Topographical Terms

Topographical Terms We have had continual occasion in this Cyclopaedia to point out the great accuracy with which these are used in the original languages of the Scripture, especially the Hebrew, although often obscured by the want of exactness and uniformity in the A.V. It is our purpose under the present head to present a general view of such terms, referring for details to the respective articles. Much has already been done in this direct ion by Dean Stanley in the appendix to his work on Sinui and Palestine. SEE GEOGRAPHY.


I. Tracts (including especially depressions, levels, and barrens).

1. Émek (עֵמֶקֵ), a valley, used in general (Nu 14:25; Jos 8:13; Jos 13:19,27; Jg 1:19,34; Jg 5; Jg 15; Jg 1 Samuel 6:13 [Bethshemesh]; 2Sa 18:18 ["dale"]; 1Ki 20:28; 1Ch 12:15; Jer 21:13; Jer 31:40; Jer 47; Jer 5; Jer 48, S; 49, 4; Mic 1:4); or specifically "vale of Siddim" (Ge 14:3,8,10), "valley of Shaveh" (ver. 17), "vale of Hebron" (Ge 38:14), "valley of Achor" (Jos 7:24,26; Jos 15:7; Isa 65:10; Ho 2:15), "valley of Ajalon" (Joshua 10:12), "valley of Rephaim" (15, 8; 18:16; 2Sa 5:18,22; 2Sa 23:13; 1Ch 11:15; 1Ch 14:9,13; Isa 17:5), "valley; of Jezreel" (Jos 17:16; Jg 6:33; Jg 7:1,8,12; Ho 1:5; probably also 1 Samuel 31:7; 1Ch 10:7), "valley of Keziz" (Joshua 18:21), "valley of Beth-rehob" (ver. 28), "valley of Elah" (1 Samuel 17:2,19; 21:9), "valley of Berachah" (2Ch 20:26), "valley of Baca" (Ps 84:6), "valley of Succoth" (60:6; 108:7), "valley of Gibeon" (Isaiah 28:21), "valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3, 2, 12), "valley of Decision" (ver. 14), "Beth-emek" (Jos 19:27).

2. Gey (גֵּיא or גֵּי ), a ravine (A. V. invariably "valley"), used generally (Ps 23:4; Isa 28:1,4; Isa 40; Isa 4; Jer 2:23; Eze 6:3; Eze 7:16; Eze 31:12; Eze 32:5; Eze 35:8; 36:4, 6; Mic 1:6; Zec 14:4-5), and specifically of Moab (Nu 21:20: Deuteronomy 3:29; 4:46: 34:6), Hinnon (Jos 15:8; Jos 18:16; 2Ki 23:10; 2Ch 28:3; 2Ch 33:6; Ne 11:30; Jer 7:31-32; Jer 19:2,6; Jer 32:35; prob. 1Sa 22:1,5; also "valley ate," 2Ch 26:9; Ne 2, 13, 15; 3, 13), Jiphthahl el (Jos 19:14, 27), Zeboim (1 Samuel 13:18; comp. Ne 11:34), Salt (2 Samuel 8:13; 2Ki 14:7; 1Ch 18:12; 2Ch 25; 2Ch 11; Psalm Ix, title), Zephathah (2Ch 14:10), Charashimim (1Ch 4:14: "craftsmen," Ne 11:35), "passengers" (Eze 39:11), Hamon gag (ver. 11, 15), Ai (Jos 8:2), near the Jordan (2Ki 2; 2Ki 16), Gedor (1Ch 4:39).

3. Shaveh (שָׁוֵה), a dale, namely, of Kirjathhaim (Nu 32:37), and the kings (Ge 14:17; in 1Sa 18:18 this word is not used).

4. Metsullch (מצֻלָּה ) a dell (Zechariah 1:8).

5. Bikah (בַּקעָה), a broad plain between mountains, used generally (De 8:7; De 11:11, Psalm 104:8; Isa 41:18; Isa 63:14; Isa 40:4, "plain"): specifically "valley of Jericho" (De 34:3), "valley of Mizpeh" (Joshua 11:8), "valley of Lebanon" (ver. 17; 12:7), "valley of Meniddo" (2Ch 35:27; Zec 12:11), "plain of Oinoi", (Ne 6:2), "plain of Aven" (Am 1:5), "plain of Dura" (Daniel 3:1), "plain of Mesopotamia" (Eze 3; Eze 23; Eze 24; 8; 4; 37:1, 2; probably the same as "plain of Shinar," Ge 11:2).

6. Mishor (מַישׁוֹר), downs or table-land, specifically of the plateau of Moab (De 3; De 10; De 4:43; Jos 13:9,16-17,21; Jos 20:8; 1Ki 20:23,25; 2Ch 26:10; Jer 21:13; Jer 48; Jer 8; Jer 21).

7. Sharan (שָׁרוֹן), a flat, specifically the pasture land along the Mediterranean (Joshua, 12:19; Song 2:2; Isa 33:9; Isa 35:2; Isa 65:1), perhaps that of Gilead (1Ch 5:16).

8. Shephelah (שׁפֵלָה ), a low country, specifically the maritime plain ("vale," De 1:7; Jos 10:40; Jos 1 Kings 10:27; 2Ch 1; 2Ch 15; "valley," Jos 9:1; Jos 11:2,16; Jos 12:8; 15:33; Jg 1; Jg 9; Jer 32:44; "plain," Jer 17:26; Ob 1:19; Zec 7:7'; "low plains," 1 Chronicles 27:28; 2Ch 9:27; "low country," 27:10; 28:18; "Sephela," 1 Macc. 12:38).

9. Midbar (מַדַבָּר), a wilderness in the sense of an open tract of unoccupied common, in general a "desert" or "wilderness" (Ex 3; Ex 1; Ex 5; Ex 3; Ex 23:31; Nu 20:1: De 33:10; 2Ch 26:10; Job 24:5; Isa 21:1; Jer 25:24, etc.); specifically that of Sinai (Nu 33:15-16, etc.; "south," Ps 75:6); sometimes (with the art.) fir Arabia in general, or for those parts of it which extend into Palestine (Genesis 21:14; Jos 8:15; Jg 1:16).

10. Arabah (עֲרָבָה), a desert as such, either generally ("wilderness," "desert," or "plain," Job 24:5; Job 39:6; Isa 33:9; Isa 35:1, 6; 40, 3; 11:19; 2, 3; Jer 2; Jer 6; Jer 5,. 6; 17:6; 1, 12; 51, 43; Am 6:14; Zec 14:10), or specifically (technically, with the art.) the Arabah ("desert," Eze 47:8; "plain," De 1:1,7; De 2:5; De 3:17; De 4:49; Jos 3:16; Jos 8:14; Jos 11:16; Jos 12:1,3; 1Sa 23:24; 2 Samuel 2, 29; 4:7: 2Ki 14:25; 2Ki 25:4; Jer 39:4; Jer 2; Jer 7; "plains," Jos 11; Jos 2; Jos 12, S; "champaign," De 11:30; "Arabah," Jos 18:18; "Beth-arabah," 15:6), or (in the plur. without the art.) the Ghor or "the plains" (2Sa 15:28; 2Sa 17:16) of Moab (Nu 22:1; Nu 26:3,63; Nu 31:12; Nu 33:48-50; Nu 35:1; Nu 36:13; De 34:1,8; Jos 23:16) or Jericho (4:13; 5:10; 2Ki 25:5; Jer 39:5; Jer 52; Jer 8).

11. Jeshimon (ישׁימוֹן), a waste, either generally (especially of the "wilderness" of the wandering, De 32:10; Ps 68:7; "desert," Ps 78:40; Ps 106:14; Isa 43; Isa 19; Isa 20; "solitary," Ps 107:4), For specifically the barren tract on both sides of the Dead Sea ("Jeshimon," Nu 21:20; Nu 23:2S; 33:49; 1Sa 23:19,24; 1Sa 26:1,3).

12. Kikkar (כַּכָּר), a circle (primarily and often, a coin or loaf), specifically (A. V. always "plain") the floor of the valley through which the Jordan runs (2Sa 18:23; 1Ki 7:46; 2Ch 4:17; Nehemiah 2, 22; 12:28), or the oasis that formerly existed in (the southern part of) it (Ge 13:10-12; Ge 19:17,25,28-29; De 31:3). Less distinctive than the above are the terms Geliloth (גּלַילוֹת), circles, used in the general sense of frontiers ("borders," Jos 13:2; "coasts," Joe 3:4), or the windings of the Jordan ("borders," Jos 22:10-11; "country," Eze 47:8); Carmel (בִּרמֶל), a park, employed (besides. its use as a proper name) in the general signification of a well- cultivated region ("fruitful field;" Isa 10:8; "fruitful place," Jer 4:26; "plentiful field," Isa 16:10; Jer 48; Jer 33; "Carmel," 2 Kings 19:23; Isaiah 37:24); Sadeh (שָׂדֶה '), arable land ("field," country "land"); Shedemoth (שׁדֵמות), highly cultivated: soil ("fields" of Gomorrah, De 32:32; Kidron, 2Ki 23:4; Jer 31:40; Heshbon, Isa 16:8; comp. Hab 3:17); Abel (אָבֵל), a meadow, employed as the name of a place, and usually in composition;. Maargh (מִעֲרֶה), an open tract ("meadows" of Gibeah, Jg 20:33; perhaps for מעָרָה, a cave; by others read ) מֵעָרִב from the west); Chelkch' (חֶלקָה), a (smooth) plot of ground (often in general as a "portion"), in connection with Saddah ("piece," "parcel," etc.) or without it ("field," "piece," "plot," etc.); Naphdh נָפָה), a height, only of Dor ("borders," Jos 11:2; "coast," 12:23; "region," 1Ki 4:11), or Napheth (נֶפֶת), in the same connection ("countries," Jos 17:11); Chibel (חֶבֶל), a district (lit. as measured by Ai rope); applied as a general topographical division ("portion," or "coast," Joshua 17:5, 14; 19:9, 29; Zep 2:5-7), especially to Argob ("region" or "country," De 3:4,13-14; 1Ki 4:13).

II. Elevations (considered as such, without reference to their extent of area).

1. Har (הִר), a mountain, employed for single summits (as Sinai, Gerizim, Zion, Olivet) or for ranges (as is Lebanon); also to the general backbone or highland of Palestine, or of Judah, Ephraim, etc., in particular (A.V. "mountain," "mount," "hill''). Occasionally the cognate form har (הֹר or הוֹר) is employed (usually with the art.), especially with reference to the well-known eminence of that name. The following are the various elevations to which hor is applied: Abarim, Amana (Song 4:8,), Ararat, Baalah, Baal-Hermon (Jg 3:3; comp. Jos 13:5), Bethel, Bether (Song 2:7), Carmel, Ebanl, Emek (Jos 13:19), Ephron (Jos 15:9), Gesh, Gerizim, Gilboa, Gilead, Halak (Jos 11:17), Heres (Jg 1:35), Hermon, Hor, Horeb, Jearim (Jos 15:10), Olivet (Zec 14:4; the word is not used in 2Sa 15:30), Mizar (Ps 42; Ps 6), Moriah, Nebo, Paran (De 33:2), Perazim (Isa 28:21), Samaria (1Ki 16:24), Seir, Sephar (Ge 10:30), Sinai, Sion (Sirion or Shenir, all names for Hermon, De 3:9; De 4:48), Shapher (Nu 33:23), Tabor, Zai mon (Jg 9:48), Zemaraim (2Ch 13:4), Zion. There re also the mountains of the Amorites, of the Amalekites (Jg 12:15), of Ephraim, of Esau, of Israel, of Judah, of Naiphtali, and of Bashan (Ps 68:15).

The following subordinate terms are applied to parts or features of mountains in personification of the human frame: Irash (ראֹשׁ), head, the top (Ge 8:5; Ex 19:20; De 34:1; 1Ki 18:42); Aznoth (אִזנוֹת), ears, perh. some projection on the summit (Jos 19:34); Kathliph (בָּתֵŠ, the shouolder, the brow (De 33:12; Jos 15:8,10; Jos 18:16); Tsad (צִד), the side or hill-slope (1Sa 23:26; 2Sa 13:34); Kisldth (כַּסלֹת), loins or flanks, i.e. base (Jos 19:12,18); Tsla (צֵלִע), a rib, i.e. spur (2Sa 16:13); Shekm. (שׁכֶם), back, i.e. rear (Shechein); Ammah (אִמָּה), elbow; bend (2, 24); Yerekah (ירֵכָה), thigh, i.e. recesses (of Mount Ephraim, Jg 19:1,18; of Lebanon, 2Ki 19:23; Isa 38:22).

2. Gibah ( גַּבעָה), a hill (as in the A.V. invariably), the Arabic Jebel, the common designation of less important or individual eminences; applied (besides its general use) to Zion (Isa 31:4; Eze 34:26), and to the following: the hill of the foreskins. (Jos 5; Jos 3), of Phinehas (24, 33), of Moreh (Jg 7:1), of Hachilhh (1Sa 23:19; 1Sa 26:1), of Ammah (2Sa 2:24), of Gareb (Jer 31:39); also an element of the proper names Gibeah, Geba or Gaba, and Gibeon.

3. Tel (תֵּל), a hillock (the Arabic Tell), is a diminutive mound or knoll,usually an artificial heap of rubbish (De 13:17; Jos 8:28; Jer 30:18; Jer 49; Jer 2); often an element of proper names, as Tel-Abib, Tel-llarsha, Tel-Melah.

The two following are other appropriations of appellatives as proper names than general designations of an elevated ground:

4. Pisgah, or rather hap-Pisgth (for it has the art. הִפַּסגָּה), the height (comp. Eugl. "the summit"), vas probably the ragged edge of the table-land of Moab where it suddenly broke down into the declivity towards the Dead Sea (Nu 21:20; Nu 23:14; De 3:17; De 34:1).

5. Ophel (עֹפֶל), a swelling mound (so of tumors, De 28:27; 1Sa 5:6, etc.), is applied to Elisha's residence near Jericho (2Ki 5:24), elsewhere (with the doubtful exception of Isa 32:14; Mic 4:8) and everywhere with the art., to the sloping tongue of Mount Moriah on the south (2Ch 27:3; 2Ch 33:14; Ne 3:26-27; Ne 11:21).

The following, likewise, are rather designations of portions or elements of hills than the elevations themselves:

6. Maaleh (מִעֲלֶה), an ascent or rise, used (besides its common meaning, Jg 8:13) of several localities that of the Scorpions (Nu 34:4; Jos 15:3; Jer 1:19), of Adummim (Jos 15:7; Jos 18:17), of Gur (2Ki 9:27), of Ziz (2Ch 20:16), of Luhith (Isa 15:5; Jer 48:5), of Bethhoron (Jos 10:10), of Olivet (1 Macc. 3:16; comp. 2Sa 15:13) and Saul's city [probably Bethlehem] (1Sa 9:11)

7. Morád (מוֹרָד), a descent or fall, applied (besides its general use, Mic 1:4) to the declivity of the Jordan valley (Jos 7:5), of Bethhoron (10, 10; 1 Macc. 3:24), of Horouaim (Jer 48:5), and Olivet (κατάβασις, Lu 19:37).

8. Shephi (שׁפַי), a bare spot on a hill ("high place," Nu 23:3; Isa 41:18; Isa 49; Isa 9; Jer 3:2,21; Jer 4:11; Jer 2:29; Jer 12:11; Jer 14:6).

9. Aruts (עֲרוּוֹ ), a precipice ("cliff," Job 30:6).

10. Misgab (מַשׂגָּב), a bluff or inaccessible steep, as a "refuge" (2Sa 22:3; Ps 18:2; Isa 25:12, etc.); with the art, a particular fortress of Moab (Jer 48:1).

11. Kephim (כַּפַים), crags or rough isolated "rocks" (Job 30:6; Jer 4:29), hence the Syriac name Ceihas. There remain the two distinctive terms for a stony prominence, with their concomitants.

12. Tsur (צוּר), Chald. and Arab. Tur, a rock or outstanding block of stone whether fixed or builder, of frequent occurrence (A.V. "rock"), both literally (De 10:22; 2Ki 5:23, etc.) and figuratively (Ps 31:2; Ps 62:6, etc.), and in only a few cases referring to the height of the rock (Nu 23:1; Ps 61:2, etc.); in one case assuming the dignity of a proper name, Tyre. It is specifically applied to Horeb (Ex 17:6), the rock of Obel (Jg 7:25; Isa 10:26), and is an element of the names Helkath-hazzurim (2Sa 2:16), and Beth-sur (Jos 15:58).

In connection with Sela twice occurs the peculiar term Nekrah (נַקרָה), a hole or "cleft" (Ex 33:22; Isa 2:21).

13. Sela (סֶלִע), a cliff or abrupt and elevated rock, especially in personification (Ps 18:2; Ps 42:9, etc,), and as a parallel with Tur (Ps 31:2-3; Ps 7; Ps 8:9,9; Isa 2; Isa 21 etc.). In the A.V. it is loosely rendered "rock," "stone," etc. It is applied generally to the spot in Ka'desh whence Moses brought forth water (Nu 20:8,10-11; Ne 9:15; Ps 78:16; comp. Tsur, in Ezekiel 17), to the rocks of Edam, (Jg 15:8; Jg 8:11) Rimmol (20:45), and Sela-hlam- mahlekoth (1Sa 23:28); also as a proper name to Peta (with the art., 2Ki 14:7; 2Ch 25:12; and prob. Jg 1:36; without the art., Isa 16:1; Ob 1:3).

In exclusive connection with Sela are found the following descriptive terms: Chagavim (חֲגָוַים), chasms (Song of Solomon 2, 14; Jer 49:16; Ob 1:3): Seph (סעַיŠ), a cleft (Jg 15:8,11; Isa 2:21; Isa 57:5); Tsechiach (צחַיחִ ), a bald spot, as the summit (f a rock exposed to the drying sun (Ne 4:13; Eze 24:7-8; Eze 26; Eze 14);. Nekik (נקַיק), a cranny or fissure (Isa 7:19; Jer 13:4; Jer 16:16); and Shen (שֵׁן), a tooth or sharp edge or end of a crag (Job 39:28; 1Sa 14:4-5); also as a proper name (7:12).


I. Flowing (including the valley or bed though which it courses); of these the first two are the most general and distinctively descriptive.

1. Nahar, (נָהָר ), a perennial river (as almost always rendered in the A.V.), the Arab. nahr ; used generally in the poetical books of watercourses and of the sea (Job 14:11; Job 20:17; Job 22:16; Job 28:1; Job 40:23; Ps 24:2; Ps 46:4; Ps 78:16; Ps 93:3; Ps 98:8; Ps 105:41; Ps 107:33; Song 8:7; Isa 18:2,7; Isa 33:21; Isa 41:18; Isa 42:15; Isa 43:2,19-20; Isa 1:2; Isa 56:12); also a stream of fire (Da 7:10); and specifically to some of the great rivers of Mesopotamia and Egypt (Ge 2:10,13-14; Ge 15:18; Ex 7:9; Ex 8:5; 2Ki 5:12; 2Ki 17:6; 2Ki 18:11.; 1Ch 5:26; Ezr 8:15,21,31,36; Isa 18:1; Isa 19:5-6; Jer 46:7-8; Eze 1:1,3; Eze 3:15,23; Eze 10:15,20,22; Eze 32:2,14; Eze 43; Eze 3; Da 10:4; Zep 3:10), especially the Euphrates (Isa 7:20; Jer 2:18; Mic 6:1,12; Zec 9:10), or that in connection with the Tigris (Aram-Niharaim, Ge 24:10; De 23:4; Jg 1:2,8; Ps 60 title; 1Ch 19:6), but never the Jordan (unless, perhaps, that or the Dead Sea be intended in Ps 61:6; Ps 74:15; Hab 3:8-9) and with the art. it specifically decimates the Euphrates, either alone (Ge 31:21; Ge 36:37; Ex 23:31; Nu 22:5; Nu 24:6; Jos 24:2-3,14-15; 2Sa 10:16; 1Ki 4:21,24; 1Ki 14:5; 1Ki 15; 1Ch 1:48; 1Ch 19:16; 2Ch 9:26; Ne 2:9; Ne 3:7; Ps 72:8; Ps 30:11; Isa 8:7; Isa 11:15; Isa 27:12; Isa 48; Isa 18; Isa 59:19; and so is the phrase in Ezra, "beyond the river") or with the name added (Ge 2:14; Ge 15:18; De 1:7; De 11:24; Jos 1:4; 2Sa 8:3; 2Ki 21:2,26; 2Ki 24,:7; 1Ch 5:9; 1Ch 18:3; Jer 46; Jer 2; Jer 6; Jer 10); while in the plural it apparently denotes the canals or branches of the same river (Ps 89:25; Ps 137:1; Isa 44:27; Isa 47:2; Eze 31:4,15: Na 1:4; Na 2:6).

The following are the terms which, in the imagery of the East, are applied to the various parts of a river: Yad (יָד), at "hand" or side, either right or left (Nu 13:29; Deuteronomy 2, 37; Jg 11:26); Saphcah (שָׂפָה), a "lip" or brink of a river or of the sea (Ge 22:17; Ge 41:3,17;

Ex 2:3; Ex 7:15; Ex 14:30; De 2:36; De 4:48; Jos 11:4; Jos 12; Jos 2; Jos 13:9,16; Jg 7:12,22; 1Sa 13:5; 1Ki 4 .29; 9:26: 2Ki 2; 2Ki 13; 2Ch 8:17; Eze 47:6 , 712; Da 12:5; and so of the molten sea, of Solomon's Temple, 1Ki 7:23,26; 2Ch 4:2); Lashon (לָשׁוֹן), a "tongue" or bay (Jos 15:2,5; Jos 18:19; Isa 11:15);Gedoth (גּדוֹת), banks (of the Jordan, Jos 3; Jos 15; Jos 4:18; 1Ch 12:15; or of the Euphrates, Ps 8:7); Katseh (קָצֵה), the extreme limit or end (1Sa 14:27), whether of a river (Jos 15:5; Jos 18:19), of the water (3:8,15), or of: a lake (Nu 34:3; Jos 15:2), and so of a country (Ge 47; Ge 21; Ex 13:20; Nu 33:, 3 a mountain (Ex 19:12; Jos 18:16), and a town (verl.15; 1Sa 14:2); Maabirs (מִעֲבָר), Mabarah (מִעבָּרָה), a ford (as of the Jordan, Jos 2:7; Jg 3:18; Jg 12:6; the Jabbok, Ge 32:22; or the Arunon, Isa 16:2), and so a pass between hills (at Michmash, 1Sa 13:23; 1Sa 14:4; Isa 10:29; Jer 2:32).

2. Nachal (נִחִל), a brook or summer watercourse, the Arabic wady, signifying both the stream and the torrent-bed or valley (translated very. variously in tie A.V., "brook," "valley," "'river," "stream," etc.); it is applied to the following places: the torrent of Gerar (Ge 26:17; 1Sa 15:5), of Eshcol (Nu 13:23-24; Nu 32:9), of Zered (Nu 21:12; De 2; De 13; perhaps Isa 15:7; Am 6:14), the Arnon (Nu 21:14; De 2:24; De 3; De 8), of Jabbok (Genesis 122:23;, Deuteronomy 2, 37), of Kaulah (Jos 16:8), of Kishon: (Jg 4:7; 1Ki 18:40; Ps 83:9; probably Jos 19:11), of Besor (1Sa 30:9), of Sorek (Jg 16:4), of Kedron (2Sa 15:23; 1Ki 2:3; Jer 31:40) of Gaash (2Sa 23:30; 1Ch 11:32); of Cherith (1Ki 17:3; perhaps 2Sa 24:5), of Egypt (the Wady el Arish, Nu 34:5; Jos 15:4; 1Ki 3:28; Isa 37:12), of Shittim (Joe 3:18).

The following terms designate artificial or temporary flowings of water of greater or less extent, some of them of local use.

3. Yior (יַאוֹר or יַאֹר), once (Ecclesiastes 24:27) Or (אֹר , by abbreviation), is properly a canal (perhaps an Egyptian word), specifically a branch of the Nile (so in the plur., Ex 7:19; Ex 8:5; 2Ki 19:24; Job 28:10; Ps 78:44; Isa 7:18; Isa 19:6-7; Isa 33:21; Isa 37:25; Eze 29:3; Eze 4:5,10; Eze 30:12; Na 3:8), and so the Nile itself (in the sing. Ge 41:1-3,17: Ex 1:22; Ex 2:3,5; Ex 4:9; Ex 7:15,17-18,20-21,24-25; Ex 8:3,9,11; Ex 17:5; Isa 23:3,10; Jer 46:7; Eze 29:3,9; Am 8:8; Am 9:5; Zec 10:11), and in Daniel (Da 12:5-7) the river Ulai, a similar alluvial stream.

4. Shichor (שׁחוֹר), a "black" or turbid stream, as swollen or discolored by showers, either generally (Isa 23:3; Jer 2:18) or specifically (the Belus, Jos 19:26; and perhaps the Arish, 13:3; 1Ch 13:5).

5. Peleg (פֶּלֶג), a channel, a poetical term for the divisions of a stream (Ps 46:4), such as the gullies of Reatbeli (Jg 5:15-16), the subdivisions of an irrigating stream (Ps 1:3), contrasted with Jubol (Isa 30:25), or with Nahal (Job 20:17), or even the dew (Ps 65:9).

6. Mikal מַיכָל), a rivulet (2Sa 17:20).

7. Tealah (תּעָלָה), a conduit or trench for water raised or poured out for irrigation, such as a ditch (1Ki 18:32,35,38), an aqueduct (2Ki 18:17; 2Ki 20:20; Isa 36:2; see also Job 38:25), or for a garden (Ezekiel: 31:4).

The following denote rainfall or its effects more or less direct.

8. Geshem (גֶּשֶׁם), a shower, i.e. sudden and heavy rain as it ordinarily falls in the East.

9. Zerem (זֶרֶם), a storm or violent and overwhelming rain (e.g. Job 24:8; Isa 25:4; Isa 28:2; Hab 3:10; comp. Mt 7:27).

10. Yubal (יוּבָל ), Yabul (יָבָל ), or Ubal (אוּבָל or אֻבָל), a freshet or overflow of streams from rain (Isa 30:25; Isa 44; Isa 4; Jer 17:8); hence the Ulai itself, as liable to such inundations (Da 8:2-3,6).

11. Aphik (אָפַיק), an outburst or crevasse in the bank of an alluvial stream or mountain torrent, throwing the water into new and destructive channels; a poetical term for any unusual rush (Job 6:15; Ps 42; Ps 1; Song 5:12; Isa 8:7; Eze 6:2 ; 31:12; Joe 1:20, etc.).

12. Aphik (נזֵל), a gushing, as tears (Job 36:28; Isa 45:8), brooklets (Ps 78:16; Pr 5:18, etc.), or the sea (Ex 15:8).

13. Shibblleth (שַׁבֹּלֵת), a full stream (Ps 69:12,15; Isa 27:12).

14. Eshed (אֶשֶׁד), a rapid (Nu 21:15: Jos 10:43; Jos 12:8); in the plur. especially the tumbling stream bursting forth from the roots of Pisgah (De 3:17; De 4:49; Jos 12:3; Jos 13:20).

15. Sheteph (שֵׁטֶŠ), a poetical word apparently for a local inundation (Job 38:25; Ps 32:6; Pr 27:4; Da 9:26; Da 11:22; Na 1:8).

16. Mabbul (מִבּוּל), a deluge, as of the accumulation of waters in the sky (Ps 29:10), and especially Noah's flood.

II. Sources of supply, whether living or otherwise.

1. Ayun (עֲיַן), lit. "an eye," hence a spring of natural Water open and running (A. V. usually fountain," but unfortunately "well" in Ge 16:7; Nu 33:9 [comp. Ex 15:27]; De 7:7; De 33:28; 1Sa 29:1; 2Ch 32:3; Nehemiah 2:14; 40:15; 12:37; Pr 8:28). It is applied, in the nature of a proper name (being a marked feature of any locality) to the following places: simply Ain, a city of Simeon (Jos 15:32; Jos 19:7; Jos 7; Jos 21:16; 1Ch 4:32); the Ain, a landmark of Palestine (Nu 34:11); the two Ains, i.e. Enam (Jos 15:34; comp. Ge 38:14,21); the spring of Jezreel (1Sa 29:1), of Harod (Jg 7:1), the dragon spring (Ne 2:13), of Shur (Ge 16:7); also En dor, El eglaimn, En gannlim, En-gedi, Eim-haddah, Enih'ak-kore, En-hazr, En- mishuah,'En-iuimmon, En-rgel, En-shemesh, En-tappuah, and Enon.

2. Mayan ( מִעיָן), a fountain consisting of a collection of springs ("fountain," Ge 7:10; Ge 8:2; Le 11:36; Ps 74:15; Ps 114:8; Pr 5; Pr 16; Pr 8:24; Pr 25; Pr 26; Song 4:12,15; Isa 61:11; Ho 13:15; Joe 3:18; "well," Ps 84:6; Isa 12:3; "springs," Ps 87:7; Ps 104:10); hence (topographically) a place watered by springs ("fountain," Jos 15:9; 1Ki 18:5; 2Ch 32:4;: "well," Jos 18:15; 2Ki 3; 2Ki 19; 2Ki 25).

3. Motsa (מוֹצָא), a source or spring-head ("spring," 2Ki 2:21; Isa 41:18; Isa 58:11; "watercourse," 2Ch 32:30; "water- springs," Ps 107:33,35).

4. Makor (מָקוֹר), a well-spring or vein of water (Le 12:7; Jer 51; Jer 36; Ps 36:9; Pr 10:11; Pr 16:22, etc.).

5. Guillth (גֻּלּוֹת), boiling or bubbling springs, used only of those given by Caleb to Achsah, (Jos 15:19; Jg 1:15); and in the shorter form Gal (גִּל), a heap or spring. (Song 4:12); hence billow of the sea (Ps 43:5; Ps 106:25; Isa 48; Isa 18; Jon 2:3, etc.).

6. Mabbua, מִבּוּעִ), a gushing spring ("spring," Isa 35:7; Isa 49:10; "fountain," Ec 12:6).

The following represent (mostly artificial) collections or receptacles of water:

7. Beer (בּאֵר), a well (as everywhere in the A.V., except "pit" in Ge 14:10; Ps 55:23; Ps 69:15; Pr 23:27) dug in the earth or rock and yielding a perpetual supply, three such are specially named (Ge 26:20-22), besides Jacob's (Joh 4:6), and one at Bahurim (2Sa 17:18). The word stands alone as a proper name (Nu 21:16; Jg 9:21), and enters as an element into the names Beer-Tahai-roi, Beer-sheba, Beeroth-benejankasm, Beeroth, Beer- elim, Baaluth-beer, Berothah, and Berothai. Cognate with this is

8. Bor (בּאֹר or בּוֹר), a cistern (A.V. usually "pit" or "well"), whether dug (De 6:11; Ex 21:33; 2Ch 26:10) or built (Isa 14:19; Jer 2:13), and whether empty (and so often used for "dungeon," Ge 37:20; Ge 41:14; Ex 12:29; 1Sa 13:16; 2Sa 23:20: 1Ch 11:22; Jer 36:16; Jer 28:6; Zec 9:1) or as a receptacle of spring or rain water (Ps 7:15; Isa 11:15; Jer 6:7 [Kethib]; Eze 26:20, etc.). Special cisterns of this kind are sometimes mentioned, as they are next in importance to. springs in the East; thus in Sechu (1Sa 19:22), of Sirah (2Sa 3:26), of Bethlehem (23:15; 1Ch 9:17), at Mizpah (Jer 41:7,9; comp, 2Ki 25:25).

9. Berekah ( בּרֵכָה); a pool (as uniformly rendered in the A.V.), the Arab. Birkah, an artificial tank for surface water. Special pools of this kind are mentioned at Gibeon (2Sa 2:13), Hebron (4:19), Samaria (1Ki 22:3S), Heshbon (Song 7:4), and several at Jerusalem, e.g. the upper (2Ki 18:17; Isa 7:3; Isa 36:3), the lower (22:9), or old (ver. 11), the king's (Ne 2:14; Ec 2:6), another (Ne 3:16), Siloam (ver. 15; Jos 9:7), Bethesda (5:2).

10. Mikveh (מַקַוֶה), a reservoir or large receptacle for water for irrigation, etc. ("gathering together," Genesis 1; "pools," Ex 7:19; "plenty [of water]," Le 11:36; "ditch," Isa 21:11).

11. Agam (אֲגָם), a pond of stagnant water (Ex 7:19; Ex 8:5; "standing water," Ps 107:35; Ps 114:8; hence "reeds," which abounded in such receptacles, Jer 51:32).

12. Keroth (כּרֹת), pits or wells in holes dug to water sheep ("cottages," Zep 2:6); and so likewise Mikreh (מַכרֶה), a pit for the same purpose ("salt," ver. 9).

13. Mashabim (מִשׁאֲבַים), troughs for watering animals (Jg 5:11; comp. Ge 24:19-20,44-45, etc.).

The following are not employed with topographical exactness:

14. Geb (גֵּב) or Geb (גֶּבֶא), a ditch (2Ki 3:16; Isa 30:14; Eze 47:11); hence Gebim, a place near Jerusalem (Isa 10:31).

15. Pachath (פִּחִת), a hollow, used as a trap ("pit," 2Sa 17:9; 2Sa 18:17; Isa 24:17-18;. Jer 48:43; Jer 44; "hole," ver. 27; "snare," La 3:47). Akin to this is:

16. Shachath (שִׁחִת) or Sihtehah (שׁוּחָה), a pitfall, poetically used (variously rendered in the A.V., Ps 9:15; Pr 26:27; Jer 2:6; Jer 18:20, etc.).

17. Gumats (גּוּמָוֹ.), a deep hole or sunken shaft (Ec 10:8).

18. Mahamarcah (מִהֲמָרָה), a gulf or whirlpool ("deep pit," Ps 140:10).

III. Bodies of water and their connections. For these there really is but one Heb. term.

1. Yam (יָם), sea (as always rendered in the A.V. except when used for "west"), including lakes and expanses of rivers; applied specially to the Mediterranean (with the art., Jos 15:47; sometimes with other adjuncts, as "reat," Nu 34:6-7:' "hinder" or "western," De 11:24; and' so' sometimes when the situation is not west, as in. Egypt [Ex 10:19], Arabia, [27, 13; 38:12]), the Red Sea, that of Chinnereth, the Dead Sea ("salt sea" "sea of the desert" "eastern sea"); also (like the Arab. Bahr) of great rivers, as the Nile (Jer 19:5; Na 3:8: Eze 32:2), the Euphrates (Isa 27:1; Jer 51:26, finally of the laver in the Temple (1 Kings 25:18 1Ch 18:8). Connected with Yam are the following:

Miphrâts (מַפרָוֹ), a bay ("breaches," Jg 5:17). Choph (חוŠ), a shore, or rather perhaps cove (comp. "Haifa"), as a lesser form of the preceding: ("haven," Ge 49:13; "side," De 1:7; "Coasts," Jos 9:1; "shore," Jg 5:1).

Machoz (מָחוֹז), a pot or "haven" (Ps 107:30).

Iyim (אַיַּם), islands, or the distant shores of the Mediterranean, which seemed such to the Hebrews (Isa 23:2,6; Eze 27:6; Jer 2:10, etc.).

Waves of the sea are represented (besides Gal, above) by Dakat (דָּכַי ), literally (Ps 93:3); Mishbar ( מַשׁבָּר), an overwhelming, (metaphor "wave," 2Sa 22:5; Ps 10:3; Ps 7; "billow" Jon 2:3); Bamah (בָּמָה), a light place, usually on land, but put (Job 9:8) for a ridge of the sea.

2. Tehom (תּהוֹם), the deep, a poetical word for ocean, corresponding to our main (Ge 7:2; Job 28:14; Job 33:6,30; Pr 8:27-28; Eze 26:19; Eze 31:15; Jon 2:6; Hab 3:10; fully "the great deep," Ge 5:2,11; Ps 36:7; Isa 51:10; Am 1:4); more rarely any other great mass of waters (as those covering the earth at Cioetiton, Ge 1:2; Ps 104:6 or the subterranean waters, Ge 49:25; De 33:13; also floods, Job 41; Job 32; Ps 42; Ps 7; Eze 31:4). In the plural (תּהֹמוֹת) it designates either the surges of the sea (Ex 14:5,8; Ps 33:7; Ps 77:16; Ps 28:9; Ps 106:9; Pr 3:20; Pr 8:24; Isa 13:13), or its alysses (Ps 107:26;

135:6; 148:7); occasionally the [depths of the earth (Ps 71:20), as supply of streams (De 8:7).

C. Accessories.

These are such features as to obviously affect the character of the country for purposes of occupation, but not, like the foregoing, of a permanently essential nature.

I. Internal (including natural cavities and grottos)

1. Mearah (מעָרָה), a cave ("hole," Isa 2:19; "den," 32:14; Jer 7:11), Alrab. Megharah, used as a proper name alone (Jos 13:4), but generally with the adjunct of locality of Adnullima (1Sa 22:1; 2Sa 23:13), Makkedah (Jos 10:16. etc.), Elngedi (1Sa 24:3), Obadiah (1Ki 18:4), Zoar (Ge 19:30), Machpelali, Horeb (1Ki 19:9).

2. Chor (חוֹר or חֹר) and Chur (חוּר), 'a hole in' the earth or rock (1Sa 14:11; Job 30:6), hence in the proper names Horite, Hanlran, Beth-horlon, Hooronaimili Hor-bagidgad.

3. Mechillah (מחַלָּה), a fissure or cavern (Isa 2:19).

4. Minharcah (מַנהָרָה), a burrow or hiding-place (Jg 6:2).

II. Superficial (including objects of natural growth, such as conspicuous and enduring vegetation).

1. Yáar (יִעִר), a forest or dense growth of trees, but occasionally a thicket only (Isa 21:13). In the historical books it is the usual name for the wooded tracts of Palestine, whether east or west of the Jordan; namely, the "forest of Hareth" '(1Sa 22:5), "the forest of Lebanon" (1Ki 7:2; 1Ki 10:17,22; 2Ch 9:16,20), "the wood of Ephrainim" (2Sa 18:6,8,17;: see also Jos 17:15,18; Jos 1 Samuel, 14:25, 26:. 2Ki 2; 2Ki 24). In the poetical parts of Scripture it often occurs, and is translated:" forest" (but "wood" in De 19:5; 1Ch 16:33; Ps 80:13; Ps 83:14; Ps 96:12; Ps 133:3; Ec 2:6; Song 2:3; Isa 7:2; Eze 24:2; Mic 7:14), It forms and element of the names Kijathjearim and Mount Jeaiim (Jos 15:10). In two passages (1Sa 14:27; Song 5:1) the word is applied to a honey-comb, which is the frequent product of forests.,

2. Choresh (הֹרֶשׁ), a wood, i.e. a thick growth of vegetation, whether in a single tree or in a copse: thus in Eze 31:3 it is used for the thick foliage ("shroud') of the cedar; elsewhere for a limited piece of wood ("forests," 2Ch 27:4; "bough," Isa 17:9; "wood of Ziph," 1Sa 23:15-16,18-19).

3. Pardes (פִּרדֵּס), a Persian word for a park or plantation of timber ("forest," Ne 2:8) or fruit-trees ("orchard," Ec 2:5; Song 4:13).

4. Ets (עֵוֹ), a tree in the widest sense, whether an individual one (Ge 1:29; Ge 2:16; De 12:2; Jos 10:16 [comp. Ac 10:38]; Isa 7:2, etc.) or "wood" as its product (Ex 7:19: Le 11:32; 1Sa 6:14, etc.); hence "timber" (1Ki 5; 1Ki 6, etc.), or a piece ("stick," Nu 15:32; 1Ki 17:10); sometimes as wrought ("taff" of a spear, 1Sa 7:7; "handle" of an axe, De 19:5).

The most important of generally used names of particular species of trees are the following, which (do not always seem to be used exactly or distinctively:

5. El in some of its various forms (all from איל אוּל, or אָלִל, to be strong), which, according to Gesenius, are used thus: Eyl may be either an oak or a terebinth; where Allon is opposed to Elah (as in Isa 6:13; Ho 4:13), the former is the oak, the latter the terebinth; on the other hand, all the Words appear to be interchangeable, f r the same tree which is Allon (Jos 19:33) is also in (Jg 4:11), while that which is Elon ("plain" 9) is likewise Elah (Ge 35:4) and Allah (Jos 24:26). The following are several terms and their application:

Eyl (אֵיל), in the sing., occurs only in the combination El-parian (Ge 14:6); in the masc. plur. Eylim (אֵילים or אֵלַים) of a collection of trees ("oaks," Isa 1:29 "trees," 61:3; Eze 31:4), and the proper name Elim (from the seventy palms there, Ex 15:27; Ex 16:1; Nu 33:9-10). The fem. plur. Eyloth' (אֵילוֹת) or Elyilth (אֵילִת), as a p proper name Eloth or Elath, probably refers to the palm- grove at Akabah (De 2:8; 1Ki 9:26; 2Ki 14:22; 2Ki 16:6; 2Ch 8:17; 2Ch 26:2).

Elah (אֵלָה), designated a notable tree, perhaps the terebinth ("oak," Ge 35:4; Isa 1:30; Eze 6:13; "elms," Ho 4:13; "teil-tree," Isa 6:3; with the art. Jg 6:1,19; 2Sa 18:9-10,14; 1Ki 12:14 "Elah," 1Sa 17:2,19; 1Sa 21:9).

Eylon ( אֵילוֹן), a similar notable tree, perhaps the oak ("plain" of Moreh, Ge 12:6; De 11:30; of Mamre, Ge 13:18;, 14:13; 18:1; of Zaanaim, Jg 4:11; of the pillar, 9:6; of Monenim, ver. 37; (Tabor 1Sa 10:3), and also stands as a proper name, Elon (Jos 19:43).

Ilon (אַילָן), a great tree (Da 4:10-11,14,20,23,26).

Alliah (אִלָּה), a marked tree ("oak," Joshua 24,:6), as. a prop. name Allah- milek ("the king's oak," 19:26).

Allon (אֵלּוֹן), the same ("oak," Ge 30:5; Isa 44:14; Am 2:9; in connection with Elah, Isaiah 6:13; Ho 4:13; of Bashall, Isa 2:13; Eze 27:6; Eze 11:3), and in the names Allon- bachuth (Ge 35:8) and Allon'zaanaim (Jg 4:11), or simply Allon (Jos 19:33).

6. Eshel (אֵשֶׁל), prob. the tamarisk ("tree," 1Sa 22:6; 1Sa 31:13; "grove," Ge 21:3).

7. Asheráh (אֲשֵׁרָה), tendered in the A. V. "grove" was an idolatrous image or pillar of Astarte (Jg 6:25-27), which, on account of its height, was planted in the ground, De 16:21; as at Samaria, 1Ki 16:32-33; 2Ki 10:20; 2Ki 17:16: at Bethel; 23:l5; at Ophrah, Jg 6:25; and even at Jerusalem, 2Ki 21:26; 2Ki 23:6; so in the plur. אֲשֵׁרַים, Baal's cippi, 1Ki 14:23, etc.); and hence the goddess herself (15:13, etc.), among other species of trees that seem to have given names to localities we mention Rimmon, the pomegranate; Liz, the almond; Tamar, the palm; Shittah (in the plu. Shittim), the acacia; Libneh (or Jibnah), the white poplar; and Rithem (Rithmah), the Spanish broon.

III. Human structures (including residences or defenses), whether collective or individual, public or private.

1. Ir (עַיר) or Ar (עָר), a city (as always rendered in the A.V., except "town," in De 3:5; 1Sa 16:4; 1Sa 23:7; 1Sa 27:5; Es 9:9; Jer 19:15; "court," in 2Ki 20:4), designates a fortified place (10:25; 17:9; 18:8; 1Ch 11:5, etc.), such as Jerusalem, Samaria, Jericho, etc., especially walled cities (Ge 23:10; Ge 8; Ge 34:20,24; Jos 8:29; Jos 11:4; Jg 16:2-3; Ru 3:11; 1Sa 23:7; 1Ki 4:13; 1Ki 17:10; 1Ch 11:9; 2Ch 8:5, etc..), in contrast with others (Le 25:29,31; 1Sa 6:18); but in one case (De 3:5) we have "unwalled cities." The former of these two cognate terms occurs as part of a proper name in Ir- hat-temaritm (De 34:3; Jg 1:16; Jg 3; Jg 13; 2Ch 28:15) Irham-melelach (Jos 15:62), Ir-shemesh (Jos 19:41), Ir-nahash (1Ch 4:12), Ir-ha-heres (Isa 19:18), Rechoboth-ir (Ge 10:11); the latter as Ar (Nu 21:15; De 2:9,18,29) or Ar-Moab (Nu 21:28; Nu 22:36; Isa 15:1).

2. Kiryah (קַריָה), a town, apparently the aucient (hence their mnaauitish Kirjath) and poetical (but proverbial, De 2:36; De 3:4; 1Ki 1:41,45; or Slamauitan, Ezr 4:10,12-13,15-16,19,21) word for a city (Nu 21:28; Ps 68:2: Isa 25:2), especially in the proper names Kirjath, Kijnathainm, Kirjatih-arba, Kiljath-huzoth, Kirj atti-jearim, Kirj tharim, Kirjath-baal, Kirjath-sepher, Kirjth-satniah, Kerioth, anid Kiartch.

3. Perazah (פּרָזָה, only with the plur. Perazoth, פּרָזוֹת, and the collective Perazin, פּרָזוֹן, or Perazi, פּרָזַי unwalled town or open village of considerable size and character (De 2:5; 1Sa 6:18; Es 9:19; Eze 38:11; Zec 1:4; but "villages" in Jg 5:7,11; Hab 3:14, means chiefs), and in the designation of the Perizzites, or inhabitants of open villages.

4. Kaphar (כָּפָר), a hamlet or small collection of houses ("village," 1Sa 6:18; 1Ch 27:25; Song 7:11), occurs chiefly in combination as a proper name: Chehar-ha-Amnmonai (Jos 18:24), Chephirah (Jos 9:17), Ciaphar-saba (1 Macc. 7:31), Caperniumin, and many Talmudic places (Caiphii), like the Arab. Kefr.

5. Chatser (חָצֵר), a village (literally an enclosure), originally a "court" or vestibule (as of the Tabernacle, Ex 27:9, etc.; or Temple, 1

Kings 6:36; 2Ki 21:26; of a palace, 20:4; Es 1:5; Jer 36:20; comp. 22; prison, Ne 3:25; Jer 22:2, etc.; or even of a common house, 2Sa 17:18), but topographically designating a permanent Bedawin encampment of tent- cloths spread over stone walls (Ge 25:16; Isa 42:11), such as the Hazerim dwelt in (De 2:23). It appears especially in the proper names Hazeroth, Hazar-addar, Hazareth; Hazar-addah, Hazar-hat- ticon, Haza-shulal, Hazar-isth (or susim), and (in a slightly changed form, Chatsor, חָצוֹר), Hazor.

6. Chavvâh (חִוָּה), in the plur. (Chavoth, חִוֹת ), a tent village of a more temporary or frail character than the preceding, was not being surrounded by any defense ("town," Nu 32:41; Jos 13:30; 1Ki 4:13; 2Ch 2:18; "Havoth," De 3:14; Jg 4:13). The following are rather separate erections or fortification than congregated abodes but they are of a fixed character in distinction from the simple and primitive Ohel (אֹהֶל '), or "tent." For all these the general name is Bayith (בִּיַת), a house (as almost always rendered in the A.V.), which is the common expression for a fixed habitation (very generally as built [from בָּנָה] of substantial materials, but occasionally a frailer structure, Ge 10-17; Ge 15: Jg 18:31; 1Sa 1:7; 2Ki 18:7; Job 8:14), and for a permanent dwelling (as appears from the form of the letter called from it ב which represents the three sides of a house, the other being left open for a doorway). The main element of the former and most enduring of these erections is denoted by the word Kr (קיר cognate with Kirch above), a wall (as of a house, whether exterior or interior, Le 14:37; 1Sa 10:25; 1Ki 6:5; Eze 23:14, etc.; hence the side of an altar, Le 1:5; Le 5:9; a fence or enclosure, Nu 22:25; and the will of a town, only 35:4; as the distinctive term for this last is Chomah, הוֹמָה; see Jos 2:15, where both occur together), which, itself is also used as a proper name, Kir (both in Moab, Ps 15:1; comp. 2Ki 3; 2Ki 25; Isa 16:7,11; Jer 48:31,36; and in Assyria, 2Ki 16:9; Isa 22:6; Am 1:5; Am 9:7).

7. Heykal (הֵיכָל), a palace or, large edifice for royalty (Pr 30:28; Isa 39:7; Da 1:4, etc.), especially the temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem (2Ki 24:13; 2Ch 3:17;

Jer 50:28; Hag 2:15; Zec 6:14-15; elsewhere distinguished by the epithet "holy," or denoted by "Lord's house"); and so, of the tabernacle previously (1Sa 1:9; 1Sa 3:3; Ps 5:8; poetically for the heavens, 11:4, etc.), specifically for the holy place (1Ki 6:5, etc.).

8. Binrâh (בַּירָה), a citadel (a word of wide etymological affinities, all denoting strength of defense SEE BARIS ), a term of later Hebrew (for the acropolis adjoining the Temple, Ne 7:2; or the Temple itself, 1Ch 29:19) or Chaldaic use (the Persian "palace," Ezr 6:2; Ne 1:7; Es 1:2; Es 2; Es 3; Es 3:15.; 8:14; 9:6, etc.; Da 8:2), and in the plur. ("castles," 2Ch 17:12; 2Ch 27:4).

9. Armon (אִרַמוֹן, ounce (Am 4:3) Harmony (הִרמוֹן), the keep or harem of a "palace," a poetical term (1Ki 16:18; 2Ki 15; 2Ki 25; 2Ch 36:19; Ps 48:3,13; Isa 25:2; Jer 17:21; Am 1:4; Am 2:2, etc.).

10. Tirah (טַירָה), a Bedawin castle (Ge 25:16; Nu 31:10; "palace," Eze 25:4).

11. Mibtsâr (מַבצָר ), a fortress, commonly used with Irs ("fenced city," Nu 32:17,36; Jos 10:20; Jos 19:35; 1Sa 6:18; 2Ki 3:19; 2Ki 10:2; 2Ki 17:9; 2Ki 18:8; 2Ch 17:19); such as Tyre (Jos 19:29; 2Sa 24:7), frequent in the poetical books ("fortress," or "defensed city," Ps 29:11; Isa 17:3; Jer 1:8; Na 3:12, etc.), as well as in the historical ("stronghold," Nu 13:19; 2Ki 8:12). Cognate is, Bitsaron ("Stronghold," Zec 9:12).

12. Matsor (מָצוֹר) or Metsurah (מצוּרָה ), a fort (A.V. "fort," "fenced," "stronghold," etc.), either alone (2Ch 11:10), or ,within (2Ch 8:5; 2Ch 11:5; 2Ch 10; 2Ch 11; 2Ch 23; 2Ch 13:4; 2Ch 14:6), to denote the fortified towns of Judah and Benjamin, once (Zec 9:3) Tyre and (especially in the poetical books) for offensive works of a siege ("siege" "bulwarks," or "fort," De 20:19-20; De 28:5,3; Isa 19; Na 2:4 etc.) As a proper name (2Ki 19:24; Ps 27:14; Ps 19:6)] Mazor seems to denote Egypt (Miz-raim).

The remaining terms are rather designations of temporary and natural protection than artificial and settled abodes.

13. Maoz (מָעוֹז ), a stronghold, such as a "rock" (Jg 6:26), elsewhere poetically as an attributive for military strength ("fort," "fortress," "stronghold," "strength," Ps 27:1; such as Tyre, Isa 23:4,11,14; or Egypt, 30:2,3; Zechariah 30:15).

14. Maoi (מָעוֹן) or Meonuah (מעוֹנָה), a secure dwelling place, as of Jehovah (at Shiloh, 1Sa 2:29,32; at Jerusalem, Ps 26:5; Ps 68:5; Ps 76:2); and so a den (of a lion, Job 38:40; Ps 104:22; Song 4:8; Na 2:11-12; Am 3; Am 4; or other beast, Job 37:5; Jer 9:11; Jer 10:22; Jer 49:33; Jer 51:37).

15. Metsad (מצָד) or Metsudah (מצוּדָה), a lair (from the idea of hunting), prop. of wild beasts and hence of birds (Job 39:28; Jer 48:41; Eze 17:20); frequent in the poetical books ("munition," "fortress," "defense") connection with Sela and Tsûr; and topographically applied to the hill forts of Judean ("hold," 1Sa 22:4-5; 1Sa 24:22; 2Sa 23:14; 1Ch 11:16; 1Ch 12; 1Ch 8; 1Ch 16; "fort," Eze 33:27; "stronghold," Jg 6:2; 1Sa 23:14,19,29), especially Zion ("hold," 2Sa 5:17; 1Ch 11:16: "fort," 2Sa 5:9; "castle" 1Ch 11:5,7; "stronghold," 2Sa 5:7).

16. Sok, ( סֹך) or Sukkoh (סֻכָּה), a booth or 'canopy of leafy boughs as a habitation for man or beast' ("booth," Le 22:33,33; Ne 8:14-17; Job 31:20; Jon 4:5; "pavilion," Ps 31:20; "cottage," Isa 50:8; "tabernacle," 4:6), such as Jacob constructed (Ge 21:17), and the Israelites occupied during the Festival of "Tabernacles" (Le 23:43, in commemoration of their first stopping-place out of Egypt, "Succoth" Ex 13:20), and hence applied to the retreat of the lion ("den," Ps 10:9; "covert," Job 38:40; Jer 25:38), and to Jerusalem, Jehovah's retreat (Ps 76:2), to military tents ("tent," 2Sa 11:11; "pavilion," 1Ki 20:12,16), and to the clouds ("tabernacle," Job 36:29; "pavilion," 2Sa 22:12; Ps 18:11).

17. Mistat (מַסתָּר ), a covert or hiding-place (A.V. "secret" place, etc.), once (Isa 4:6, "covert") Mistor (מסתּוֹר), as a shelter from the elements (Isa 4:6), or concealment (Jer 13:17; Jer 23:24; Jer 19:10), and especially the lurking-place of lions (Ps 17:12;

La 3:10) and of violent men (Ps 10:5,9; Ps 64:4; Heb 3:14).

In connection with this whole subject, we may add that we have had frequent illustrations, in the aptness with which geographical names are given in the Bible, of that nice sense of locality which a simple people, especially one of nomadic instincts, invariably exhibits. Indeed, the whole Hebrew language is an exemplification, particularly in the varied import of the nearly synonymous roots which unfortunately the lexicons generally fail accurately to distinguish, of the close observance of all physical traits. In like manner the descriptions of locality, which, to a modern Occidental, often seem vague and casual, are generally found, when carefully scanned, to be remarkably precise and graphic, a fact, which later travelers are beginning to appreciate. Instances of this abound in the dooms-day book of Joshua, and many of them we lave pointed out under the art. TRIBE SEE TRIBE . A question of much practical importance has arisen respecting the lists of towns in the various tribes given in that book, whether they are arranged in geographical order. The presumption, growing out of the minute character of the delineation, evidently copied from some memorandum of survey, is in favor of such accuracy, and this is confirmed by the fact now well recognized by commentators, that the list of nations mentioned in Ac 2:9-11 proceeds regularly from the East to the West. Lieut. Conder, in his papers in the Quar. Reports of the "Pal. Explor. Fund," bases many of his proposed identifications of places on this theory, which he elaborately defends. We are inclined, however, to doubt its trustworthiness for that purpose, as the Oriental mind is not so uniformly methodical as this view implies; and we have found very frequent reason to depart from such a rule in the indications of identification that we have pointed out under the various places named.

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