gross idolatry, the sacrifice of children to idols, the wickedness of rulers, etc. seem to be applicable neither to the times of the exile, into which the prophet might have transported himself in the spirit, nor to the period of the pious Hezekiah, but are quite applicable to the reign of Manasseh. This last argument, however, is too subjective in its character to be of much weight; the difference of style referred to may be more readily accounted for by the difference in the topics treated of, and it is a gratuitous supposition that the national sins rebuked in the later prophecies had ceased during the reign of Hezekiah. The other arguments may be admitted so far as to allow a survivorship on the part of the prophet beyond the sickness of Hezekiah, and sufficiently into the reign of Manasseh to have suffered: martyrdom at the order of the latter, but it does not appear that he uttered any predictions during the fifteen added years of Hezekiah; at least none are found extant that seem to belong to that period (except ch. 40 to end, which may be assigned to the year ensuing Hezekiah's recovery); his great age and the absence of any special occasion may well account for his silence, and he may naturally be supposed to have occupied the time in writing down his former predictions. Nor will this view, which seems to meet all the requirements in the case, require to be extended a life-time; for if Isaiah, like Jeremiah, was called to the prophetical office in his youth, perhaps at twenty years of age, he would have been but eighty years old at the accession of Manasseh (B.C. 696), an age no greater than that of Hosea, whose prophecies extend over the same period of sixty years (Ho 1:1).
III. Historical Works of Isaiah. — Besides the collection of prophecies which has been preserved to us, Isaiah also wrote two historical works (comp. Isa 36:3,22). It was part of the vocation of the prophets to write the history of the kingdom of God, to exhibit in' this history the workings of the law of retribution, and to exhort to the true worship of the Lord (see Augusti, Einleit. p. 290; Bertholdt, Einleit. 4, 1349). Most of the historical books in the Old Testament have been written by prophets. The collectors of the canon placed most of these books under the head prophets; hence it appears that, even when these historical works were remodeled by later editors, these editors were themselves prophets. The Chronicles are not placed among the prophetical books so called: we may therefore conclude that they were not written by a prophet. But their author constantly indicates that he composed his work from abstracts taken verbatim from historical monographies written by the prophets; consequently the books of Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther are the only historical books of the Old Testament which did not originate from prophets.
The first historical work of Isaiah was a biography of king Uzziah (comp. 2Ch 26:22), "Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, write." The second historical work of Isaiah was a biography of king Hezekiah, which was subsequently inserted in the annals of Judah and Israel. These annals consisted of a series of prophetic monographies, which were received partly entire, partly in abstracts, and are the chief source from which the information contained in the Chronicles is derived. In this work of Isaiah, although its contents were chiefly historical, numerous prophecies were inserted. — Hence it is called in 2Ch 32:32, חֲזון ישֵׁעיָהוּ, The Vision of Isaiah. In a similar manner, the biography of Solomon by Ahijah is called in 2Ch 9:29, "the prophecy of Ahijah." The two historical works of Isaiah were lost, together with the annals of Judah and Israel, into which they were embodied. Whatever these annals contained that was of importance for all ages, has been preserved to us by being received into the historical books of the Old Testament, and the predictions of the most distinguished prophets have been formed into separate collections. After this was effected, less care was taken to preserve the more diffuse annals, which also comprehended many statements, of value only for particular times and places.
The so-called "Ascension of Isaiah" is a pseudepigraphal work of later times, originally written, it would seem, in Greek (Α᾿ναβατικὸν ᾿Ησαίου), of which only an old Latin translation (Ascensio Isaiae) was known to scholars, until Bp. Laurence discovered and published the Ethiopic version (Oxford, 1819, 8vo). It has also been edited with notes, etc., by Dillmann (Leips. 1877. 8vo). See Carpzov, Introduct. 3, p. 90; Gesenins, Comment. at Isa 1; Isa 3 sq.; Knobel, Prophet. 2, 176 sq.; Stickel, in the Hall. Encyklop. II, 15:371 sq.; Stuart's Comment, on the Apocalypse, Introd.; Whiston, Authentic Records, 1:470; Gieseier, Visio Jesaiae illustrata (Gott. 1832); Gfrorer, Prophete veteres (Stuttg. 1840); Jolowicz, Himmefahrt u. Vision des Proph. Jes. (Lpz. 1854); De heemelvaart van den profeet Jesa.ja, in the Godgeleerde Bijdragen for 1862, pt. 7, p. 529- 601. SEE APOCRYPHA; SEE REVELATIONS, SPURIOUS.
IV. Integral Authenticity of the Prophecies of Isaiah. — The Jewish synagogue, and the Christian Church during all ages, have considered it as an undoubted fact that the prophecies which bear the name of Isaiah really originated from that prophet. Even Spinoza did not expressly assert, in his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (8, 8), that the book of Isaiah consisted of a collection originating from a variety of authors, although it is usually considered that he maintained this opinion. But in the last quarter of the 18th century this prevailing conviction appeared to some divines to be inconvenient. All those who attack the integral authenticity of Isaiah agree in considering the book to be an anthology, or gleanings of prophecies, collected after the Babylonian exile, although they differ in their opinions respecting the origin of this collection. Koppe gave gentle hints of this view which was first explicitly supported by Eichhorn in his Introduction. Eichhorn advances the hypothesis that a collection of Isaian prophecies (which might have been augmented, even before the Babylonian exile, by several not genuine additions) formed the basis of the present anthology, and that the collectors, after the Babylonian exile, considering that the scroll on which they were written did not form a volume proportionate to the size of the three other prophetic scrolls containing Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and the minor prophets, annexed to the Isaian collection all other oracles at hand whose authors were not-known to the editors. In this supposition of the non-identity of date and authorship, many German scholars, and lately also Hitzig and Ewaid, followed Eichhorn. Gesenius, on the contrary, maintained, in his introduction to Isaiah, that all the non-Isaian prophecies extant in that book originated from one author, and were of the same date. Umbreit and Koster on the main point follow Gesenius, considering chaps. 40 to 66 to be a continuous whole, written by a pseudo-Isaiah who lived about the termination of the Babylonian exile. In reference to other portions of the book of Isaiah, the authenticity of which has been questioned, Umbreit expresses himself doubtingly, and Kostor assigns them to Isaiah. Gesenius declines to answer the question how it happened that these portions were ascribed to Isaiah, but Hitzig felt that an answer to it might be expected. He accordingly attempts to explain why such additions were made to Isaiah, and not to any of the other prophetical books; by the extraordinary veneration in which Isaiah was held. He says that the great authority of Isaiah occasioned important and distinguished prophecies to be placed in connection with his name. But he himself soon after destroys the force of this assertion by observing that the great authority of Isaiah was especially owing to those prophecies which were falsely ascribed to him. A considerable degree of suspicion must, however, attach to the boasted certainty of such critical investigations, if we notice how widely these learned men differ in defininm what is of Isaian origin and what is not, although they are all linked together by the same fundamental tendency and interest. There are very few portions in the whole collection whose authenticity has not been called in question by some one or other of the various impugners. Almost every part has been attacked either by Derlein, or by Eichhorn (who, especially in a later work entitled Die Hebraischen Propheten, Götting. 1816 to 1819, goes farther than all the others), or by Justl (who, among the earlier adversaries of the integral authenticity of Isaiah, uses, in his Vermischte Schriften [vols. 1 and 2], the most comprehensive and, apparently, the best-grounded arguments), or by Paulus, Rosenmüller,-Bauer, Bertholdt. De Wette, Gesenius, Hitzig, Ewald. Umbreit, or others.' The only portions left to Isaiah are chaps. 1, 3- 9; 17, 20, 28, 31, and 33. All the other chaps. are defended by some and rejected by others; they are also referred to widely different dates. In the most modern criticism, however, we observe an inclination again to extend the sphere of Isaian authenticity as much as the dogmatic principle and system of the critics will allow. Recent critics are therefore disposed to admit the genuineness of chaps. 1 to 23 with the only exception of the two prophecies against Babylonian chaps. 13 and 14, and in chap. 21:1-10. Chapters 28-33 are allowed to be Isaian by Ewald, Umbreit, and others.
Divines who were not linked to these critics by the same dogmatical interest undertook to defend the integrity of Isaiah, as Hensler (Jesaias neu übersetzt 1788), Piper (Integritas esaiae. 1793), Beckhaus (Ueber die Integritat der Prophelischen Schriften, 1796), Jahn, in his Einleitung, who was the most able among the earlier advocates, Dereser, in his Bearbeitung des Jesaias, 4, 1, and Greve (Vaticinia Jesaice, Amsterdam, 1810). All these works have at present only a historical value, because they have been surpassed by two recent monographs. The first is by Jo. Ulrich Muller (De Authentia Oernalorum Jesaiae, chap. 40-46, Copenhagen, 1 1825). Although this work professedly defends only the latter portion of the book of Isaiah, there occur in it many arguments applicable also to the first portion. The standard work on this subject is that of Kleinert (Die Aechtheit des Jesaias, vol. 1, Berlin, 1829). It is, however, very diffuse, and contains too many hypotheses. The comprehensive work of Schleier ( Wirdigung der Einwürfe gegen die Altestamenflichen Weisscagungen in Jesaias, chap. 13 and 14) of course refers more especially to these chapters, but indirectly refers also to all the other portions whose authenticity has been attacked. Since the objections against the various parts of Isaiah are all of the same character, it is very inconsistent in Koster, in his work Die Propheten des alten Testamentes, to defend, in page 102, the genuineness of chaps. 13, 14, and 21, but nevertheless, in pages 117 and 297, to ascribe chaps. 40-66 to a pseudo Isaiah.
We have space here only to indicate the following reasons as establishing the integrity of the whole book, and as vindicating the authenticity of the second part:
1. Externally. — The unanimous testimony of Jewish and Christian tradition-Ecclus. 48:24, 25, which manifestly (in the words παρεκάλεσε τοὺς πενθοῦντας ἐν Σιών and ὑπέδειξε-τα ὑπόκρυφα πρὶν ἢ παραγενέσθαι αὐτά) refers to this second part. The use apparently made of the second part by Jeremiah (Jer 10:1-16; Jer 5:25; Jer 25:31; Jer 1; Jer 51), Ezekiel (Eze 13:23,23), and Zephaniah (Zep 2:15; Zep 3:10). The decree of Cyrus in Ezr 1:2-4, which plainly is founded upon Isa 44:28; Isa 45:1,13, accrediting Josephus's statement (Ant. 11:1, 2) that the Jews showed Cyrus Isaiah's predictions of him. The inspired testimony of the N.T., which often (Mt 3:3, and the parallel passages; Lu 4:17; Ac 8:28; Ro 10:16,20) quotes with specification of Isaiah's name prophecies found in the second part.
2. Internally. — The congruity of topic and sentiment in the last twenty- seven chapters with the preceding parts of the book. The oneness of diction which pervades the whole book. The peculiar elevation and grandeur of style which, as is universally acknowledged, distinguishes the whole contents of the second part as much as of the first, and which assigns their composition to the golden age of Hebrew literature. The absence of any other name than Isaiah's claiming the authorship. At the time to which the composition is assigned, a Zechariah or a Malachi could gain a separate name and book; how was it that an author of such transcendent gifts as "the great Unnamed" who wrote 40-66 could gain none? The claims which the writer makes to the foreknowledge of the deliverance by Cyrus, which claims, on the opposing view, must be regarded as a fraudulent personation of an earlier writer. Lastly, the predictions which it contains of the character, sufferings, death, and glorification of Jesus Christ: a believer in Christ cannot fail to regard those predictions as affixing to this second part the broad seal of divine inspiration, whereby the chief ground of objection against its having been written by Isaiah is at once annihilated.
For a full vindication of the authenticity of Isaiah, besides the above works, see professor Stuart On the Old Testam. Canon, p. 103 sq., and Dr. Davidson in the new edit of Horne's Introduction, 2, 835 sq., in which latter, especially, copious references are made to the latest literature on the subject. Other writers who have taken the same side are especially Hengstenberg in his Christology, vol. 2; Havernick, Einleitung vol. 3 (1849); Stier, in his Jesaias nicht Pseudo-Jesaias (1850); and Keil, in his Einleitung (1853), in which last the reader will find a most satisfactory compendium of the controversy, and of the grounds for the generally received view.
V. Origin, Contents, and Style of the Compilation. — No definite account respecting the method pursued in collecting into books the utterances of the prophets has been handed down to us. Concerning Isaiah as well as the rest, these accounts are wanting. We do not even know whether he collected his prophecies himself. But we have no decisive argument against this opinion. Those critics who reject the authenticity of the book are compelled to invent other authors, and, of course, different theories with respect to compilers. None of these have proved satisfactory. (See the authorities above referred to.) According to the Talmudists, the book of Isaiah was collected by the men of Hezekiah. But this assertion rests merely upon Pr 25:1, where the men of Hezekiah are said to have. compiled the Proverbs. To us it seems impossible that Isaiah left it to others to collect his prophecies into a volume, because we know that he was the author of historical works, and it is not likely that a man accustomed to literary occupation would have left to others to do what he could do much better himself.
Chaps. 1-5 contain a series of rebukes, threatenings, and expostulations with the nation, especially Jerusalem its head, on account of the prevalent sins, and particularly idolatry. Chap. 6 describes a theophany and the prophet's own call, in the last year of Uzziah (to which the preceding chapters may also be assigned, with the exception of chap. 1:2-31, which appears to belong to the first of Ahaz). What follows next, up to chap. 10:4, belongs to the reign of Ahaz, and consists of a sublime prediction of the future consolation of Israel, in the first instance by the deliverance from surrounding enemies (especially Damascus and Samaria), and eventually by the Messiah, who is prefigured by historical signs. The same subject is- treated in a similar manner in the succeeding chapters (x-12), the deliverance from Assyria being there the historical type; this is the first portion appertaining to the reign of Hezekiah. Then follows a series of prophecies against foreign nations, in which the chronological arrangement has been departed from, and, instead of it, an arrangement according to contents has been adopted. In the days of Hezekiah, the nations of Western Asia, dwelling on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, more and more resembled a threatening tempest. The prophetic gift of Isaiah was more fully unfolded in sight of the Assyrian invasion under the reign of Hezekiah. Isaiah, in a series of visions, describes what Assyria would do, as a chastising rod in the hand of the Lord, and what the successors of the Assyrians, the Chaldees, would perform, according to the decree of God, in order to realize divine justice on earth, as well among Israel as among the heathen. The prophet shows that mercy is hidden behind the clouds of wrath. This portion comprises chaps. 13-35, the several prophecies of which were uttered at various times prior to the Assyrian invasion, although isolated portions appear to belong to previous reigns (e.g. chap. 17 to the occasion of the alliance of Ahaz. with Tiglath-pileser; chap. 14:28-32, to the death of Ahaz). With the termination of this war terminated also the public life of Isaiah, who added a historical section in chaps. 36-39, in order to facilitate the right understanding of the prophecies uttered by him during the most fertile period of his prophetic ministry. Then follows the conclusion of his work on earth (chaps. 40 to the end), composed during the peaceful residue of Hezekiah's reign, and containing a closely connected series of the most spiritual disclosures touching the future history of the nation under the Messiah. This second part, which contains his prophetic legacy, is addressed to the small congregation of the faithful strictly so called; it is analogous to the last speeches of Moses in the fields of Moab, and to the last speeches of Christ in the circle of his disciples, related by John.
The proclamation of the Messiah is the inexhaustible source of consolation among the prophets. In Isaiah this consolation is so clear that some fathers of the Church were inclined to style him rather evangelist than prophet. The following are the outlines of Messianic prophecies in the book of Isaiah: A scion of David, springing from his family, after it has fallen into a very low estate, but being also of divine nature, shall, at first in lowliness, but as a prophet filled with the spirit of God, proclaim the divine doctrine, develop the law in truth, and render it the animating principle of national life; he shall, as high-priest, by his vicarious suffering and his death, remove the guilt of his nation, and that:of other nations, and finally rule as a mighty king, not only over the covenant-people, but over all nations of the earth who will subject themselves to his peaceful scepter, not by violent compulsion, but induced by love and gratitude. He will make both the moral and the physical consequences of sin to cease; the whole earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, and all enmity, hatred, and destruction shall be removed even from the brute creation. This is the survey of the Messianic preaching by Isaiah, of which he constantly renders prominent those portions which were most calculated to impress the people under the then existing circumstances. The first part of Isaiah is directed to the whole people, consequently the glory of the Messiah is here dwelt upon. The fear lest the kingdom of God should be overwhelmed by the power of heathen nations is removed by pointing out the glorious king to come, who would elevate the now despised and apparently mean kingdom of God above all the kingdoms of this world. In the second part, which is more particularly addressed to the ἐκλογή, the elect, than to the whole nation, the prophet exhibits the Messiah more as a divine teacher and high priest. The prophet here preaches righteousness through the blood of the servant of God, who will support the weakness of sinners, and take upon himself their sorrows.
Isaiah stands pre-eminent above all other prophets, as well in the contents and spirit of his predictions, as also in their form and style. Simplicity, clearness, sublimity, and freshness, are the never-failing characters 'of his prophecies. Even Eichhorn mentions, among the first merits of Isaiah, the concinnity of his expressions, the beautiful outline of his images, and the fine execution of his speeches. In reference to richness of imagery he stands between Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Symbolic actions, which frequently occur in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, seldom occur in Isaiah. The same is the case with visions, strictly so called, of which there is only one, namely, that in chap. 6, and even it is distinguished by its simplicity and clearness above that of the later prophets. But one characteristic of Isaiah is, that he likes to give signs-that is, a fact then present, or near at hand-as a pledge for the more distant futurity, and that he thus supports the feebleness of man (comp. 7-20; 37:30; 38:7 sq.). The instances in chaps. 7 and 38 show how much he was convinced of his vocation, and in what intimacy he lived with the Lord, by whose assistance alone lie could effect what he offers to do in the one passage, and what he grants in the other. The spiritual riches of the prophet are seen in the variety of his style, which always befits the subject. When he rebukes and threatens it is like a storm, and when he comforts his language is as tender and mild as (to use his own words) that of a mother comforting her son. With regard to style, Isaiah is comprehensive, and the other prophets divide his riches.
Isaiah enjoyed an authority proportionate to his gifts. We learn from history how great this authority was during his life, especially under the reign of Hezekiah. Several of his most definite prophecies were fulfilled while he was yet alive; for instance, the overthrow of the kingdoms of Syria and Israel; the invasion of the Assyrians, and the divine deliverance from it; the prolongation of life granted to Hezekiah; and several predictions against foreign nations. Isaiah is honorably mentioned in the historical books. The later prophets, especially Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, clearly prove that his book was diligently read, and that his prophecies were attentively studied. The authority of the prophet greatly increased after the fulfillment of his prophecies by the Babylonian exile, the victories of Cyrus, and the deliverance of the covenant-people. Even Cyrus (according to the account in Josephus, Ant. 11:1, 1 and 2) was induced to set the Jews at liberty by the prophecies of Isaiah concerning himself. Jesus Sirach (48:22-25) bestows splendid praise upon Isaiah, and both Philo and Josephus speak of him with great veneration. He attained the highest degree of authority after the times of the New Testament had proved the most important part of his prophecies, namely, the Messianic, to be divine. Christ and the apostles quote no prophecies so frequently as those of Isaiah, in order to prove that he who had appeared was one and the same with him who had been promised. The fathers of the Church abound in praises of Isaiah. — Kitto; Smith. SEE MESSIAH.
VI. The following are express commentaries on the whole of the book of Isaiah, the most important being designated by an asterisk (*) prefixed: Origen, Fragmenta (in Opp. 3:104); also Homiliea (in Jerome, Opp. 4:1097); Eusebius, Commentar-2 (in Montfaucon's Collectio Nova); Ephrem Syrus, Enarratio (from the Syr. in Opp. I, 2, 535); Basil, Enarratio (Gr. in his Op 6. I, 2, 535; tr. in Lat., Basle, 1518, 4to); Jerome, Commentarii (in Opp. 4:1); also Adbreviatio (ib. 4:1131); Chrysostom, Interpretatio [on 1-8] (Gr. in Opp. 6:1); Cyril, Commentarii (Gr. in. Opp. 2, 1 sq.); Theodoret, Interpretation [in Greek] (in Opp. II, 1); Procopius, Epitome (Gr. and Lat., Par. 1580, fol.); Rupertus, In Esaianm (in Opp. 1, 429); Herveus, Commentarii (in Pez, Thesaur. III, 1); S. Jarchi [i.e. "Rashi"], Commentarius (from the Heb. edit. Breithaupt, Goth. 1713, 1714, 3 vols. 4to); D. Kimchi, Commentarius (from the Heb. by Malamineus, Florence, 1774, 4to); Abrabanel, פֵּרוּשׁ (ed. L'Empereur, Lugd. B. 1631, 8vo); Aquinas, Commentarii (Lugd. 1531, 8vo; also in Opp. 2); Luther, Enarrationes (in Opp. 3:294); Melancthon, Argumentum (in Opp. 3:398); (Ecolampadius, Hyponematon (Basil. 1525, 1567, 4to); Zuinglius, Complanatio (Tigur. 1529, fol.; also in Opp. 3. 163); Dieterich, Auslegug (Norimb. 1543,4to); Calvin, Commentarii (Genesis 1551, 1559, 1570, 1583, 1587, 1617, fol.; in French, ib. 1552, 4to; 1572, fol.; in English by Colton, Lond. 1609, fol. by Pringle, Edinb. 1850,4 vols. 8vo); Day, Exposition (London, 1654, fol.); Musculus, Commentarius (Basil. 1557, 1570, 1600, 1623, fol.); Borrhasius, Commentarii (Basil. 1561. fol.); Draconis, Commentarius (Lipsiae, 1563, fol.); Strigel, Conciones (Lipsice, 1563, 12mo); Forerius, Commentaria (Venice, 1563, fol.; Antwerp, 1565, 8vo; also in the Critici Sacri, 4); Sasbouth, Commentarius (Argent. 1563, 8vo); Marloratus, Expositio (Par. 1564; Genesis 1610, fol.); Pintus, Commentaria (Lugd. 1561,1567; Antw. 1567,1572, fol.); Gualtherus, Homiliae (Tigur. 1567, folio); Bullinger, Expositio (Tigur. 1567, folio);
Selnecker, Erklar. (Lpz. 1569, 4to); Castri, Commentaria (Salam. 1570, folio); De Palacios, Dilucidationes (Salam. 1572,3 vols. fol.); Schnepf, SchoIac (Tub. 1575, 1583, fol.); Osorius, Paraphrasis (Bonon. 1576, 4to; Col. Agr. 1579, 1584, 8vo); Ursinus, Commentarius (in Opp. 3); Wigand, Adnotationes (Erford. 1581, 8vo); Guidell, Commentarius (Perus. 1598- 1600, 2 vols. 4to) Montanus; Commentarii (Antw. 1599, 2 vols. 4to); D. Alvarez, Commentarii (Rome, 1599-1702, 2 vols. fol.; Lugd. 1716, fol.); Arcularius, Commentarius (ed. Mentzer, Frankfort, 1607; Lips. 1653, 8vo); Arama, ותֻמַּים אוּרַים (Ven. 1608, 8vo; also in Frankfurter's Rabbinic Bible); Sancius, Commentarius (Lugd. 1615; Antwerp and Mogunt. 1616, fol.); Heshusius, Commentarius (Hal. 1617, fol.); Forster, Commentarius (Vitemb. 1620, 1664, 1674, 1679, 4to); Oleastre, Commentarii (Par. 1622, 1656, fol.); a Lapide, In Esaiam (Antw. 1622, folio); G. Alvarez, Expositio (Lugd. 1623, fol.); De Arcones, Elucidastio (Lugd. 1642, 2 vols. folio); Di Marino, תַּקּוּן עוֹלָם (Verona, 1652, 4to); Laisne, Commentaire (Paris, 1654, fol.); Lafiado, כּלַי פָּז (Ven. 1657, fol.); Varenus, Commentarius. (Rost. 1673, 1708, 4to); Brentius, Commentarius (in Opp. 4, Tub. 1675); Jackson, Annotations (London, 1682, 4to); S. Schmid, Commentarius (ed. Sandhagen, Hamb. 1693,1695,1702, 1723, 4to); Sibersma, Commentarius (Anst. 1700,4to); Cocceius, Commentarius (in Opp. 2, Amst. 1701); Dorsche, Commentarius (ed. Fecht, Hamb. 1703, 4to); Hellenbroek, Erklarung (Rotterdam, 1704, 4 vols. 4to) Schmuck, Praelectiones (edit. Vlich, Dresd. 1708, 4to); White, Commentary (Lond. 1709, 4to); Kortum, Untersuchung (Lpz. 1709, 4to); *Vitringa, Commentarius, Louv. 1714-20, 1724, 2 vols. fol.; in German, Herb. 1715-22, 2 vols. fol.; the last abridged by Busching, Hal 1749, 4to); Petersen, Erklarung. (Frckft. 1719, 4to); Leigh. Commentar (Brunsw. 1725-34, 6 vols. 4to); Hoheisel, Observationes (Gedan. 1729, 8vo); Le Clerc, Commentarius (an abstract, Amsterdam, 1731, fol.); Woken, Erklarung. (Lpz. 1732, 8vo); Duguet, Explication (in French, Paris, 1734,5 vols. 121no); Rambach, Erklarung (Zür. 1741, 4to); Reichel, Erlaut. (Lpz. and Gorl. 175559, 16 pts. 8vo); Vogel, Unsschreibung (Hal. 1771, 8vo); Struensee, Uebers. (Halb. 1773, 8vo); Crusius, Hypomnenzata (Lips. 1773, 8vo); *Lowth, Commentary (Lond. — 1774, 1778, 4to; and frequently since in many forms; finally in connection with the notes of Bp. Patrick and others, in 4 vols. 8vo, Lond. and Philadelphia); Walther, Anmerk. (Hal. 1774, 4to); *Doderlein, Notae (Altd. 1775, 1780, 1783, 8vo); Holden, Paraphrase (Chelmsf. 1776, 2
vols. 8vo); Rambach, Anmersk. [to tr. of Matt. Henry's] (Lpz. 1777,8vo); Sponsel, Abhandlung (Nurenb. 177980,2 vols. 4to); Koppe, Anmerk. Cto Lowth] (Lpz. 177981,4 vols. 8vo); Moldenhauer, Anmerk. (Quedlinb. 1780, 4to); Weise, Redan (Halle, 1780, 8vo); *Seiler. Erldut. (Erl. 1783, 8vo); Cube, Anmerk. (Berlin, 1785-6, 2 vols. 8vo); Rieger, Scholien (Memming. 1788, 8vo); Henssler, Anmerk. (Hamb. and Kiel, 1788, 8vo); Berthier, Notes [French] (Paris, 1789, 5 vols. 12mo); Kocher, Vindicie (Tribing. 1790, 8vo); Dodson, Notes (Lond. 1790, 8vo); Krigelius, Bearbeitung (Brem. 1790, 8vo); Macculloch. Lectures (Lond. 1791-1805, 4 vols. 8vo); Paulus, Clavis (Jena, 1793,8vo); Fraser, Commentary (Edinburgh, 1800, 8vo); Bp. Stock. Translation (Bath, 1805, 4to);Van der Palm, Anmerk. [Dutch] (Amst. 1805, 2 vols. 8vo); Ottensosser, בַּאוּר (Firth, 1807, 8vo); Dereser, Erklarung (Frckft. a. M. 1808, 8vo); *Gesenius, Commentar (Lpz. 1821-9, 3 vols. 8vo); Horsley, Notes (in Biblical Criticism, 1, 229); Möller, Anmerk. [Danish] (Copenh. 1822, 8vo); De Liere, Traduction (Paris, 1823, 8vo); Knas, Enodatio (Upsal. 1824,8vo); Jones, Translation (Oxford, 1830, 8vo; 1842, 12mo); Jenour, Notes (London, 1830, 2 vols. 8vo); Hendewerk, Erklarung. (Konigsberg, 1830-44, 2 vols. 8vo); Möller, Erklarung. (Brem. 1831, 8vo, pt. 1); Hitzig, Auslegung (Heidelb. 1833, 8vo); Maurer, Commentarius (Lpz. 1836, 8vo); Barnes, Notes (Bost. 1840, 3 vols. 8vo; abridged, N. Y. 1848, 2 vols. 12mo); *Henderson, Commentary (London, 1840, 1857,. 8vo); Govett, Notes (Lond. 1841, 8vo); *Umbreit, Commentar (Hamb. 184142, 2 vols. 8vo); Heinemann, מַקרָא מפֹרָשׁ (Berl. 1842, 8vo); *Knobel, Erklarung (Lpz. 1843. 8vo); Dreschler, Erklar. (Stuttg. 1845-9, 3 vols. 8vo); *Alexander, Commentary (N. Y. 1846-7, 1865, 2 vols: 8vo; Glasgow, 1848, 8vo; abridged, N. York, 1851,2 vols. 12mo); Stier, Nicht Pseudo- Jesaias (Barmen, 1850, 2 pts. 8vo); Smithson, Translation (Lond. 1860,8vo); Keith,Commentary (London, 1850, 8vo); Meier, Erklar. (pt. 1, Pforzh. 1850, 8vo); Whish, Paraphrase (Lond. 1855, 8vo); Williams, Commentary (Lond. 1857, 8vo); Diedrich, Erklar. (Lpz. 1859, 8vo); Renner, Auslegung (Stuttg. 1865, 8vo); Luzatto, Commenti [in Heb.] (Padova, 1865-7, 2 vols. 8vo); Second, Commentaire (Genev. 1866, 8vo); *Delitzsch, Commentar (in Keil and Delitzsch's series, Lpz. 1866; tr. in Clarke's Library, Edinb. 1867,2 vols. 8vo); Cheyne, Notes (Lond. 1868, 8vo); Ewald, Commentary (chaps. 1-33, transl. from the Germ. by Glover, London, 1869, 12mo); Neteler, Grundlage (Munst. 1869, 8vo); Birks, Commentary (Lond. 1871, 8vo). SEE PROPHET.