1. The successor of Anacletus II (died 1138 ) who was previously cardinal Gregory Conti, but who, after a reign of two months, was induced by Bernard of Clairvaux to give place to the more powerful Innocent II (q.v.; and comp. Petr. Diacon., in the Chronicles Casin. 4:130).
2. Antipope against Alexander III. He was previously a cardinal, Octavianus. Enthroned in 1159, he was recognised and protected by the emperor Frederick Barbarossa and endorsed by the synods of Pavia in 1160 and of Lodi in 1161, but never equalled his rival in ecclesiastical power or in moral influence. He died in 1164 at Lucca, and was followed by Paschal III. See Von Raumer, Hohenstaufen, 2, 123 sq.; Reuter, Gesch. Alexander's III u. d. Kirche s. Zeit, 1, 129, 401 sq.; Herzog, Real- Encyklop. s.v.