Ziph (Heb. idn. זַיŠ, battlement [Gesen.] or melting place [Fürst]; Sept. Ζίβ or Ζίφ, with many v.r.; Vulg. Ziph or Siph), the name of a man and of one or two places in Judah.
1. First named of the four sons of Jehaleleel of the tribe of Judah (1Ch 4:16). B.C. post 1618.
2. A town apparently in the south or Simeonitish part of Judah (Jos 15:24), where it is mentioned between Ithnan and Telem; but the enumeration and the absence of the copula require us to join it with the former, i.e. Ithnan-ziph, and in that case it may be an appendage retaining a trace of the Zephath (q.v.) of that region. SEE ITHNAN.
3. A town in the mountain district of Judah (Jos 15:55), where it is mentioned between Carmel and Juttab, in the south-east group. SEE JUDAH, TRIBE OF. The place is immortalized by its connection with David, some of whose greatest perils and happiest escapes took place in its neighborhood (1Sa 23:14-15; 1Sa 2:4; 1Sa 26:2). It had been built by Mesha the son of Caleb (1Ch 2:42), and was eventually fortified by Rehoboam (2Ch 11:8). "Zib" is mentioned in the Onomasticon as eight miles east of Hebron; "the village," adds Jerome, "in which David hid is still shown." This can hardly be the spot above referred to, unless the distance and direction have been stated at random, or the passage is corrupt both in Eusebius and Jerome. Elsewhere (under "Zeib"and "Ziph") they place it near Carmel, and connect it with Ziph the descendant of Caleb. The place, in question is doubtless the Tell Zif, about three miles south of Hebron, a rounded hill of some hundred feet in height, with a spring adjacent. About half a mile east of the tell are some considerable ruins, standing at the head of two small wadies, which, commencing here, run off towards the Dead Sea. These ruins are pronounced by Robinson (Bibl. Res. 1, 492) to be those of the ancient Ziph. There was originally a desert (מַדַבָּר) and a wood (חֹרֶשׁ, choresh, 1Sa 23:15) attached to the place, traces of the latter of which have been supposed to exist in the present Khirbet Khoreisa, about one mile south of Tell Zif (Quar. Statement of the "Palest. Explor. Fund," Jan, 1875, p. 45). SEE HACHILAH.