Tischendorf, Lobegott Friedrich Constantin
Tischendorf, Lobegott Friedrich Constantin the most prominent scholar in the department of New-Test. palaeography, was born Jan. 18,1815, at Lengenfeld, in Saxony. Having been prepared at the gymnasium at Plauen for the university, he entered, at Easter, 1834, aged nineteen, the halls of Leipsic. Here Gottfried Hermann and Georg Benedict Winer were among his teachers. At the close of 1836 he received a prize medal for an essay on Doctrina Pauli Apostoli de Vi Mortis Chisti Satisfactoria, which he published at Leipsic in 1837. A second prize was awarded to him in the year 1838 on Disputatio de Christo, Pane Vite, sive de Loco Ecang. Joann. c. 6:vv. 51-59, Conae Sacae Potissimuml Ratione habita (ibid. 1839). At the same time, he took his degree of doctor of philosophy. In 1840 he published Dissertatio Citica et Exegetica de Ev. Matthew. c. 19:16 sq., and was promoted as licentiate of theology; in the same year he qualified as privat-docent of theology by publishing De Recensionibus quas dicunt Novi Testamenti Ratione Ptissimum habita Scholzii (ibid.; reprinted in the Prolegomena to the Greek Testament published in 1841). In this essay, as Kabhnis rightly remarked, he gave to the world the program of his theological future. In October, 1839, he began to prepare a critical hand-edition of the Greek New Test., which was published in 1841 under the title Novumn Testanetumi Greece: Textum ad
Fidem Antiquorunm Testium Recens. Brevenm Appaatunz Crit. una cuan Variis Lectionib.us Elzev., Knappii. Scholzii, Lachmanni subjunzit, etc. (ibid.). In 1840 Tischendorf went to Paris. The library threre contained a celebrated palimpsest. A manuscript of the Bible from early in the 5th century had been cleaned off in the 12th century, and used for writings of Ephraem Syrus. What no mortal had been able to do before. Tischendorf did, and with the aid of chemical reagents he completely restored the original text. The University of Breslau acknowledged his merit by bestowing on him the title of doctor of theology. Meanwhile he also collated the Paris manuscripts of Philo for Prof. Grossmann at Leipsic, and the only remaining manuscript of the 60th book of the Basilicas for Dr. Heimbach at Jena. F. Didot, the publisher, bargained with Tischendorf for a reissue of his Leipsic edition, which appeared at Paris in 1842; and then abbé Jager, a professor in the Sorbonne, begged him to edit a Greek text that should conform as nearly as possible to the Vulgate, which was also published in the same year. In 1841 and 1842 he visited the libraries in Holland, London, Cambridge, and Oxford. Early in 1843 he left Paris for Rome, on the way working four weeks on the Codex E of the gospels at Basle. In Italy he staved more than a year, and used his time in the best possible manner. When his Italian researches were completed, he prepared to start for his first Eastern journey in 1844, which he repeated again in 1853 and 1859. On his third journey, in 1859, he discovered the famous Codex Sinaiticus. After his return he was made ordinary professor of the Leipsic University, and a special chair of sacred paleography was made for him. From this time on, he spent the remainder of his life in publishing the results of his amassed materials, collected on his different journeys, of which we shall speak further on. On May 5,1873, he was seized with apoplexy; he recovered somewhat from the attack, but in November, 1874, the malady grew worse, and on Dec. 7, 1874, he passed away. His funeral took place on the 10tl, at which Drs. Ahifeld, Kahnis, Luthardt, and others made addresses.
Probably no theologian ever received so varied and so many signs of distinction, academic and civil. He was made a Russian noble, a Saxon privy-councilor, knight of any orders, doctor of all academic degrees, aid 'member of an indefinite number of societies. When, in 1855, king Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (brother of the present emperor of Germany) said to him, "You are predestined to discoveries; wherever they are possible, there you are to make them," he only proved himself a true prophet; and only a man of such uncommon quickness, keenness, energy, and ambition as Tischendorf could achieve what he brought about. "What Wettstein and Bengel began," said his colleague Luthardt, "what Hug and Lachmann carried on he brought nearly to completion in a way which leaves the labors of his predecessors far behind." And "whoever," said Kahnis, "in the future outstrips him will do it only on the road which Tischendorf marked out; whoever overcomes him will do so only by the weapons which he himself has furnished." Complaint has been made of his changes of opinion, a reading not infrequently being confidently adopted in one issue and as confidently rejected in the next, or vice versa. But how could it be otherwise, when the evidences in the case were constantly increasing in number and clearness? As the illustrious scholar said in his last will," I have sought no other aim than truth; to her I have always unconditionally bowed the knee." No pride of opinion, no zeal for consistency, was allowed to stand in the way. He was, doubtless, unconsciously biased in favor of the authorities he himself had brought to light; but his purpose was to set forth the exact text of the original without regard to dogmatic, or personal considerations.
As to his publications, they are very numerous. We must here pass over his essays, reviews, etc., and shall confine ourselves to his most important works. Besides those already mentioned, they are, in chronological order, Codex Ephiracemi Syri Rescriptus (Lips. 1843-45, 2 vols.): Monumenta Sacra Inedita sive Reliquice Antiquissimae Textus Novi Testam. Graeci, etc. (ibid. 1846): —De Israelitarumper Mare Rubrunm Transitu (ibid. 1847): —Evangelium Palatinum Ineditum sive Reliquime Textus Evangeliorum Latini ante Hieron. versi ex Cod. Palatino Purpureo 4 vel. v p. Chr. Saeculi (ibid. 1847): —Novum Test. Grac. (ibid. 1850; 2nd ed. 1862, and often): — Vetus Test. Grceceajuxta LXX Intepretes: Textum Vat. Romanum emendatius edidit, etc. (ibid. 1850, 2 vols.; 2nd ed. 1856; 3rd ed. 1860; 4th ed. 1869; 6th ed. 1880): —Codex Amziainus sive N.T. Latine Interprete Hiesronymo (ibid. 1.850; 2nd ed. 1954): —De Evangeliorum Aipocryphorum Originie et Usa, etc. (Hagae, 1851): —Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha (Lips. 1851): —Synopsis Evangelica (ibid. 1851; 2nd ed. 1854; ed. 2 emend. 1864; ed. 3 emend. 1871; transl. into Tamul by H. Schanz, Tranquebar, 1868): —Codex Claromontanus sire Epistulae Pauli Omnnes Gr. et Lat. ex Cod. Paris. Celeberaimo, etc. (ibid. 1852): —Evangelia Apocrypha (ibid. 1853): —N.T. Tsriglottum, Gr. Lat. Germanice, etc. (ibid. 1854; 2nd ed. 1865): —N.T. Greece: Editio Academica (ibid. 1855, and often): —Monumnenta Sacra Inedita : Nova Collectio (1855-70, 7 vols.): —Pilati circa Christum Judicio quid Lucis Afeiraturu ex Actis Pilati (ibid. 1855): —Anecdota Sacra et Profana exr Oriente et Occidente Allata, etc. (ibid. 1855; 2nd ed. 1861): —Hermae Pastor Graeca. (ibid. 1856): —N.T. Gr. et Lat., ex Triglottis (ibid. 1858): —N.T. Graec.: Editio Septima Critica Major (ibid..1859), and Editio Septina Critica Minor (ibid.): —Notitia Etditionis Codicis Bibliorum Sinaitici Auspiclis Imperatoris. Alexandri II Susceptae (ibid. 1860): —Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petopolitanus, etc. (Petropoli, 1862, 4 vols. fol.): — N.T. Sinaiticum sire N.T. cum Epistula Barnabae et Fragmentis Pastoris (Lips. 1863): — N.T. Greece et Germaniae, ex Triglottis (ibid. 1864): — N.T. Latine: Textum Hieronynmi Notata Clementina Lectione, etc. (ibid. 1864) -N.T. Gr., ex Sinaitico Codiae Omniumn Antiquissinzo Vaticana itengue Elzeviriaena Lectione. Notata (ibid. 1865): —Wann curden unsere Evangelien verfasst? (ibid. 1865, and often). Of this little book there are three French, English, and American translations, two Swedish, and one each of Danish, Dutch. Italian, Russian, and Turkish: —Apocalypses Apocryphce Mosis, Esdrce, Pauli, Johannis, etc. (ibid. 1866): —N.T. Vaticanum, post Angli Mai aliorumque Impefectos Labores ex ipso Codice edidit (ibid. 1867): —Appendix Codicum Celeberrimorum Sinaitici Vaticani Alexandrini (ibid. 1867): —Philonea Inedita Altera, etc. (ibid. 1868): —N.T. Gr., ad Antiquiss. Testes denuo Rec. Apparatum Criticumn Owreni Studio Perfectum (ibid. 1869-72, 2 vols.); the third vol., containing Prolegomena, is now in preparation by Dr. Oscar Gebhardt; The New Testament: the Authorized English Version, with Introductions and Various Readings from the three most Celebrated Manuscripts of the Original Greek Text (ibid. 1869); 45,000 copies were sold in the first year: Appendix Novi Testam. Vaticani, etc. (ibid. 1869): — Conlatio Critic Cod. Sin. cum Textu Elzeviriano Vatic. etc. (ibid. 1869): —Responsa ad Calumnias Romanus (ibid. 1870): —Die Sinaibibel, etc. (ibid. 1871): — N.T. Greece, ad Antiquissimos Testes deunuo recensuit: Editio Critica Minor ed. 8 Majore Desumpta (1872), vol. 1: Clementis Romnaai Epistulce (ibid. 1873) . — Biblia Sacra Latina Veteris Testam. Hieroynmo Interpretei etc. Editionem instituit suasore Chr. Car. Jos. de Bunsen, Th. Heyse, ad finem perduxit C. de T. (ibid. 1873) --N.T. Gr., ad Editionem suam 8 Crit. Majorem conformavit, Lectionibusque Sinaiticis et Vaticanis item Elzevirianis instruxit (ibid. 1873): —Liber Psalmorsunz Hebr. atque Let. ab Hieronymo e Hebraeo Conversus. Consociata Opera edd. C. de T., S. Bar, Fr. Delitzsch (ibid. 1874). From the rich material left behind, we may expect still other works. Besides these works, we must mention his Reise in den Orient (Leips. 1846, 2 vols.; Engl. transl. by W. L. Shuckard, Travels in the East [Lond. 1847]): —Aus dem heiligen Lande (ibid. 1862; transl. into French and Swedish): —Recheonschetft iber meine handschrülichen Studien Studien afeine wissenschatlichen Reise, published in the Jahrbiicher der. Literatur; and papers in the Anzeige- Blatt. The Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen und ausldndischen Literatur, the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung, the Serapeurm, and Studien und Kritiken also contain a vast amount of information from his pen, as maybe seen from the list of Tischendorf's writings furnished by Mr. Gregory for the Bibliotheca Sacra, 1876, p. 183 sq.
See Volbeding, Constantin Tischezndorf in seiner 25 jahrigen wissenschatlichen Wirksamkeit: Literar. histor. Skizze (Leips. 1862); Beilage zum allgeneinen evangelisch-lutherischen Kirchenzeitung, 1874, No. 50 (ibid.); Asm Sorge und Grabe des Dr. Theol. Constantint Tischendorf: süf Reden und Ansprachen, nebst einem Rückibck auf das Leben und einem Verzeichniss sämmtlicher Duckwerke des Verstorbenen (ibid. 1875); Abbot, The late Professor Tischendorf (reprinted from the Unitarican Review and Religious Magazine for March, 1875); Gregory, Tischendorf,; in Biblioth. Sacra (Audoer 1876), p. 153 sq.; Theologisches Universal-Lex, s.v.; Literarischer Handwieiser Judas katholische Deutschland, 1875, p. 417 sq.; Zuchold, Biblioth. Theolog. 2, 1341 sq. (B. P.)