Theologal The third Lateran Council, held in 1179, ordered that teachers should be appointed to the various churches and-monasteries who should instruct the clergy, and be rewarded for their labors with suitable benefices. The fourth Lateran Council repeated this ordinance, and provided in Canon 10 that only capable men should be appointed in cathedrals and convent churches, who should, in their capacity of masters, assist the bishops in preaching, hearing confessions, imposing ecclesiastical penalties, and otherwise promoting the welfare of Christians. Canon 11 provided, in addition, that, where the means of a church permitted, a good teacher of grammar should be appointed; while metropolitan churches should appoint a theologian, whose business it should be to instruct the clergy and other religionists in the knowledge of Holy Scripture and all other matters which are important to the care of soils. This teacher should be allowed the income from a prebend so long as he continued to perform the functions of his office, but should not rank as a canon; and it was to such instructors that the name of theologal was given. The Council of Basle ordered the more general employment of theologals. See Fortgesete Samml. v. alten u. neuen theol. Sachen ( Leips. 1721), p. 968; Mansi, Sacr. Cone. Nova et Ampliss. Collectio (Venet 1778), 22:998 sq. —Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v.