Tosaphoth ( תוספות)denotes those additions or supplementary glosses to Rashi's (q.v.)'commentary-on the Talmud which are found along with the latter in every edition of the Talmud. The disciples of Rashi, when they found that their master's expositions could be extended and improved, set about this work of exposition immediately after his death, filling up every gap, and using up every scrap which their searcher had left. Out of reverence for him, they would not put down their opinions in an independent manner, but denominated them תוספות, additions, and hence they were called Tosaphists. The first Tosaphists were his two sons-in-law, R. Meier ben- Samuel and Jehudah benNathan, the latter called by way of abbreviation Rib (ריב ן = רבי יהודה בן נתן; his three grandsons, R. Isaac, R. Samuel, and R. Jacob Tam, sons of R. Meier, who are respectively called from their initials Ribam, ריב ם =, ר יצחק בן מאיר, Raskban (q.v.), and R. Tam (q.v.); and, lastly, R. Isaac ben-Asher of Spires, called Riba, ריבא =- רבי יצחק בן אשר, also a-relative of Rashi. The latter is called בעל התוספות, or the Tosaphist κατ᾿ ἐξοχήν. Besides these, we mention Joseph Porat, son of Samuel ben-Meier; Isaac ben-Samuel of Dompaire, also called Isaac the Elder, a nephew of R. Tam; Samuel ben- Natronai, called Rashbate, רשבט; Isaac ben-Mordecai, of Augsburg; Isaac Halaban ben-Jacob of Prague, etc. They are enumerated by Zunz in his Zur Geschichte und Literatur (Berlin, 1845, p. 29.sq), where the student will-find all necessary information. (B. P.)

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