Dictionaries, Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical
Dictionaries, Biblical, Theological, And Ecclesiastical.
We continue here our account of the leading works of this kind which have appeared since the article in volume II was printed.
New editions of the great cyclopaedias of Herzog and Wetzer u. Welte are now in course of publication, continued since the death of the principal editors, the former by Plitt and Hauch, and the latter by Hergenwothe and Kaulen. The works have been almost entirely rewritten and greatly improved, but they still retain the excellences and defects of the former edition as to contents and manner of treatment. Meanwhile a very extensive work of a similar character, Encyclopedic des Sciences Religienses, has been edited by F. Lichtenberger (Paris, 1877-82, 13 volumes), which is Protestant, slightly rationalistic and scholarly, but rather adapted to popular use than to profound or minute research; .
Dr. Philip Schaff has prepared a condensed and modified translation of Herzog's work, with many fresh articles, under the title of Religious Encyclopedia (New York and Edinburgh, 1881-84, 3 volumes). Except in size, it partakes of the qualities, both excellent and otherwise, that characterize its great original. Notwithstanding the American additions, it still is strongly Germanic in its range and method. The Biblical portion of the work is comparatively scant, and the biographical relatively preponderant. As a natural consequence of its origin, the chief excellence lies in the historical department, although, of course, it has room for little more than an abstract from the copious stores of Herzog. It is to be regretted that the plan of the work does not include cuts, which so often 'aid in the illustration, especially of archaeological subjects. Nevertheless it is a valuable and convenient compendium of religious knowledge, and well adapted to the wants of such as cannot afford a more extensive work, yet desire something beyond the brief unscientific manuals heretofore current.
Dr. Joseph Schafler, Handlexikon der Katholischen Theologie (Ratisbon; begun in 1880 and still in course of publication), is to be completed in four volumes. Its treatment of topics is fresh, its tone liberal, its arrangement good. It is altogether a very satisfactory work on Roman Catholic theology, for general use.
Dr. J. Hamburger, Real-Encyklopadie fur Bibel und Talmud (Strelitz, 1866-83. Division I, treating of Biblical topics, was completed in 1867; Divisioln II, of Talmudical subjects, in 1883. A second and improved edition of Division I is to appear in the near future). This work, prepared by a Jewish rabbi of Germany, has a conceded value in the department of Jewish, and also of general, archeology, and has no serious competitor. Dr. Daniel Schenkel, Bibel-Lexikon (Leipsic, 186875, 5 volumes, 8vo, illustrated). This work is characterized by thoroughness and independence, and is designed to meet the demand for a Biblical and Theological Dictionary of small compass, and suited to the general Church public of Protestant Germany. It is liberal or slightly rationalistic in its treatment of subjects, as might be expected in the work of its corps of collaborators. Dr. Eduard C.A. Riehm, Handworerbuch des Biblischen Altertums (Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1875-84, 8vo, illustrated), is the work of a number of conservative German scholars, and forms an excellent manual, more like English Bible Dictionaries in its range and execution than any other. H. Zeller, Biblisches Worterbuch (2d and improved edition, Gotha, 1866). A useful manual, of limited compass. Dr. F.X. Kraus, Real-Encyklopddie der Christlichen Alterthumer (Freiburg, 1880 sq., still incomplete). The scope of this work embraces the first six centuries of the Christian sera. Its articles are copiously illustrated with wood-cuts, mostly taken from Martigny's Dictionnaire des Antiquites Chretiennes. The work is, upon the whole, a valuable compilation. Its authors are of the Roman Catholic faith.
Dr. William Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Lond. 1875-80, 2 volumes), and his Dictionary of Christian Biography (ibid. 1877 sq.; to be completed in four volumes, of which three have already been issued), have been prepared, with the aid, in the former work, of Prof. Cheatham, and, in the latter, of Prof. Wace, on the same comprehensive and scholarly plan as his Dictionaries of Classical Antiquities and Biography; but they only come down to the time of Charlemagne. Potter's Complete Bible Encyclopedia, edited by Reverend W. Blackwood, D.D., LL.D. (Phila. 1873 sq., 3 volumes, 4to), includes many theological and biographical articles; and is intended for popular use. It is superbly, but not always appropriately, illustrated.
J.H. Blunt, Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology (Lond. 1872, imperial 8vo), and Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, etc. (ibid. 1874), are useful preparations from a High-Church point of view.
M.E.C. Wolcott, Sacred Archaeology (Lond. 1868, 8vo), contains interesting notices of ecclesiastical art and institutions, especially relating to the Anglican Church.
F.G. Lee, Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms (Lond. 1877, 8vo, illustrated), is chiefly occupied with description of sacred vestments and appurtenances, all from a High-Church standpoint.
Parker's Glossary of Terms used in Architecture (Lond. 1845, 4th ed. 3 volumes, 8vo, copiously illustrated) is a very convenient and useful summary of details relating to architectural science, including churches particularly.