Uz (Heb. Uts, עוּוֹ, awooded), the name of three men, and also of a region.
1. (Sept. Οὔζ v..r. Ως, Vulg. Us' or Fies.) First named of the four sons of Aram (Ge 10:23), and grandson of Shem (1Ch 1:17, where the lineage is condensed). B.C. post 2500.
2. (Sept., ΟὔζVulg. Hus, A.V. "Huz.") The oldest of the eight sons of Nahor by Milcah (Ge 22:21). B.C. cir. 2000.
3. (Sept. Ως, Vulg. Ilus.) First named of the two sons of Dishan the Horite chieftain (Ge 36:28; 1Ch 1:42). B.C. post 1950.
4. THE LAND OF Uz was the country in which Job lived (Job 1:1; Sept. Αὐσῖτις Vulg. Hus). As the genealogical statements of the book of Genesis are undoubtedly ethnological, and in many instances also geographical, it may fairly be surmised that the coincidence of names in the above cases is not accidental, but points to a fusion of various branches of the Shemitic race in a certain locality. This surmise is confirmed by the circumstance that other connecting links may be discovered between the same branches. For instance, Nos. 1 and 2 have in common the names Aram (comp. Ge 10:23; Ge 22:21) and Maachah as a geographical designation in connection with: the former (1Ch 19:6), and a personal one in connection with the latter (Ge 22:24). Nos. 2 and 4 have in common the names Buz and Buzite (ver. 21; Job 32:2), Chesed and Chasdim (Ge 22:22; Job 1:17, A.V. "Chaldaean's"), Shuah, a nephew of Nahor, and Shuhite (Ge 25:2; Job 2:11), and Kedem, as the country whither Abraham sent Shuah, together with his other children by Keturah, and also as the country where Job lived (Ge 25:6; Job 1:3). Nos. 3 and 4, again, have in common. Eliphaz (Ge 36:10; Job 2:11), and Temrna an ad Temanite (Ge 36:11; Job 2; Job 11). The ethnological fact embodied in the above coincidences of names appears to be as follows: Certain branches of the Aramaic family, being both more ancient and occupying a more northerly position than the others, coalesced with branches of the later Abrahamids, holding a somewhat central position in Mesopotamia and Palestine, and again with branches of the still later Edomites of the south after they had become a distinct race from the Abrahamids. This conclusion would receive confirmation if the geographical position of Uz, as described in the book of Job, harmonized with the probability of such an amalgamation. As far as we can gather, it lay either east or south-east of Palestine (Job 1:3) see BEN E-KEDIEM]; adjacent to the Sabeans and the Chaldaeans (Job 1:15,17), consequently northward of the Southern Arabians, and westward of the Euphrates; and, lastly, adjacent to the Edomites of Mount Seir, who at one period occupied Uz, probably as conquerors (La 4:21), and whose troglodytic habits are probably described in Job 30:6-7. The position of the country may further be deduced from the native lands of Job's friends, Eliphaz the Temanite being an Idummean, Eliha the Buzite being probably a neighbor of the Chaldeaans, for Buz and Chesed were brothers (Ge 22:21-22), and Bilaad the Shuhite being one of the Bene-Kedem. Whether Zophar the Naamathite is to be connected with Naamah in the tribe of Judah (Jos 15:41) may be regarded as problematical: if he were, the conclusion would be further established. From the above data we infer that the land of Uz corresponds to the Arabia Desert of classical geography, at all events to so much of it as lies north of the 30th parallel of latitude. This district has in all ages been occupied by nomadic tribes, who roam from the borders of Palestine to the Euphrates, and northward to the confines of Syria. SEE JOB.
"The land of Uz" is mentioned only in two other passages of Scripture. Jeremiah in one passage (25, 20; Sept. Οὔζ,Vulg. Ausiis) groups it with Egypt, Philistia, Edom, and Moab; and in another he appears either to identify it with a portion of Edom, or to affirm that some of the Edomites in his days inhabited Uz (La 4:21; οὔζ, Hus). These various statements show that Uz was closely connected with Edom, and thus in general corroborate the above position. SEE IDUMEA.
As to later opinions, Joseplus says that Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus (Ant. 1, 6, 4). The former province lies in Bashan, and extends as far south as Bostra. It may have formed part of the land of Uz. Jerome appears to identify Uz with Damascus and Trachonitis, following Josephus (Quaest. in Ge 10; Ge 25; comp. Onomast. s.v. "Uz"). Bochart makes no less than three places of this name:
1. The Ghutah of Damascus, confounding the Arabic Ghutah with the Heb. עווֹ, words which are altogether dissimilar;
2. The region of Ausitis, named from Uz, the son of Nahor (Ge 22:21);
3. Uz of Edom, the land of the patriarch Job (Opecra, 1, 80). There seems to be no sufficient authority for this threefold division. The general opinion of Biblical geographers and critics locates "the land of Uz" somewhere in Arabia Petrcea. Whether the name of Uz survived to classical times is uncertain: a tribe named Asitce (Αἰσῖται) is mentioned by Ptolemy (5, 19, 2); this Bochart identifies with the Uz of Scripture by altering the reading into Αὐσῖται (Phaleg, 2, 8); but, with the exception of the rendering in the Sept. (ἐν χώρᾷ τῇ Αὐσίτιδι, Job i, 1; comp. 32:2), there is nothing to justify such a change. Gesenius (Thesaur. p. 1003) is satisfied with the form Lesitee as sufficiently corresponding to Uz; without any such change; as also Winer (Realw. s.v.) and most others. See Spanheim, Hist. Job, 4:10 sq.; Buddei Hist. N.T. 1, 370; Carpzov, Introd. 2, 42; Miller, De Terra Jobi, in the Thes. Vet. Test. 1, 540; Fries, in the Stud. u. Krit. 1854, vol. 2; and the commentaries on Job. SEE ARABIA.