Traveling (prop. some form of אָרִח, arach, especially אֹרֵחִ, orach, a traveler; fem. אֹרחָה, orechah, a "traveling company" [Ge 37:25; Isa 21:13], i.e. caravan) in the East is still much more cumbersome than with us, since it is almost exclusively undertaken solely on errands of business, and rarely for purposes of pleasure. Its laboriousness is partly occasioned by the sandy and desert nature of the country, which often requires way- marks to be set up for guidance (Arrian, Exped. Alex. 5, 26); partly by the bad and neglected roads (comp. Philo, Opp. 2, 578), especially in winter, SEE ROAD; partly by the general absence of proper hotels, SEE INN; and partly by the bands of robbers who infest the country in general (comp. 2Co 11:26). SEE ROBBER. Commerce (q.v.) is carried on by means of caravans (q.v.), which carry all necessaries with them, and are often so large as to seem like a considerable army (see Wellsted, Reisen, p. 227). Part of the company is always armed, and constitutes the van and rear guard (see Olivier, Voyage, 6:329 sq.). In the desert a local guide is usually employed (comp. Nu 10:31), and a beacon-fire as a standard by night (see, generally, Jahn, Archaeol. I, 2, 17 sq.). Single travelers in the interior of the well-inhabited country, or in Palestine proper, usually ride upon asses (1Sa 25:20,42; 2Sa 17:23; 1Ki 2:40; 2Ch 28:15; comp. Lu 10:34); tourists, however, and sheiks, upon horses; and in some instances wagons were anciently used as vehicles (1Ki 12:18; 2Ki 19:21; Ac 8:28) in certain parts of the country. Most persons went on foot (comp. Joh 4:6) and carried their most essential supplies with them (Jg 19:18 sq., i.e. πήρα, Mt 10:10), likewise a tent (q.v.) under which to encamp if in a solitary region (Dionys. Hal. 8:3). Gloves are mentioned in the Mishna (Chelimu, 16:6) as travelling apparatus. The Jews journeyed to the great festivals in caravans (Lu 2:42,44) with song and rejoicing. Single travelers usually found a ready hospitality (except among the Samaritans towards Jews), and eventually khans (q.v.) were established along the highways, especially for non-Israelites (see Reisegger, Reisen, 3, 62 sq.). Travelers of distinction were often welcomed with torch lights and great ceremony (2 Macc. 4:22), and for princes the roads were frequently repaired (Ps 68:5; Isa 40:3; Diod. Sic. 2, 13; Arrian, Alex. 4:30; Josephus, War, 3, 6, 2). Also on departing they were dismissed with an honorary procession (προπέμπειν, Ac 21:5; deducere, Cicero, Cat. Maj. 18) and many ceremonious attentions (Ac 15:3; Ro 15:24; 1Co 16:16; 3Jo 1:6). Samaria was avoided as a route by the Jews. The Galileans, in visiting the festivals at Jerusalem, usually went along the Jordan or through Pertea (Lu 17:11; Joh 4:4; Josephus, Ant. 20:6, 1). SEE SAMARITAN. Journeying on the Sabbath was forbidden in post-exilian times (see Josephus, Ant. 13:8, 4). SEE SABBATH-DAYS JOURNEY. On account of the heat travel was sometimes pursued by night. (See, generally, Hackett, Illustr. of Script. p. 12-16.) SEE JOURNEY.