Candidus, Pantaleon

Candidus, Pantaleon, a Protestant theologian, was born at Ips, in Lower Austria, Oct. 7, 1540. He studied at Wittenberg, where he ..became intimately acquainted with Melancthon. In 1565 Candidus was called as teacher at the Latin school in Zweibriicken, and in 1571 he was made pastor and general superintendent. The Church at Zweibruicken had accepted the Augsburg Confession and the "Wittenberger Konkordie" of 1536. The Church discipline of the duke Wolfgang, in the preparation of which Melancthon's advice was followed, was of a mild Lutheran type. But, after Melancthon's death, Wolfgang became a defender of Lutheranism, and was very severe against Philippists and Calvinists. Marbach, in connection with Andrea, prepared, in 1564, a confession, which was to be accepted by all who were already in the ministry, or should be appointed in future. The Zwinglian and Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper. and the printing and sale of sectarian books, were strictly prohibited. Still, these parties did not succeed in ridding themselves of the Melancthon Calvinistic elements. Wolfgang died in 1569, and his son, John I, left everything as he found it. In 1574 the edicts against Zwinglians and Calvinists were renewed, and many preachers were dismissed. Their places were filled by strict Lutherans, who had now their own way. A turning-point came in 1580, when duke John accepted the Reformed confession, and Calvinism was everywhere adopted as .the religion of the people. Candidus, formerly suspected, was now the trustworthy adviser of the duke, and greatly promoted the cause of his Church. He died Feb. 3,1608. See Butters, Pantaleon Candidus, 'ein Lebensbild aus dem zweiten Menschenalter der Reformationszeit (Zweibrucken, 1865); Schneider, in Herzog's Real-Encyklop. s.v. (B. P.)

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