(Τρύφων, a not infrequent Greek name of the later age), a usurper of the Syrian throne. His proper name was Diodotus (Strabo, 16:2, 10; Appian, Syr. 68), and the surname Tryphon was given to him, or, according to Appian, adopted by him, after his accession to power (Livy, Epit. 53, 45). He was a native of Cariana, a fortified place in the district of Apamea, where, he was brought up (Strabo, loc. cit.). In the time of Alexander Balas he was attached to the court (Appian, loc. cit., δοῦλος τῶν βασιλέων; Diodor. Fr. 21:ap. Müller, Hist. Gr. Frogm. 2, 17, στρατηγός; 1 Macc. 11:39, τῶν παρὰ Α᾿λεξ); but towards the close of his reign he seems to have joined in the conspiracy which was set on foot to transfer the crown of Syria to Ptolemy Philometor (ver. 13; Diodor. loc. cit.). After the death of Alexander Balas he took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius II to put forward the claims of Antiochus VI, the young son of Alexander (1: Macc. 11:39), B.C. 145. After a time he obtained the support of Jonathan, who had been alienated from Demetrius by his ingratitude, and the young king was crowned (B.C. 144). Tryphon, however, soon revealed his real designs on the kingdom, and, fearing the opposition of Jonathan, he gained possession of his person by treachery (12, 39-50), and after a short time put him to death (13, 23). As the way now seemed clear, he murdered Antiochus, and seized the supreme power (ver. 31, 32), which he exercised, as far as he was able, with violence and rapacity (ver. 34). His tyranny again encouraged the hopes of Demetrils, who was engaged in preparing an expedition against him (B.C. 141), when he was taken prisoner (14, 1-3), and Tryphon retained the throne (Justin, 36:1; Diodor: Leg. 31), till Antiochus VII, the brother of Demetrius, drove him to Dora, from which he escaped to Orthosia, in Phoenicia (1 Macc. 15:10-14; 37-39), B.C. 139. Not long afterwards, being hard pressed by Antiochus, he committed suicide, or, according to other accounts, was put to death by Antiochus (Strabo, 14:5, 2; Appian, Syr. 68, Α᾿ντίοχος- κτείνει...σὺνπόνῳ πολλῷ). Josephus (Ant. 13:7, 2) adds that he was killed at Apamea, the place which he made his headquarters (Strabo, 16:2, 10). The authority of Tryphon was evidently very partial, as appears from the growth of Jewish independence under Simon Maccabaeus, and Strabo describes him as one of the chief authors of Cilician piracy (14, 3, 2). His name occurs on the coins of Antiochus VI, and he also struck coins in his own name. SEE ANTIOCHUS; SEE DEMETRIUS.

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