Greenland a region in North-eastern America of unknown extent northwards, stretches from its southern extremity; Cape Farewell, along the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans on the east, and Davis's Strait, Baffin's Bay, and Smith's Sound on the west. It obtained its name from an Icelander, Eric Rauoi (the Red), who led thither an expedition in 985 or 986, and founded two settlements on the west coast, called the Oestre and Westre Bygd (the east and west colonies). About four centuries afterwards, the Westre Bygd was destroyed by the pestilence called the "black death," combined with the attacks of the aborigines; and a century after this, the Westre Bygd suffered the same fate. Greenland was visited, and its west coast explored, successively by Frobisher, Davis, and Baffin, the latter having advanced as far as lat. 78° N. (the limit of the inhabited country). More recently Dr. Kane has extended his explorations as far as lat. 82° 30', or within 520 miles of the north pole. In 1868 and 1869 new expeditions to explore the coast were sent out from Germany. The most important incident in connection with this bleak region is the settlement, in 1721, of Hans Egede (q.v.), a Norwegian clergyman, at Godthaab (lat. 64° N.), and with him a colony of 43 men. The colony was supported by the Danish government: till 1731, when the supplies were stopped; but a few years afterwards a pension of 2000 rix dollars a year was granted to the mission. Since that time the Danes; have established thirteen different colonies or factories along the west coast, seven in North Greenland (north, of lat. 67° N.), and six in South Greenland; the total population of the colonies being about 10,000, inclusive of 250 Danes. The Danish (Lutheran) Missionary Society seeks to sustain various institutions formed in, Greenlard in eight different places. The Moravians, in 1866, supported in Greenland stations, 25 missionaries, 56 native assistants, and their congregations had a total membership of 1801. See Chambers, Cyclop.: s.v.; Newcomb, Cyclop. of Missions; Schem, American Eccles. Almanac for 1869. (A.J.S.)

Definition of green

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