Abila (τὰ ῎Αβιλα and ηΑ῾᾿βίλη, Polyb. v. 71, 2; Ptolmy v. 18), the name of at least two places.
1. The capital of the "Abilene" of Lysanias (Lu 3:1), and distinguished (by Josephus, Ant. 19:5, 1) from other places of the same name as the "ABILA OF LYSANIAS" (῎Αβιλα ἡ Λυσανίου). The word is evidently of Hebrew origin, signifying a grassy plain. SEE ABEL-. This place, however, is not to be confounded with any of the Biblical localities of the O.T. having this prefix, since it was situated beyond the bounds of Palestine in Coele-Syria (Antonin. Itin. p. 197, ed. Wessel), being the same with the "Abila of Lebanon" (A bila ad Libanum), between Damascus and Baalbek or Heliopolis (Reland, Paloest. p. 317, 458). Josephus (see Hudson's ed. p. 864, note) and others also write the name Abella (῎Αβελλα), Abela (Α᾿βέλα), and even Anbilla (῎Ανβιλλα), assigning it to Phoenicia (Reland, ib. p. 527-529). A medal is extant, bearing a bunch of grapes, with the inscription, "Abila Leucas," which Belleye (in the Transactions of the Acad. of Belles Lettres) refers to this city; but it has been shown to have a later date (Eckhel, 3:337, 345); for there is another medal of the same place, which bears a half figure of the river-god, with the inscription "Chrysoroas Claudiaion," a title which, although fixing the site to the river Chrysorrhoas, yet refers to the imperial name of Claudius. Perhaps Leucas and Claudiopolis were only later names of the same city; for we can hardly suppose that two cities of the size and importance which each of these evidently had, were located in the same vicinity and called by the same name. The existence of a large and well-built city in this region (Hogg's Damascus, 1:301) is attested by numerous ruins still found there (Bankes, in the Quart. Review, vol. 26, p. 388), containing inscriptions (De Saulcy, Narrative, 2:453). Some of these inscriptions (first published by Lebronne, Journal des Savans, 1827, and afterward by Urelli. Inscr. Lat. 4997, 4998) have lately been deciphered (Trans. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1851; Jour. Sac. Lit. July, 1853, p. 248 sq.), and one has been found to contain a definite account of certain public works executed under the Emperor M. Aurelius, "at the expense of the Abilenians;" thus identifying the spot where this is found with the ancient city of Abila (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1848, p. 85 sq.). It is the modern village Suk el-Barada, not far from the south bank of the river Barada (the ancient Chrysorrhoas), near the mouth of the long gorge through which the stream flows from above, and directly under the cliff (800 feet high) on which stands the Wely of Nebi Abil, or traditionary tomb of Abel (Bib. Sacra, 1853, p. 144). This tradition is an ancient one (Quaresmius, Eleucid. Terrae Sanctae, 7:7, 1; Maundrel, May 4), but apparently based upon an incorrect derivation of the name of the son of Adam. SEE ABEL. This spot is on the road from Heliopolis (Baalbek) to Damascus, at a distance corresponding to ancient notices (Reland, Paloest. p. 527, 528). The name Suk (i.e. market, a frequent title of villages where produce is sold, and therefore indicating fertility) of Wady Barada first occurs in Burckhardt (Syria, p. 2), who speaks of the lively green of the neighborhood, which, no doubt, has suggested the name Abel in its Hebrew acceptance of meadow (see Robinson. Researches, new ed. 3:480 sq.). SEE ABILENE.
2. There are two or three other places mentioned in ancient authorities (Reland, Paloest. p. 523 sq.) by the general name of Abel, Abela, or Abila (once Abida, Α᾿βίδα apparently by error, Reland, ib. p. 459), as follows:
(a.) ABELA OF PHOENICIA (Jerome, Onomast. s.v.), situated between Damascus and Paneas (Caesarea Philippi), and therefore different from the Abila of Lysanias, which was between Damascus and Heliopolis (Baalbek). It is probably the same as ABELBETH-MAACHAH SEE ABELBETH-MAACHAH (q.v.).
(b.) ABILA OF PERAEA, mentioned by Josephus (War, 2:13, 2) as being in the vicinity of Julias (Bethsaida) and Besimoth (Bethjeshimoth) (ib. 4:7, 6). It is probably the same as ABEL-SHITTIM SEE ABEL- SHITTIM (q.v.).
(c.) ABILA OF BATANAEA, mentioned by Jerome (Onomast. s.v. Astaroth Carnainz) as situated north of Adara, and by Josephus (quoting Polybius) as being taken with Gadara by Antiochus (Ant. 12:3, 3). It is apparently the same with the "Abila of the Decapolis" (comp. Pliny, 5:18), named on certain Palmyrene inscriptions (Reland, Paloest. p. 525 sq.), and probably is the Abel (Α᾿βελά) of Eusebius (Onomast. e. v.), situated 12 miles E. of Gadara, now Abil. SEE ABEL-CERAMIM.