Timo'theüs (Τιμόθεος, honoring God, a frequent name in Greek and Roman history; see Athen. 10:419; 14:626; Livy, 42:67; Pliny, 7:57; 34:19, 34; 36:4, 9), the name of three Jews'(such, at least, by association).

1. A "captain of the Ammonites" (1 Macc. 5, 6), who was defeated on several occasions by Judas Maccabaeus (ver. 6,11, 34-44). B.C. 164. He was probably a Greek adventurer (comp. Josephus, Ant. 12:8, 1) who had gained the leadership of the tribe. Thus Josephus (ibid. 13:8, 1, quoted by Grimm, On 1 Macc. 5, 6) mentions one "Zeno, surnamed Cotylas, who was despot of Rabbah" in the time of Johannes Hyrcanus.

2. In 2 Macc. a leader named Timotheus is mentioned as having taken part in the invasion of Nicanor (8, 30; 9:3). B.C. 166. At a later time he made great preparations for a second attack on Judas, but was driven to a stronghold, Gazara, which was stormed by Judas, and there Timotheus was taken-and slain (10, 24-37). It has been supposed that the events recorded in this latter narrative are identical with those in 1 Macc. 5, 6-8, an idea rendered more plausible by the similarity of the names Jazer and Gazara (in Lat. Gazer, Jazare, Gazara). But the name Timotheus was very common, and it is evident that Timotheus the Ammonitish leader was not slain at Jazer (1 Macc. 5, 34); and Jazer was on the east side of Jordan, while Gazara was almost certainly the same as Gezer. SEE GAZARA; SEE JAAZER. It may be urged further, in support of the substantial accuracy of 2 Macc., that the second campaign of Judas against the first-named Timotheus (1 Macc. 5, 27-44) is given in 2 Macc. 12:2-24after the account of the capture of Gazara and the death of the second-named Timotheus there. Wernsdorf assumes that all the differences in the narratives are blunders in 2 Macc. (De Fide Libr. Macc. § 70), and in this he is followed by Grimm (On 2 Macc. 10,'24, 32). But, if any reliance is to be placed on 2 Macc., the differences of place and circumstances are rightly taken by Patricius to mark different events (De Libr. Macc § 32, p. 259).

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

3. The Greek form of the name of TIMOTHY SEE TIMOTHY (q.v.), the special follower of Paul (Ac 16:1; Ac 17; Ac 14, etc.). He is called by this name in the A. V. in every case except 2Co 1:1; Philenm, 1; Heb 13:23, and the epistles addressed to him (1Ti 1:2,18; 1Ti 6:20; 2Ti 1:2).

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