Breithaupt, Joachim Justus

Breithaupt, Joachim Justus a German theologian, was born at Nordheim 1658, and educated privately at Helmstadt. A visit to Spener deepened his religious convictions and gave character to his whole life. In 1685 he went to Meiningen as courtpreacher and consistorial councillor. Here his labors were eminently useful, and in 1687 he went to Erfurt to be pastor and also professor of theology in the university. In 1691 he removed to Halle as professor of theology in the new university, where he taught in happy union with Francke. He died March 16, 1732. His writings include Institt. Theologic. lib. ii (Halle, 1695, 8vo); De Credendis et Agendis (Halle, 1716-32, 3 pts. 4to), besides minor writings. His influence all went in favor of vital piety; and he is ranked with Spener and Francke as a preist. -Baumgarten, Memoria Breithaupt; Herzog, Real-Encyclopedia, ii, 349.

Bremen (F-rema), a free town of Germany, and situated on both sides of the Weser. SEE GERMANY.

I. Church History. — Originally it was the seat of a bishopric, founded by Charlemagne in 787, and suffragan to the metropolitan of Cologne; but about 850 the archbishopric of Hamburg was removed hither, the prelate, Anschar, being driven from that city by the Normans. Hermann, archbishop of Cologne, opposed this infringement of his rights, and in the Council of Tribur, 895, obtained a decree that both the united churches should be subject to him. This was afterward annulled by Pope Sergius. In 1284 the city of Bremen threw off the rule of the archbishop and became a free city, while the archbishop remained the sovereign of the duchy of Bremen (now a part of the kingdom of Hanover), and, as such, a prince of the German empire. The united archbishopric became, under Otho II and his successors, one of the most powerful in Germany, and was loaded with gifts and privileges. Under Archbishop Christopher (1511-1558) the Reformation found many adherents, and when the archbishop opposed it he was deposed by the Cathedral chapter and shut up in a convent. His successor, George (died 1566), joined the Lutheran Church himself, and Bremen remained a Lutheran archbishopric until 1648, when its whole territory was ceded to the Swedes, and the archbishopric suppressed.

II. Ecclesiastical Statistics.— The city of Bremen, with a small territory comprising a space of 106 square miles, had a population, in 1864, of 104,091 souls, the large majority of which are Lutherans, about 15,000 Reformed, 2000 Roman Catholics, 100 Jews. The Methodist Church had, in 1865, within the territory of Bremen about 433 members. Only recently the members of the Lutheran Church have received equal rights with the Reformed, who formerly, though in a minority, were alone eligible to public offices. The senate of the republic exercises the supreme episcopal rights through a commission, and only occasionally delegates clergymen for this purpose. There are six Lutheran clergymen in the city and eleven in the country. The ministers in the city constitute the Venerandum Ministerium which body has to examine and to ordain candidates for the ministry. The Roman Catholics are under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Munster, Prussia. Bremen has a large number of religious associations, and is the centre of the North German Missionary Society. The Methodist Episcopal Church has established there a book concern, which issues 3 periodicals, and a Missionary Institute for the training of German Methodist preachers. Bremen is thus the centre of the flourishing Methodist missions in Germany.-Reports of Miss. Soc. of Meth. Ep. Ch.

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