Theocracy (θεοκρατία, rule of God), a form of government such as prevailed among the ancient Jews, in which Jehovah, the God of the universe, was directly recognized as their supreme civil ruler, and his laws were taken as the statute-book of the kingdom. This principle is repeatedly laid down in the Mosaic code, and was continually acted upon thereafter. SEE KING. Moses was but the appointee and agent of Jehovah in giving the law and in delivering the people from Egypt; and throughout the Exode the constant presence of God in the pillar and the cloud, as well as upon the mercy seat, was on every occasion looked to for guidance and control. So, likewise, Joshua and the Judges were special "legates of the skies" to perform their dictatorial factions. Even under the monarchy, God reserved the chief direction of affairs for himself. The kings were each specifically anointed in his name, and prophets were from time to time commissioned to inform them of his will, who did not hesitate to rebuke and even veto their actions if contrary to the divine will. The whole later history of the chosen people is but a rehearsal of this conflict and intercourse between the Great Head of the kingdom and the refractory functionaries. Under the New Economy, this idea passed over, in its spiritual import, to the Messiah as the heir of David's perpetual dynasty, and thus Christ becomes the ruler of his Church and the hearts of its members. See Spencer, De Theocratia Judaica (Tüb. 1732); Witsius, De Theocratia Israel. (Lugd. 1695); Blechschmidt, De Theocratiac Populo Sancto Instituta; Deyling, De Israeli Jehova Domino; Goodwin, De Theocratia Israelitarum (Ultraj. 1690); Hulse, De Jehova Deo Rege ac Duce Militani in Prisco Israele; Dannhauer, Politica Biblica; Conring, De Politia Iebsrceorum (Helmst. 1648); Michaelis, De Antiquitatibus AEconomnic Patriarchalis; Schickard, Jus Regium Hebraeorum, culm animadversionibus et notis Carpzovii (Lips. 1674, 1701); Abarbanel, De Statu et Jure Regio, etc., in Ugolino, Thesaurus, vol. 24. SEE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN.