Vicar Apostolic is a bishop who possesses no diocese, but who exercises jurisdiction over a certain appointed district by direct authority of the pope. Such officers have been appointed from time to time in various parts of the Latin Church. There were vicars apostolic in France, Spain, and Italy in the 7th and 8th centuries, and officers possessing similar powers have, been appointed from Rome in different countries ever since. In England, Dr. William Bishop was consecrated to this office by the title of bishop of Chalcedon, June 4, 1623. In 1688 four districts were created by pope Innocent XI; and to these four more were added by pope Gregory XVI, July 30, 1840. In place of this a new hierarchy was established in England by pope Pius IX in 1850.