Tiben (Also Written Twin or Dwin), Councils of

Tiben (also Written Twin or Dwin), Councils OF

(Concilium Thevinense). Tiben (perhaps the same as Thevis or Divo, supposed by some to be the present Erivan), under Chosroes II, became the capital of Armenia, and the religious centre of the realm. Several councils were held there.

I. The first council, held in 452, declared Tiben the seat of the catholicos.

II. The second council was summoned by the catholicos, Nerses II, in 527, and passed thirty-eight canons, the last of which ordered a fast of one week-every month.

III. The third council was held in 551, under Moses II, with a view of regulating the Easter festival. The 11th day of July, 553; was to begin the Armenian sera, and was declared the New Year's day of the first year.

IV. The fourth council, held in 596, was important for bringing about a separation between the Armenians and Georgians. Up to the year 580 the Georgians elected their own catholicos, who was always ordained by the Armenian. About that time, when the Georgian catholicos had died, the Georgians asked Moses II to elect one for them. He appointed Cyrion, a very learned theologian, who decreed the acceptance of the acts of the Council of Chalcedon. Moses' successor, Abraham I, who differed with Cyrion concerning the Council of Chalcedon, urged the Georgian catholicos to reject the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon, but in vain. At the fourth Council of Tiben, Cyrion and his followers were condemned. This act was the occasion of much controversy among the Armenians.

V. The fifth council, held under Nerses III, in 645, condemned all heretics, and especially the Council of Chalcedon and its supporters.

VI. The sixth council was convened by Nerses III, in 648, which again condemned the Council of Chalcedon.

VII. In 719 the seventh council was held, under John IV; thirty-two canons were passed, which provided, among other things, that the altar and baptismal font should be made of stone, unleavened bread and unmixed wine should be used in the communion, the clause "Thou that wast crucified for us," in the Trisagion, should be sung three times, morning and evening, as well as at the mass, etc. The last canon strictly forbade the intercourse with the Paulicians.

VIII. The last or eighth council was held in 726, and condemned Julian Halicarnassensis, his followers, and his writings. Tiben is also celebrated for the martyrdom which some faithful Christians suffered there. See Plitt- Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v. (B.P.)

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