Vaiseshika is the name of one of the two great divisions of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, agreeing with the Nyaya itself in its analytical method of treating the subjects of human research, but differing from it in the arrangement of its topics, and in its doctrine of atomic individualities, or viseshas, from which the name is derived. Klanada (kana, minute, and cadu, eating) is the reputed founder of the school, although nothing is known as to his history or date. He arranges the subject-matter of his words under six-paddrthas; or topics, as follows: (1) substance, (2) quality, (3) action, (4) generality, (5) atomic individuality, and (6) coherence. Later writers of the school add to these a seventh, viz. non- existence. According to this system, understanding is the quality of soul, and the instruments of right notion (knowledge from the contact of sense with its object, and inference) are treated of under the head of buddha or understanding. See Bibliotheca Indica (Calcutta, 1850:); Colebrooke, Miscell. Essays (Lond. 1837), vol. 1; Müller [Max], in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenl. Gesellschaft.

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