Waving and Heaving As Ceremonial Manipulations of Offerings

Waving And Heaving As Ceremonial Manipulations Of Offerings


I. Waving before Jehovah (הֵנַיŠ לַפנֵי יהוֹה or תּנוּפָה) occurs as a special ceremony by the priests in the Jewish ritual not only in connection with meat-offerings (Ex 29:24 [Le 8:27]; Nu 5:25), in the case of the first-fruits and the first-born (Le 23:11 sq.; 17:25), but also of bloody offerings, whether (especially in thank- offerings) of single pieces only, as the breast or right shoulder or fore-leg (Ex 29:26 sq.; Le 7:30,34; Le 9:21; Le 10:14; Nu 6:20), or of the whole animal (a lamb, Le 19:12,24; Le 23:23), which was waved before Jehovah in token of presentation; and this principle extended even to the persons of the Levites as an initiatory rite to their office (Nu 8:11,15). The waving in case of meat-offerings or pieces of animals was performed upon (with) the hands (Ex 29:24; Le 8:27; according to the rabbins, it was held upon the hands of the offerers, beneath which were placed those of the priest [Tosi4phta, Menach. 7:17], so as to fiulfil the requirement of Ex 29:24; Nu 6:19-20; while whole animals were waved by the hands of the priest alone [Mishna, Menach. 5:6]); each having previously been laid upon the altar; in the case of whole animals this was done before slaughtering them (Le 14:12 sq., 24 sq.). It consisted, according to the rabbins (Mishna, Meienach. 5:6), like the porricere of the Romans (Macrob. Sat. 3:2), also the obmovere or commovere (Cato, Res Rust. 134) in certain respects (Zorn, Biblioth. Antiq. 1:74), of a forward and backward motion upward of the articles; while living objects were simply moved to and fro. Whether the motion was ever to the right and left is uncertain, although the import of the word הֵנַיŠ (see Isa 30:28; De 20:20) would justify such an opinion, which, moreover, would be highly significant. The act, at all events, indicates a festive surrender to Jehovah as a personal service like the peace-offering; beyond this all is speculation (Bahr, Symbol. 2:376 sq.; see Reland, Antiq. Sacr. page 276). See WAVE- OFFERING.

II. Heaving (הֵרַים or תּרוּמָה) is associated with the tossing (Ex 29:27), as the heave-shoulder (הִתּרוּמָה שׁוֹק) occurs almor, with the wave-breast (Ex 29:27; Le 7:30,32,34), and what is called (Ex 38:24) wave-gold is also called heave-gold (Nu 31:52). Indeed, the Jews scarcely distinguish between the two (תּרוּמֶה and תּנוּפָה) as ritualistic acts, but explain each as an upward and downward motion (Mishna, Menach. 5:6), a sort of elevatio. Both would thus stand as generally expressive of supreme consecration to God as the universal Owner and Giver (see Gesenius, Thesaur. page 866; Bahr, Symbolik, 2:355 sq.; 377). Some moderns incorrectly regard the two acts as identical (Jahn, Archaol. 3:38), or take "heaving" (הֵרַים) in the vague sense of offerre or auferre (like Gesenius, Thesaur. page 1277), and connect הוּרִם, Ex 29:27, with מֵאֵיל הִמַּלּאַים, contrary to the accents and the parallelism; but see Kurtz, Mos. Opfer, page 146 sq. SEE HEAVE-OFFERING.

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