Vanity (as a rendering of several Heb. words, Gr. ματαιότης) occurs in Scripture only in the Latin sense of emptiness, and is often applied to this world, as unsatisfactory (Ec 1:2); to lying (Ps 4:2); to idols (De 32:21); to whatever disappoints our hopes (Ps 60:11). In ordinary language the term is applied to the man who wishes you to think more highly of him than what he really deserves. Hence the vain' man flatters in order to be flattered; is always fond of praise; endeavors to bribe others into a good opinion of himself by his complaisance, and sometimes even by good offices, though often displayed with unnecessary ostentation. SEE PRIDE.