Thionville, Councils of

Thionville, Councils of (Concilia apud Theodonis-villam). Thionville, now known as Diedenhofen, is a town of Germany; in Lorraine, situated on the Moselle; and has belonged in succession to the counts of Luxemburg, to Burgundy, Austria, Spain, and France. It was ceded by the peace of May 10, 1871, to Germany. This town has been the seat of three councils.

I. Held in 822; thirty-two bishops being present, among whom were Aistuphus of Mayence and Ebbo of Rheims. Four or five articles were drawn up in defense of ecclesiastical persons and property. See Mansi, Concil. 7:1519.

II. Held in February, 835; more than forty bishops being present. All the proceedings against Louis le Debonnaire were declared to be null and void, and he was conducted to the cathedral church of Metz, and solemnly restored to his rights and privileges. This done, the prelates returned to Thionville, where Agobard of Lyons and Bernard of Vienne, who were absent, were solemnly deposed, together with Ebbo of Rheims, who, being present, himself consented to the sentence, and renounced the episcopate. See Mansi, 7:1695.

III. Held in October, 844, in a place called at present "Just" (Judicium); Drogon, bishop of Metz, presided. In this council Lothaire, Louis, and Charles promised to observe brotherly concord among themselves. Six articles were drawn up, which the princes promised to observe. They are exhorted, among other things, to live in unity and brotherly love; to fill without delay the sees which, owing to their quarrels, had remained vacant; to hinder the laity from appropriating to themselves the property of the Church, etc.

Third Orders is the name given by Roman Catholics to persons who desire to lead a religious life in their homes, and yet have connection with some regular order. The first mention of such persons is in 1199, in connection with the Augustines, though this order claims that it was established much earlier. There are third orders of nearly all the principal orders, as of Dominicans, Minims, Carmelites, Trinitarians, etc. Their members take the vow of allegiance to the rules of the order, with the exception of that of perpetual chastity; have directors and superiors, yet live in the world, marry, and carry on business. Their only distinguishing mark is a scapulary and leather girdle, but these are often worn under their ordinary dress.

Thirds, a peculiar arrangement, under Mary queen of Scots, for the support of the Protestant clergy. "The barons," says Knox, "perceiving that the Book of Discipline was refused, presented to the nobility certain articles, requiring idolatry to be suppressed, the Kirk to be planted with true ministers, and some certain provision to be made for them, according to equity and conscience… And so devised they that the kirkmen" (the former clergy) "should have no intromission with the two parts of their benefices" (that is, with two thirds), "and that the third part should be lifted up by such men as thereto should be appointed, for such apsesas in the acts are more fully expressed." The result was that two thirds of the benefices were retained by the popish clergy, and the remaining third handed to a collector for the queen. The ministers and superintendents were to have a sum modified for their support, anti the surplus was to become a part of the revenue of the crown. Thus very little was left for the ministers of the Kirk.

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