Zephyrinus bishop of Rome, succeeded. Victor about A.D. 199-201, and filled his office (according to Eusebius) during eighteen years. He died in 217. His pontificate falls in the period when Montanistic and Monarchian influences were struggling to obtain control of the Church; and although his own personality was by no means imposing, his rule became important through the: unlimited power which he permitted Calixtus I (q.v.) to acquire. Zephyrinus's original attitude was hostile towards Montanism; and though the influence of Hippolytus (q.v.) compelled the gradual exclusion of the Monarchians from the Church, they, were accorded kindly treatment. The peace of the Church was in this way preserved, ill outward appearance, while Zephyrinus lived. The more energetic administration of his successor, Calixtus, produced a formal breach, and thus conferred prominence upon Zephyrinus's pontificate as being the close of the first period of the greatness of the Roman Church. Eusebius furnishes a few scanty notices on Zephyrinus in the Hist. Eccles. (bk. 5 and 6), which are supplemented by the ninth book of Hippolytus (Contr. Heres.). The latter work called forth Bunsen's book Hippolytus u. seine Zeit, a production of but little value, and Döllinger's Hippolytus u. Callistus, which is not impartial. Greater importance attaches to Baur's brief remarks in his work on the Christianity of the first three centuries, and to Ritschlein Entsterung d. altkaitholischen Kirche (2nd ed.). See also, Herzog, Real Encyklop. s.v.