Walch, Johann Georg
Walch, Johann Georg a Jena theologian, the father of Johann Ernst Immanuel and Christian Wilhelm Franz Walch (q.v.), was born in 1693. He entered the University of Leipsic in 1710, and became master in 1713. His earliest literary endeavors were philological. He edited the academical discourses of Cellarius and a series of ancient Latin authors, including Ovid and Lactantius. In 1716 he wrote the valued Historia Critica Lat. Linguae. In the same year he established himself at Jena, where he became professor of oratory in 1719, and afterwards of poetry also, and where he was associated with Buddeus, who bestowed on him his only daughter in marriage. In 1723 he entered the arena of philosophical discussion with his Gedanken vom philosophischen Naturell; and again, in 1724 and 1725, with rejoinders to Wolf's review of Buddeus's Bedenken üb. d. Wolfsche Philosophie. In 1726 he published a Philosophisches Lexikon, which attained a fourth edition in 1775; and in 1727 an Einl. in d. Philosophie, and Observatt. in Nov. Test. Libros, quarum I Pars ea Continet Loca quce ex Hist. Philos. Illustr. He united with Buddeus in holding fast to the old Lutheran orthodoxy, though his reception of natural theology had destroyed the old theoretical basis of that orthodoxy; and, at the same time, his views had received an infusion of Pietism, which prevented him from sustaining a hostile attitude towards that movement. In 1724 he was made theological professor extraordinary, doctor of theology in 1726, professor in ordinary in 1728, and professor primarius in 1750. Four years later he attained the rank of ecclesiastical councilor to the court of Saxe-Weimar. He wrote a number of compends for use in his lecture rooms, which are distinguished by a comprehensive survey of the literature bearing upon his subjects; e.g. an introduction in Christian ethics; and others into systematic theology, polemical theology, and the theological sciences (the latter, 1737, 4to; 2nd ed. much enlarged, 1753, 8vo). The history of theological literature is' his debtor for valuable service, beginning with the publication of Bosii Introd. in Notit. Scriptorun. Eccl. (Jena, 1733). His Biblioth. Theol. Selecta Litterar. Adiot. (ibid. 1757-65, 4 vols.) is still valuable, as is also the Biblioth. Patrist. Litter. Annot. Instr. (ibid. 1770; revised by Danz, 1834). The publication of Luther's complete works (1740-52; 24 vols.), and of the Book of Christian Concord (1750, Germ. and Lat. with historical notes), to which he added an Introd. in Libr. Symb. Eccl. Luther. (1752, 4to), is also worthy of note. The remaining more important works of Walch are two introductions to polemical theology, Theol. Einl. in d. vornehmsten Religionsstreitigkeiten, etc. (1724), intended to supplement the oral lectures of Buddeus, and Hist. u. theol. Einl. in d. Reliionssteitigkeitig en welche sonderlich ausser d. ev. luth. Kirche entstanden (1733-36, 5 vols.). An Einleitung to the religious controversies within the pale of the Lutheran Church (1730-39, 5 vols.) formed the complement to the last-named work. Other works deserving of mention are his Miscell. Sacra s. Com. ad Hist. Eccl. Sanctioresque Discipl. Pert. (Amst. 1744): his comprehensive Hist. Eccl. N.T. Variis Observatt. III. (1744) to the end of the 4th century: — and his Hist. Controverss. Graec. et Lat. de Process. Spirit. Sancti (Jena, 1751). Walch was a preacher as well as a scholar, and his interest in preaching is attested by a Samm lung kleiner Schriften v. d. gottgefolligen Art zu predigen (1746). Despite his growing decrepitude, he was able to complete his Biblioth. Patr. He died in 1775. See Walch [C. W. F.], Leben u. Karakter von Dr. J. G. Walch (Jena, 1777, 4to); Meusel, Lexikon verstorbener deutscher Schriftsteller, 14:360; Doring, Theologen Deutschlands im 18. u. 19. Jahrhundert, 4:615. — Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v.