His special office in a church is perhaps not mentioned in the literature of the first seven centuries. In more ancient times the duty of ringing the bells at the proper seasons seems to have been laid upon the priests themselves (Capitulare Episcop. c. 8; Capit. Caroli Magni, lib. vi, c. 168). To the same effect Amalarius (De Div. Off iii, 1) says, speaking of the ringing of bells," Ne despiciat presbyter hoc opus agere " (Ducanges . vv. Campanum, Campanarius). In later times the ostiarius was the bellringer (Martene, De Rit. Eccl. ii, 18, ed. 1783). SEE BELL.