Acts of the Apostles
Acts of The Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Α᾿ποστόλων), the fifth book of the New Testament, and the last of those properly historical. It obtained this title at a very early period, though sometimes the epithet holy was prefixed to apostles, and sometimes also it was reckoned among the gospels, and called the Gospel of the Holy Ghost, or the Gospel of the Resurrection. (See; generally, Dr. Tregelles, in Horne's Introd. last ed. 4, 476 sq;)
I. Authorship. — The Acts were evidently written by the same author as the third Gospel (comp. Lu 1:1-4, with Ac 1:1), and tradition is firm and constant in ascribing them to Luke (Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. lib. 1, c. 31; 3, 14; Clemens Alexandr. Strom. 5, p. 588; Tertullian, Adv. Marcion, 5, 2; De Jejun. c. 10; Origen, apud Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 6, 23, etc. Eusebius himself ranks this book among the ὁμολογούμενα, H. E. 3, 25). The fact that Luke accompanied Paul to Rome (28), and was with him there (Col 4:14; Philippians 24), favors the supposition that he was the writer of the narrative of the apostle's journey to that city. See PAUL. The identity of the writer of both books is strongly shown by their great similarity in style and idiom, and the usage of particular words and compound forms. (See Tholuck, in the Stud. u. Krit. 1839, 3; Klostermann, Vindiciae Lucance, Gott. 1866.) The only parties in primitive times by whom this book was rejected were certain heretics, such as the Marcionites, the Severians, and the Manichaeans, whose objections were entirely of a dogmatical, not of a historical nature (so those of Baur and his school). At the same time we find Chrysostom complaining that by many in his day it was not so much as known (Hom. 1, in Act. s. init.). Perhaps, however, there is some rhetorical exaggeration in this statement; or it may be, as Kuinol (Proleg. in Acta App. Comment. 4; 5) suggests, that Chrysostom's complaint refers rather to a prevalent omission of the Acts from the number of books publicly read in the churches (see Salmerson, De libri Actorum auctoritate, in his Opera, vol. 12).
II. Source of Materials. — The writer is for the first time introduced into the narrative in Ac 16:11, where he speaks of accompanying Paul to Philippi. He then disappears from the narrative until Paul's return to Philippi, more than two years afterward, when it is stated that they left that place in company (Ac 20:6), from which it may be justly inferred that Luke spent the interval in that town. From this time to the close of the period embraced by his narrative he appears as the companion of the apostle. For the materials, therefore, of all he has recorded from Ac 16:11, to Ac 28:31, he may be regarded as having drawn upon his own recollection or on that of the apostle. To the latter source also may be confidently traced all he has recorded concerning the earlier events of the apostle's career; and as respects the circumstances recorded in the first twelve chapters of the Acts, and which relate chiefly to the Church at Jerusalem and the labors of the apostle Peter, we may readily suppose that they were so much matter of general notoriety among the Christians with whom Luke associated, that he needed no assistance from any other merely human source in recording them. Some of the German critics (see Zeller, Die Apostelgesch. nach ihrem Inhalt u. Ursprung kritisch untersucht, Stuttg. 1854) have labored hard to show that he must have had recourse to written documents, in order to compose those parts of his history which record what did not pass under his own observation, and they have gone the length of supposing the existence of a work in the language of Palestine, under the title of "Acts of Cephas" or his "Preaching" (מִעבָּדֵי דכֵיפָא or אִכרִזתָּא), of which the apocryphal book of the same title (Πράξεις Πέτρου or Κήρυγμα Πέτρου), mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 7, p. 736) and Origen (Comment. in Joh. p. 298), was an interpolated edition (Heinrichs, Proleg. in Acta App. p. 21; Kuinol, Proleg. p. 5). All this, however, is mere ungrounded supposition; and such Hebrew editions, if they at all existed, must have been versions from the Greek (Reland, Palest. p. 1038). SEE PETER.
III. Design. — A prevalent opinion is, that Luke, having in his Gospel given a history of the life of Christ, intended to follow that up by giving in the Acts a narrative of the establishment and early progress of his religion in the world. That this, however, could not have been his design, is obvious from the very partial and limited view which his narrative gives of the state of things in the Church generally during the period through which it extends. As little can we regard this book as designed to record the official history of the Apostles Peter and Paul, for we find many particulars concerning both these apostles mentioned incidentally elsewhere, of which Luke takes no notice (comp. 2Co 11; Ga 1:17; Ga 2:11; 1Pe 5:13. See also Michaelis, Introduction, 3, 328; Hanlein's Einletung, 3, 150). Heinrichs, Kuinol, and others are of opinion that no particular design should be ascribed to the evangelist in composing this book beyond that of furnishing his friend Theophilus with a pleasing and instructive narrative of such events as had come under his own personal notice, either immediately through the testimony of his senses or through the medium of the reports of others; but such a view savors too much of the lax opinions which these writers unhappily entertained regarding the sacred writers to be adopted by those who regard all the sacred books as designed for the permanent instruction and benefit of the Church universal. Much more deserving of notice is the opinion of Hanlein, with which that of Michaelis substantially accords, that "the general design of the author of this book was, by means of his narratives, to set forth the co-operation of God in the diffusion of Christianity, and along with that, to prove, by remarkable facts, the divinity of the apostles and the perfectly equal right of the Gentiles with the Jews to a participation in the blessings of that religion" (Einleitung, 3, 156. Comp. Michaelis, Introduction, 3, 380). Perhaps we should come still closer to the truth if we were to say that the design of Luke in writing the Acts was to supply, by select and suitable instances, an illustration of the power and working of that religion which Jesus had died to establish. In his Gospel he had presented to his readers an exhibition of Christianity as embodied in the person, character, and works of its great founder; and having followed him in his narration until he was taken up out of the sight of his disciples into heaven, this second work was written to show how his religion operated when committed to the hands of those by whom it was to be announced "to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem" (Lu 24:47). Hence, as justly stated by Baumgarten in his work on the Acts, Jesus, as the already exalted king of Zion, appears, on all suitable occasions, as the ruler and judge of supreme resort; the apostles are but his representatives and instruments of working. It is He who appoints the twelfth witness, that takes the place of the fallen apostle (Ac 1:24); He who, having received the promise from the Father, sends down the Holy Spirit with power (Ac 2:33); He who comes near to turn the people from their iniquities and add them to the membership of his Church (Ac 2:47; Ac 3:26); He who works miracles from time to time by the hand of the apostles; who sends Peter to open the door of faith to the Gentiles; who instructs Philip to go and meet the Ethiopian; who arrests Saul in his career of persecution, and makes him a chosen vessel to the Gentiles; in short, who continually appears, presiding over the affairs of his Church, directing his servants in their course, protecting them from the hands of their enemies, and in the midst of much that was adverse, still giving effect to their ministrations, and causing the truth of the gospel to grow and bear fruit. We have therefore in this book, not merely a narrative of facts which fell out at the beginning of the Christian Church, in connection more especially with the apostolic agency of Peter and Paul, but we have, first of all and in all, the ever-present, controlling, administrative agency of the Lord Jesus Christ himself, shedding forth the powers of his risen life, and giving shape and form to his spiritual and everlasting kingdom.
IV. Time and place of Writing. — These are still more uncertain. As the history is continued up to the close of the second year of Paul's imprisonment at Rome, it could not have been written before A.D. 56; it was probably, however, composed very soon after, so that we shall not err far if we assign the close of the year 58 as the period of its completion. Still greater uncertainty hangs over the place where Luke composed it; but as he accompanied Paul to Rome, perhaps it was at that city and under the auspices of the apostle that it was prepared. Had any considerable alteration in Paul's circumstances taken place before the publication, there can be no reason why it should not have been noticed. And on other accounts also this time was by far the most likely for the publication of the book. The arrival in Rome was an important period in the apostle's life; the quiet which succeeded it seemed to promise no immediate determination of his cause. SEE THEOPHILUS.
V. Style. — This, like that of Luke's Gospel, is much purer than that of most other books of the New Testament. The Hebraisms which occasionally occur are almost exclusively to be found in the speeches of others which he has reported. These speeches are indeed, for the most part, to be regarded rather as summaries than as full reports of what the speaker uttered; but as these summaries are given in the speaker's own words, the appearance of Hebraisms in them is as easily accounted for as if the addresses had been reported in full. His mode of narrating events is clear, dignified, and lively; and, as Michaelis observes, he "has well supported the character of each person whom he has introduced as delivering a public harangue, and has very faithfully and happily preserved the manner of speaking which was peculiar to each of his orators" (Introduction, 3, 332). SEE LUKE.
VI. Contents. — Commencing with a reference to an account given in a former work of the sayings and doings of Jesus Christ before his ascension, its author proceeds to acquaint us succinctly with the circumstances attending that event, the conduct of the disciples on their return from witnessing it, the outpouring on them of the Holy Spirit according to Christ's promise to them before his crucifixion, and the amazing success which, as a consequence of this, attended the first announcement by them of the doctrine concerning Jesus as the promised Messiah and the Savior of the world. After following the fates of the mother church at Jerusalem up to the period when the violent persecution of its members by the rulers of the Jews had broken up their society and scattered them, with the exception of the apostles, throughout the whole of the surrounding region, and after introducing to the notice of the reader the case of a remarkable conversion of one of the most zealous persecutors of the Church, who afterward became one of its most devoted and successful advocates, the narrative takes a wider scope and opens to our view the gradual expansion of the Church by the free admission within its pale of persons directly converted from heathenism, and who had not passed through the preliminary stage of Judaism. The first step toward this more liberal and cosmopolitan order of things having been effected by Peter, to whom the honor of laying the foundation of the Christian Church, both within and without the confines of Judaism, seems, in accordance with our Lord's declaration concerning him (Mt 16:18), to have been reserved, Paul, the recent convert and the destined apostle of the Gentiles, is brought forward as the main actor on the scene. On his course of missionary activity, his successes and his sufferings, the chief interest of the narrative is thenceforward concentrated, until, having followed him to Rome, whither he had been sent as a prisoner to abide his trial, on his own appeal, at the bar of the emperor himself, the book abruptly closes, leaving us to gather further information concerning him and the fortunes of the Church from other sources. SEE PAUL.
VII. History. — While, as Lardner and others have very satisfactorily shown (Lardner's Credibility, Works, 1; Biscoe, On the Acts; Paley's Horae Paulinoe; Benson's History of the First Planting of Christianity, 2, etc.), the credibility of the events recorded by Luke is fully authenticated both by internal and external evidence, very great obscurity attaches to the chronology of these events (see Davidson's Introd. to the N.T., 2, 112 sq.; Alford's Greek Test., 2, Proleg. p. 23 sq.; Meyer, Commentar, 3d ed. pt. 3, s. fin.).
The following is probably the true order of events in the Acts (see Meth. Quar. Review, 1856, p. 499 sq.). For further discussion, see Burton, Attempt to ascertain the Chronology of the Acts (Lond. 1830); Anger, De temporum in Actis Apostolorum ratione (Lips. 1834); Greswell, Dissert. 2, 1, etc.; Wordsworth, Greek Test. pt. 2; Wieseler, Chron. d. ap. Zeit (Gott. 1848).
DATE. LEADING EVENTS. CHAPTER.
May, A.D. 29. Election of Matthias........ Ac 1:15-26. May A.D. 29. Descent of the Holy Spirit. Ac 2:1-41. June, A.D. 29. Cure of the cripple, etc .... Ac 3; Ac 4. July, A.D. 29. Judgment of Ananias and Sapphira .... Acts 5. Sept., A.D. 29. Appointment of Deacons.... Acts 6. Dec., A.D. 29. Martyrdom of Stephen...... Acts 7. April, A.D. 30. Conversion of the Eunuch .. Acts 8. May, A.D. 30. Conversion of Paul......... Ac 9:1-21. A.D. 31. Prosperity of the Church.... Ac 9:31. A.D. 31. [Matthew's Gospel written in Hebrew.] Summer, A.D. 32. Peter's preaching tour ...... Ac 9:32-43. Sept., A.D. 32. Conversion of Cornelius..... Ac 10; Ac 11:1-18. Spring, A.D. 33. Paul's escape from Damascus to Jerusalem. Ac 9:22-30. A.D. 34. Founding of the Church at Antioch........ Ac 11:19-26. Spring, A.D. 44. Martyrdom of James and imprisonment of Peter. Acts 7. A.D. 44. Paul's eleemosynary visit to Jerusalem ....... Ac 11:21-30. A.D. 44, 45. Paul's first missionary tour . Ac 8; Ac 9. Spring, A.D. 47. Paul's "second" visit to Jerusalem . Ac 15:1-35. A.D. 47. [Matthew's Gospel published in Greek ] A.D. 47-51. Paul's second missionary tour Ac 15:36 - Ac 18:22. A.D. 49. [1st Epistle to the Thessalonians.] A.D. 50. [2d Epistle to the Thessalonians.]
A.D. 51-55. Paul's third missionary tour. Ac 18:23 - Ac 21:17. A.D. 51. [Epistle to the Galatians.] A.D. 54. [1st Epistle to the Corinthians.] A.D. 54. [2d Epistle to the Corinthians.] A.D. 55. [Epistle to the Romans.] A.D. 56-58. Paul's first visit and imprisonment at Rome.... Ac 21:18 - 28:31. A.D. 56. [Luke's Gospel written.] A.D. 57. [Epistle to the Ephesians.] A.D. 57. [Epistle to the Colossians.] A.D. 57. [Epistle to Philemon.] A.D. 57. [Epistle to the Philippians.] A.D. 58. [Epistle to the Hebrews.] A.D. 58. [Acts of the Apostles written.] A.D. 62. [Epistle of James.] A.D. 62 [lst Epistle to Timothy.] A.D. 63. [Epistle to Titus.] A.D. 64. [Second imprisonment of Paul at Rome.] A.D. 64. [2d Epistle to Timothy.] A.D. 64. [lst Epistle of Peter.] A.D. 65. [2d Epistle of Peter.] A.D. 65. [Mark's Gospel written.] A.D. 66. [Epistle of Jude.] A.D. 90. [John's Gospel written.] A.D. 92. [1st Epistle of John.] A.D. 92. [2d Epistle of John.] A.D. 92. [3d Epistle of John.] A.D. 96. [John's Revelation written.]
VIII. Commentaries. — The following is a full list of separate exegetical and illustrative works on the entire Acts of the Apostles, the most important being indicated by an asterisk (*) prefixed: Origen, Opera, 4, 457 sq.; "Pampilus" (in Hippolyti Opera, 2, 205 sq. and in the Bibl. Patr. Gall. 4, 3 sq.); Chrysostom Opera, 9, 1 sq. (also in Engl. Homilies, Oxf. 1851, 2 vols. 8vo); Cassiodorus, Acta Ap. (in Complexiones); Euthalius, Editio (in Bibl. Patr. Gall.10, 199); Arator, Carmen (in Bibl. Max. Patr. 10, 125); Theophylact, Opera, 3, 1 sq.; OEcumenius, Enarratio (in Opera, 1); Bede, Works, p. 184 sq.; Fathers, in Cramer's Catena (Oxon. 1838, 8vo); Mene, Commentarius (Vitemb. 1524, 8vo); Bugenhagen,
Commentarius (Vitemb. 1524, 1624, 8vo); Lambert, Commentarius (Arg. 1526; Francf. 1539, 4to); Card. Cajetan, Actus Apostolor. (Venice, 1530; Par. 1532, fol.; Par. 1540, 8vo); Gagnaeus, Scholia (Par. 1660, 8vo); *Calvin, Commentaria, in his Opera (Gen. 1560, fol.; tr. into Eng., Lond. 1585, 4to; Edinb. 1844, 2 vols. 8vo); Bullinger, Commentaria (Tiguri. 1540, fol.); Jonas, Adnotationes (Norib. 1524; Basil. 1525, 1567, 8vo); Salmeron, Opera, p. 12 sq.; Brent, Predigten (Norimb. 1554, fol.); Camerarius, Notationes (Lips. 1556, 8vo); Capito, Explicatio (Venice, 1561, 8vo); *Gualtherus, Homilioe (Tiguri. 1557, 4to; in Engl., Lond. 1572); Losse, Adnotationes, (Francf. 1558, 2 vols. fol.); *Sarcer, Scholia (Basil. 1560, 8vo); Selnecker, Commentarius (Jen. 1567, 1586, 8vo); Junius, Tr. ex Arab. (L. B. 1578; Frcft. 1618, 8vo); Raude, Auslegung (Frcft. 1579, fol.); Aretius, Digestio (Lausan. 1579, Genev. 1583, Bern. 1607, fol.); Grynaeus, Commentarius (Basil. 1583, 4to); Crispold, Commentaria (Firm. 1590, 4to); Stapleton, Antidota (Antw. 1595-8, 3 vols. 8vo); Pelargus, Commentationes (Francf. 1599, 8vo); Arcularius, Commentarius (Franc. 1607, 8vo; Giess. 4to); Lorinus, Commentaria (Colossians Ag. 1609, fol.); Malcolm, Comnmentarius (Mediol. 1615, 4to); Sanctus, Commentarius (Lugd. 1616; Colossians 1617, 4to); *Petri, Commentarius (Duaci. 1622, 4to); Perezius, Commnentarius (Lugd. 1626, 4to); A Lapide, Acta Apostolor. (Antw. 1627, 4to); Menoch, Historia (Rome, 1634, 4to); De Dieu, Animadnersiones (L. B. 1634, 4to); Lenaeus, Commentarius (Holm. 1640, 4to); Novarinus, Actus Apostolor. (Lugd. 1645, fol.); Price, Acta Apostolor. (Par. 1647, 8vo; Lond. 1630, 4to); Major, Adnotata (Jen. 1647, 1655, 4to; 1668, 8vo); Amyrald, Paraphrase (Salmur, 1654, 8vo); Fromond, Actus Ap. (Lovan. 1654, 4to); Calixtus, Expositio (Brunsw. 1654, 4to); *Streso, Cornmentarius (Amst. 1658; Hafn. 1717, 4to); Faucheur, Sermons (Genev. 1664, 4 vols. 4to); Du Bois, Lectiones, pt. 1 (Louvain, 1666, 4to); Rothmaler, Predigten (Rudolst. 1671-2, 3 vols. 4to); Cradock, Apost. History (Lond. 1672, fol.); De Sylveira, Commentaria (Lugd. 1678, fol.); Lightfoot, Commentary (in Works, 8, 1 sq.; also Horoe Hebr., ed. Carpzov, Lips. 1679, 4to); Crell, Opera, 3, 123 sq.; Wolzogen, Opera, vol. 1; Cocceius, Opera, vol. 4; Micon, Apostolica Acta (Genev. 1681, fol.); Cappel, Hist. Apostolica (Salm. 1683, 4to); *De Veiel, Explicatio (Lond. 1684, 8vo; in Eng., Lond. 1685); Pearson, Works, 1, 317 sq.; Keuchen, Adtsotata (Amst. 1689, 1709, 4to); Valla and others, in the Critici Sacri, vol. 7; *Arnold and De Sacy, Note (Par., Lugd., Amst., Antw. 1700, 8vo; also in French often); *Van Leeuwen, Paraphrasis (Amst. 1704,1724, 8vo; also in Gorm., Brem.
1708, 4to); *Limborch, Conzmentarius (Roterd. 1711, fol.); Gerhard, Commentarius (Hamb. 1713, 4to); *Herberger, Stoppel-Postille (Lpz. 1715, fol.); Anon., Reflexions (Par. 1716, 12mo); Lang, Isagoge (Hal. 1718, 4to); Grammich, Anmerkungen (Lpz. 1721, 4to); Petersen, Zusammenhang (Fr. ad M. 1722, 4to); Wolf, Anecdota, 3, 92 sq.; 9:1 sq.; Pyle, Paraphrase (Lond. 1725, 8vo); Plevier, Handelingen (Ultraj. 1725, 1734, 4to); *Lindhammer, Erldarung (Hal. 1725, 1734, fol.); Loseken, Erklarung (Hal. 1728, 4to); Negelin, Kern d. Apostelgesch. (Norimb. 1731, 4to); Anon., Paraphrase (Par. 1738, 12mo); *Biscoe, Hist. of the Acts, confirmed from other Sources, Authors, etc. (Lond. 1742, 2 vols. 8vo; Oxford, 1829, 1840, 1 vol. 8vo); Barrington, Works, vol. 1; Heylin, The 1. Lect. 2. 1 sq.; Rambach, Betrachtungen (F. ad M. 1748, 4to); *Benson, Planting of the Chr. Rel. (2d ed. Lond. 1756, 3 vols. 4to); *Walch, Dissertt. in Acta App. (Jen. 1756, 1761, 3 vols. 4to); Am-Ende, Carmen cum notis (Vitemb. 1759, 8vo); Semler, Illustratio (Hal. 1766, 4to); Coners, Auslegung (Brem. 1772, 8vo); Jacob, Uebersetz. (Hal. 1779, 8vo); Hess, Christenlehre (Winterth. 17819, 8vo, in parts); Paulus, De Consilio auctoris Act. (Jen. 1788, 4to); Willis, Actions of the Ap. (Lond. 1789, 8vo); Snell, Uebersetz. (Frkft. 1791, 8vo); Lobstein, Commentar, vol. 1 (Strasb. 1792, 4to); *Morus, Explicatio Act. App. (ed. Dindorf, Lips. 1794, 2 vols. 8vo); Clarisse, Gedenwaarigkeiten (Leyd. 1797, 4to); *Thiers, Uebers. m. Anmerk. (Gera, 1800, 8vo); Stack, Lectures (London, 1805, 8vo); Venturini, Zusammenh. m. d. Weltgesch. in vol. 1 of his Urchristenth. (Copenh. 1807, 8vo); Brewster, Lectures (Lond. 1807, 2 vols. 8vo; 1830, 1 vol. 8vo); *Heinrich, Acta Apostol. perpet. Annott. illustrata (Gott. 1809, 2 vols. 8vo; also in the Nov. Test. Keppianum); Stabbock, Annotations, vol. 2: (Falm. 1809, 8vo); Elsley, Annotations, vol. 2; Valcknaer, Selecta (ed. Wessenberg, Amst. 1815, 8vo); *Kuinol, Comm. in Acta Apostol. (vol. 4 of his Comm. in Libros Hist. N.T., Lips. 1818, 8vo; vol. 3, Lond. 1835); Riehm, Defontibus Act. (Tr. ad Rh. 1821, 8vo); Thompson, Discourses (Lond. 1822, 8vo); Kistemaker, Gesch. d. Apos. tel (Miinst. 1822, 8vo); *Hildebrand, Gesch. d. ap. — exeg. Hermeneut. (Lpz. 1824, 8vo); Blomfield, Lectures (Lond. 825, 8vo); De Meyer, De Lucae (Tr. ad R. 1827, 4to); Menken, Blicke (Brem. 1828, 8vo); *Stier, Reden d. Apostel (Lpz. 1829, 2 vols. 8vo); Wilson, Questions (Camb. 1830, 12mo) Anon., Annotations (Camb. 1831, 12mo); Wirth, Apostelgesch. (Ulm, 1831, 8vo); *Neander, Planting of the Church [German, Berl. 1832, Hamb. 1847, 8vo] (Edinb. 1842, Lond. 1851,2 vols. 8vo); Barnes, Notes (N. Y. 1834, 12mo); Povach, Sermons (Lond. 1836, 8vo); Sumner,
Exposition (Lond. 1838, 8vo); Robinson, Acts of Ap. (Lond. 1839, 8vo); Schneckenberger, Zweck d. Apostelgesch. (Berne, 1841, 8vo); Jones, Lectures (Lond. 1842, 2 vols. 12mo); Cary, Acts of Ap. (Lond. 1842, 18mo); Livermore, Acts of Ap. (Bost. 1844, 12mo); Hodgson, Lectures (Lond. 1845, 8vo); Morison, Commentary (Lond. 1845, 18mo); Bennett, Lectures (Lond. 1846, 8vo); Maskew, Annotations (Lond. 1847, 12mo); Trollope, Commentary (Camb. 1847, 12mo); *Humphrey, Commentary (Lond. 1847, 8vo); Dick, Lectures (Glasgow, 1848, 8vo); Pierce, Notes (N. Y. 1848, 12mo); *Bornemann, Acta Apostolorum (Grossenh. 1849, 8vo); Mrs. Henderson, Lessons (Lond. 1849, 8vo); Etheridge, Tr. from the Syr. (Lond. 1849, 8vo); Beelen, Commentarius (Lovan. 1850, 2 vols. 4to); *Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul (Lond. 1850, 1856; N. Y. 1855, 2 vols. 8vo); Cook, Acts (Lond. 1850,12mo); *Hackett, Commentary (Boston, 1852, 1858, 8vo); *Baumgarten, Apostelgeschichte (Braunschw. 1852, 2 vols. 8vo; tr. in Clarke's Library, Edinb. 1854, 3 vols. 8vo); *Schaff, Gesch. d. Ap. Kirche (Lpz. 1854, 8vo; in English, Edinbl 1854, 2 vols. 8vo); *Zeller, Ursprung d. Apostelgesch. (Stuttg. 1854, 8vo); *Lekebusch, Entstehung d. Apostelgesch. (Gotha, 1854, 8vo); Ford, Acts of Ap. (Lond. 1856, 8vo); Cumming, Readings (Lond. 1856, 12mo); *Alexander, Acts explained (N. Y. 1857, 2 vols. 8vo); Bouchier, Exposition (Lond. 1858, 12mo); Macbride, Lectures (Lond. 1858, 8vo); McGarvey, Commentary (Cincin. 1864, 12mo); Gloag, Commentary (Edinb. 1810, 2 vols. 8vo). SEE NEW TESTAMENT.