Thecla and Paul
Thecla And Paul,
Acts of. The name Thecla, which nowhere occurs in Scripture, occupies an important position in the Apocryphal writings of the New Test., because it is closely connected with that of the apostle Paul. Under the title Acta Pauli et Thecle (first edited by Grabe, in his Spicilegium SS. PP. [Oxon. 1698; 2nd ed. 1700]; then by Jones, A New and Full Method of Settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament [Lend. 1726]; and finally by Tischendorf, in his Acta Apostt. Apocrypha [Lips. 1851], and Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles [Syriac and English, Lond. 1871, 2 vols.]), we have an Apocryphal work extant which has furnished rich material for the so-called "Thecla Legend."
I. The Contents of it are as follows: "When Paul had fled from Antioch and went up to Iconiumn, he was accompanied by Jeiumas and Hernmouenes two men full of hypocrisy, who pretended unto Paul as though they loved him, but they loved him not. On the way Paul made the oracles of the Lord sweet unto them, teaching them the great things of Christ. Onesiphorus, having heard that Paul was coming to Iconium, went out to meet him, that he might bring him into his house. Now he had not seen Paul in the flesh, but Titus had told of him. He therefore went along the road to Lystra. looking for Paul among them that passed by. And when he saw Paul, he beheld a man small in stature, bald-headed, of a good complexion, with eyebrows meeting, and a countenance full of grace. For sometimes he appeared like a man, and sometimes he had, as it were, the face of an angel. And when Paul saw Oniesiphorns, he smiled upon him. But Oniesiphorus said, 'Hail, servant of the blessed God.' And Paul answered, 'Grace be with thee, and with thy house.' But Demas and Hermogenes were full of wrath and hypocrisy.
"When Paul had come into the house of Ouesiphorus, there was great joy, and they bowed their knees and brake bread. And Paul preached unto them the word, saying, "'Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are they that bear rule over themselves, for God shall speak with them.
"'Blessed are they that have kept chaste their flesh, for they shall become the temple of God.
"'Blessed are they that have kept themselves apart from this world, for they shall be called righteous.
"'Blessed are they that have wives as though they had none, for they shall have God as their portion.
"'Blessed are they which retain the fear of God, for they shall become as the angels of God.
"'Blessed are they that have kept the baptism, for they shall have rest with the Father and the Son.
"'Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy, and shall not behold the bitter day of judgment.
"'Blessed are the bodies of the virgins, for they shall be well pleasing unto God, and they shall not lose the reward of their chastity.
"'Blessed are they that tremble at the words of God, for they shall receive consolation.
"'Blessed are they that are partakers of the wisdom of Jesus Christ, for they shall be called the sons of the Most High God.
"Blessed are they who, for the love of Christ, are departed from conformity to this world, for they shall judge the angels, and shall be blessed at the right hand of the Father, and they shall have rest for ever and ever.'
"While Paul was thus speaking, there was a certain virgin, called Thecla, the daughter of Theacleis, betrothed to a man whose name was Thamuyris; and she sat at a window which was close by, listening attentively to Paul's discourse concerning virginity and prayer; and she gave earliest heed to the 'things which were spoken, rejoicing with all her heart. And when she saw many women going in to hear Paul, she, also, had an eager desire that she might be deemed worthy to stand in his presence and hear the word of Christ.
"For three days and three night4thecla listened to the apostle, till her mother sent for Thamyris to see whether he could induce her to come home. His endeavors were in vain, for Thecla only listened to the things, which were spoken by Paul. Then Thamyris started up, and went forth into the street of the city, watching those that went in and came out of the house of Onesiphorus. And he saw two men striving bitterly one with the other, and he said, 'Tell me, I pray you, who is this that leadeth astray the souls of young men, and deceiveth virgins, so that they do not marry, but remain as they are? I promise to give you money, for I am one of the chief men of this city.' The men, who were Demas and Hermogenes, said unto him, 'Who indeed he is we know nor, but this we know, that he deprives young men of wives, and maidens of husbands, saying unto them that in nmo other way can they have a resurrection than by not polluting the flesh, and by keeping it chaste.' At the supper which Thamyris gave them in his house, they advised him to bring the apostle before the governor, charging him with persuading the multitudes to embrace this new doctrine of the Christians. The governor, they said, will destroy him, and thou wilt have Thecla to thy wife; and we will teach thee that the resurrection which this man speaks of has taken place already, for we rose again in our children, and we rose again when we came to the knowledge of the true God.
"The next morning Paul was brought before the governor by Thamiyris, who acted in accordance with the words of his advisers. The governor said to Paul, 'Who art thou, and what dost thou teach? for they bring no small accusation against thee.' But Paul, lifting up his voice, said, 'Forasmuch as I am this day examined concerning what I teach, listen, O governor! The living God, the God of retributions, he who is a jealous God, a God who is in need of nothing (ἀπροσδεής), a God who taketh thought for the salvation of men, hath sent me to reclaim them from uncleanness and corruption, from all pleasure, and from death, so that they may not sin. Wherefore, also, God sent his own Son, whom I preach unto you, teaching men that they should rest their hope on him, who alone hath had compassion upon a world that was led astray, that men may no longer be under condemnation, but that they may have faith, and the fear of God, and the knowledge of holiness, and the love of the truth. If I therefore teach that which has been revealed to me by God, wherein do I go astray?' When the governor had heard this, he ordered Paul to be bound and he put in ward, saying, 'When I shall be at leisure, I will hear him more attentively.'
"Thecla, having bribed the keeper of the door, was admitted by night to the imprisoned apostle, and sitting at his feet, heard the wonderful works of God. When she was found there, she was brought before the governor together with Paul; the latter was scourged and cast out of the city, but Thecla was ordered to be burned. Soon a pile was erected, and after she had made the sign of the cross she went up thereon, and the wood was kindled. When the fire was blazing, a heavy rain and hail came down from heaven, and thus Thecla was saved.
"Now Paul was fasting with Onesiphorois and his wife and children, in a new tomb, on the way from Iconium to Japhoue. After several days, when the children were hungered, Paul took off his cloak and gave it to one of the children, saying, 'Go, my child, and buy bread.' On the way the boy met Thecla, who was looking for Paul. When she was brought to him, he thanked God for her safe deliverance. Thecla said to Paul, 'I will cut my hair, and will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.' But he answered, 'This is a shameless age, and thou art very fair. I fear lest another temptation came upon thee worse than the first, and that thou withstand it not.' Thecla said, Only make me a partaker of the seal that is in Christ, and temptation shall not touch me.' But Paul answered, 'O Thecla, wait with patience and thou shalt possess the water.'
And Paul sent away Onesiphorus and all his house unto Iconium, and went to Antioch with Thecla. As they were entering into thine city; a certain ruler of the Syrians, Alexander by name, seeing Thecla, clave unto her in love, and would have given gifts and presents unto Paul. But he said, 'I know not the woman of whom thou speakest, nor is she mine.' At this Alexander embraced her in the street of the city. But as Thecla would not suffer this, she took hold of Alexander and tore his cloak and pulled off his crown. Ashamed of what had happened, Alexander had her brought before the governor, who condemned her to t he wild beasts, allowing her, however, at her own request that she might remain pure until she should fight with the wild beasts-to stay with a certain woman named Tryphsena.
"When the games were exhibited, they bound Thecla to a fierce lioness, but the beast licked her feet.' And the people marveled greatly. And the title of her accusation was 'Sacrilegious.' And the women cried out, 'An impious sentence has been passed in this city.' After the show, Tryphienia again received Thecla, for her daughter Falconilla was dead, and had said to her mother, in a dream, 'Mother, take this stranger, Thecla, in my stead, and she will pray for me, that I may be transferred to the place of the just.' And Thecla prayed, saying, 'O Lord God, who hast made the heaven and the earth, Son of the Most High, Lord Jesus Christ, grant unto this woman according to her desire, that her daughter Falconilla may live forever.'
"The next day Alexander came again to fetch Thecla. But Trypusena cried aloud, so that Alexander fled away. And straightway the governor sent an order that Thecla should be brought. And Tryphsena, holding her by the hand, it, said, 'My daughter Falconilla, indeed, I took to the tomb: and thee, Thecla, I am taking to the wild beasts.' And Thecla wept very-bitterly and said, 'O Lord God, in whom I have believed, to whom I have fled for refuge, thou who didst deliver me from the fire, do thou grant a recompense to Tryphsena, who hath had compassion on thy servant, and hath kept me pure.' When Thecla had been taken out of the hands of Tryphena, they stripped her of her garments, and a girdle was given to her, and she was thrown into the theatre. And lions, and bears, and a savage lioness were let loose against her. But instead of killing Thecla, they tore one another. While she was praying, many more wild beasts were sent in. And when she had ended her prayer, she turned and saw a trench filled with water, and she said, 'Now it is time for me to wash myself.' And she cast herself in, saying, 'In the name of Jesus Christ, I baptize myself on the last day.' And the seals saw the glare of the fire of lightning, and floated about dead. And as she stood naked, there was a fiery cloud round about her, so that neither was she seen naked; nor could the wild beasts do her hurt. And when other beasts were cast into the theatre, the women wept again. And some of them threw down sweet-smelling herbs, so that there was an abundance of perfumes. And all the wild beasts, even as though they had been restrained by sleep, touched her not. When fierce bulls were let loose, Tryphsena fainted, and the multitude cried, 'Queen Tryphsena is dead.' Alexander now asked the governor to release Thecla, saying, 'If Ceasar hear of these things, he will destroy the city, because his kinswoman queen Tryphaenua had died beside the theatre.' And the governor called for Thecla out of the midst of the wild beasts, and said unto her, 'Who art thou? and what hast thou about thee, that none of the wild beasts toucheth thee?' And she said, 'I, indeed, am a servant of the living God; and as to what there is about me, I have believed in the Son of God, in whom God is well pleased. Therefore hath not one of the beasts touched me. For he alone is the way of salvation, and the ground of immortal life. He is at refuge to the tempest-tossed, a solace to the afflicted, a shelter to them that are in despair; and, once for all, whosoever shall not believe in him shall not live eternally. When she was released, she stayed with Tryphsena eight days. And she instructed her in the word of God, so that most, even of the maid-servants, believed. But Thecla desired to see Paul. When she was told that he was staying at Myra of Lycia, she went there, being dressed in man's attire. And when she saw him, she said, 'I have received the baptism, O Paul! For he that wrought together with thee for the gospel hath been effectual also with me for the baptism.' When Thecla told him that she was going to Iconium, Paul said to her, 'Go and teach the word of God.'
"In Iconium she went into the house of Onesiphorus where Christ made the light first to shine upon her.' After having tried in vain to convert her mother — Thamyris having died in the meantime she went to Seleucia, where she enlightened many by the word of God, and where she died in peace." This is the legend of Thecla. How great or how little the substratum of truth in it, we cannot decide. The fact is that churches were built in honor of the "beata virgo martyr Thecla;" in prose and rhyme the deeds of our heroine were celebrated; and Sept. 24 is commemorated in her honor.
II. Date of Compilation. —We have a long line of Greek and Latin fathers by whom Thecla is mentioned in such a manner as to lead to the supposition that whatever is said of her is the same as we find it in the Acta Pauli et Theelce. As one writer has followed the other, our examination will be confined to the earliest testimony to that of Tertullian. In his treatise De. Baptismo, ch. 17 we read: "But if any defend those things which have been rashly ascribed to Paul, under the example of Thecla, so as to give license to women to teach and baptize, let them know that the presbyter in Asia, who compiled the account, as it were, under the title of Paul, accumulating of his own store, being convicted of what he had done, and confessing that he had done it out of love to Paul, was removed from his place. For how could it seem probable that he who would not give any firm permission to a woman to learn should grant to a female power to teach and baptize?" It has been taken for granted that-the meaning is that a presbyter of Asia, somewhere towards the end of the 1st century, compiled a history of Paul and Thecla and, instead of publishing it as a true narrative, either in his own name or with any name at all, but in good faith, published it falsely, and therefore wickedly, under the name of Paul, as though he were himself the writer; that he was convicted of his forgery, and deposed from the priesthood. This account has been marvelously dressed up, and some of its advocates have ventured to say that a Montanist writer of the name of Leucius was the real author of these Acts (Tillemont, Memoires, 2, 446). Jerome (Cataloguus Script. Eccl. c. 7), commenting upon the passage of Tertullian, says that the presbyter who wrote the history of Paul and Thecla was deposed for what he had done by John (apud Johannem) the apostle. That Jerome relied upon Tertullian is evident from his statement; but his conduct in fathering the story of the deposition by John upon Tertullian is inexcusable, because no such statement was made by Tertullian. On the other hand, we must bear in mind that, according to tradition, alleged or real events which occurred in Asia Minor and touched upon the life of the Church have been brought in connection with John. Thus he is said to have confuted Cerinthus, Ebion, Marcion, and even Basilides. Even miracles which were first narrated by disciples of the apostles, or by bishops of Asia Minor were afterwards referred to him (comp. Patr. —Apost. Opp. ed. Gebhardt, Harnack, Zahn, 1 [ed. 1], 194). Our passage is a proof of this. Tertullian speaks of an Asiatic presbyter, Jerome adds apud Johannem, and his copyists write, instead of "apud Johannem," a Johanne.
Now, putting aside Jerome's commentary and the other patristic testimonies, which will be found collected at great length in Baronius, Tillemont, and Schlau, we see from the external evidence as contained in Tertullian's passage that the Acts of Paul and Thecla must have existed in his time. To this external evidence of antiquity we have the internal, furnished by the Acts themselves. 'This will determine nothing as to who was their author, but will be valuable in helping us to assign an approximate date. An indication of the early origin of a Christian document is the absence of quotations from the New Test. True, this is only a negative evidence; but when found in connection with sayings attributed to Christ or the apostles which are not found in the canonical Scriptures, it tends to establish antiquity. Now there is not a single direct citation from the New Test.; and when Paul preaches upon the Beatitudes words are boldly put into his mouth which are not in Scripture. This was becoming enough in a contemporary of the apostle, or in a writer of the 2nd century who had received them through a not far distant tradition; but it would have been unbecoming in a writer of the 3rd century, and, speaking in general terms, it was what writers of the 3rd century seldom did. Thus we could quote Clement of Rome, Iguatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr, Polycarp, besides referring to the art. SEE SAYINGS, TRADITIONAL, OF CHRIST, that such has been the case; and it is therefore not a matter for surprise, but it is exactly what we might be prepared to expect, if the Acts of Thecla are, in the main, a document of the 2nd century, that the writer should represent Paul not only as saying "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy," but "Blessed are they which have kept the baptism, for they shall have rest with the Father and the Son." A further indication of the comparatively early date of this composition is its teaching the salvability of departed heathens. All early Christendom believed in the efficacy of prayers for those who had fallen asleep in the faith of Christ. But it was only the first two centuries which taught that prayer was of avail for such as had died without baptism and without the knowledge of Christ on earth. Thus we have a parallel case to the prayer of Thecla for Falconilla in the Passio Perpetuae et Felicitatis, where we read that Perpetua, through her prayers, saved her brother Dinocrates, who had died without baptism, "from the dark place;" and from the place of sufferings he comes to the place full of light. Augustine, commenting upon this (De Origine Animae, 1, 10; 3, 9), says that Dinocrates must have been baptized, and that he was suffering in consequence of some childish fault committed after baptism. But Augustine's statement that the boy was baptized is arbitrary, because best suited to his own theory. But is it in the least likely that Dinocrates had been baptized, when Perpetua herself was unbaptized, and only received baptism shortly before her martyrdom? Now in the 2nd century it was not an uncommon thing to pray for non-Christians; but after the 2nd century, not only do we lose all trace of prayer for non-Christians who had departed this life, but we find the contrary opinion firmly maintained. So entirely was this the case that, as we have seen, Augustine, "in order to get rid of the plain inference to be drawn from St. Perpetua's prayer for her brother, was driven to invent the ingenious but scarcely amiable explanation that a little child who had died at the early age of seven years was suffering purgatorial torments for some infantile fault committed after his baptism." Another indication of an early date is the fact that the name Χριστιανοί, which occurs twice in the Acts, is only used by the two companions of Paul, who call the attention of Thamyris to this fact as a point for accusation. This would place the compilation of the Acts at a time when the name "Christian" was sufficient to condemn any one, i.e. at about the time of Trajan, in the year 115. We may feel a reasonable confidence, then, that, whether the legend of Thecla be true or false, it was composed at least before A.D. 200, perhaps somewhere between 165 and 195, and most probably within a few years of the middle of that period.
III. Object of the Author. —Whoever may have been the author of the Acts, the question has been asked, What was his object? It has been said that he intended to defend and maintain the Montanist theory, and the most important evidence in favor of the Montanist authorship of the Acts was taken from the concluding words, "she illuminated many by the word of God;" by which is meant-illumination being taken as a synonym for baptism-she also baptized those whom she converted. Now, leaving aside the statement of Jerome that "Thecla baptized a lion," a statement which he himself calls afiabula, and which he did not find in Tertullian, whom he follows, and who would have undoubtedly stigmatized it as nonsense, for such it is; and, without investigating how he came to make such a statement, or whether it was originally meant that Thecla baptized a person of the name of Leo (which means, in Latin, "lion"), we know that Thecla baptized none except herself. The only point in the argument now are the words πολλοὺς ἐφώτισεν τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ θεοῦ, "she illuminated many by the word of God," which, as Basil of Seleucia (whether he is the author of the Acts or merely their editor) says, mean that "Thecla baptized those whom she converted to Christ." Now it is true that φωτίζειν has been used by Gregory of Nazianzum, Gregory of Nyssa, Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 3, 23, 8), and Methodius (Conv. Decem Virg.) in the sense of "baptize," and φωτισμός for "baptism," and by Clemens Alexanfinus, Athanasius, Chrysostom, Justin Martyr (Apol. 1, 61; comp. 65); but this is not the only meaning, for, as Justin himself says, καλεῖται τοῦτο τὸ λουτρὸν φωτισμὸς ὡς φωτιζομένων τὴν διάνοιαν τῶν ταῦτα μανθανόντων thus deriving the new signification of the word from the old; and Dionysius Areopagita, Clemens Alexandrinus, Chrysostom, and Cyril of Alexandria use the word φωτι σμός, for "illumination," "instruction," which signification is required here by the addition τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ θεοῦ. We have here the same usus loquendi that we find in Ephesians 3, 9; Heb 6:4; Heb 10:32; and so also in the Sept., where it is used for הוֹרָה. For examples, comp. Stephanus, Thes. Graec. Ling. s.v. φωτίζειν. We are not told that she instructed in public, which is the main point; and if she had preached at all, it probably was no sermon in the strict sense of the word, but a missionary discourse. This inference we make from the Acts themselves, according to which she lived among heathen; there was not as yet a congregation, consequently also no office. That women taught in the apostolic age was nothing uncommon, for of Aquila and Priscilla we are told (Ac 18:26) that they took Apollo καὶ ἀκριβέστερον αὐτῷ ἐξέθεντο τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ θεοῦ; and in Ro 16:3 sq. Paul calls them τοὺς συνεργούς μου ἐν Χριστῷ.
After all, we cannot perceive any Montanistic tendency in the author of the Acts, for his Thecla does not remind us of the Montanistic prophetesses, who even performed ecclesiastical functions. That Thecla baptized others we are not told; and when Basil of Seleucia states this of her, he does it because of his interpretation of (φωτίζειν, and indicates that in the beginning of Christianity in Asia Minor such things had happened. We need only refer to the letter of Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea, addressed to Cyprian against pope Stephen (the 75th of Cyprian's Letters), and to the Apostolic Constitutions (3, 9). The latter expressly forbid women to baptize and teach, it being ἐπισφαλές, μᾶλλον δὲ παράνομον καὶ ἀσεβές, as well as against the Scriptures. We call very well perceive how, in the face of such tendencies, which in the 3rd century could have been only of a very rare occurrence, a book must have been welcomed out of which the authority of an apostle could be quoted in favor of female prerogatives in the Church. Being disposed to generalize a single case, the difference in the time and persons was overlooked, and this special case was applied erroneously to different cases. For what we know of Thecla's baptism is, that she asked the apostle for that rite, but he exhorted her to be patient and wait. At Antioch, when in the arena, and believing that she will surely die without having received the baptism, she throws herself into the trench. After her deliverance she remains eight days with Tryphaena, and instructs her in the word of God. We are not told that she baptized some, but that most of the maid-servants believed, and that there was great joy in the house. Then she comes to Paul at Myra, saying, ἔλαβον τὸ λουτρόν, Παῦλε· ὁ γὰρ σοὶ συνεργήσας εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κάμοὶ συνήργησεν εἰς τὸ λούσασθαι (ch. 40). Paul does not utter his disapprobation, but keeps quiet. But when she is about to leave, he does not say to her that she should teach and baptize, but go and teach." The faculty which Jesus gives to his disciples (Mt 28:19-20) is entirely different from the one which Paul gives to Thecla.
Thecla's case is exceptional on account of her twofold, martyrdom; being left by Paul and the adherents to his teaching, and being in periculo mortis, she baptizes herself, using the Christian formula. According to the whole narrative, Paul cannot make any objections because God has made himself known in delivering her, and the action of a martyr cannot be prescriptive as to others. Besides, the author brings before us a time in which ecclesiastical affairs had not yet taken a definite form, and there is not the least evidence that the object of the author of the Acts was to support Montanistic doctrines, and to establish the same by the authority of the apostle Paul. The only object which the author could have had in view was to describe the apostolic time, in which he succeeded only in part. It is a time when the Church commences to develop herself. But, using his own judgment in this respect, it becomes fatal, since the author connects the person of an apostle with deeds and doctrines which in this connection must be detrimental to the order of the Church. Such a writing could only be a great hindrance to the leaders of the Church; and in order to render it of no effect, it was severely criticized, and its author called to account and deposed. Yet the possibility of a historical substratum in the Acts is not precluded, although it is difficult to say where history ends and legend commences.
IV. Sources of the Acts. —We have already stated that the Acts contain not a single direct citation from the New Test., yet the student cannot fail to discover many, instances in which the New Test. has been used. Thus:
That the author of the Acts was acquainted with the I second epistle to Timothy is unquestionable, because there are many striking parallels between that epistle and the A.cts, which need not be mentioned.
V. Literature. —Espencei er Opera Omnia (Parisis, 1619), p. 998 sq; t Baronius, Martyrologium Romanum (Venetiis, 1593), ad 23 Sept. p. 431- 434; -id. Annales Ecclesiastici ad Aluma 47 (Lucae, 1738), 1, 338 sq.; Panutinus, lotoe i1 Ed. Librorumo7 II Basilii Seleucic in Isauuria
LEpi.scopi de Vita ac Miraculis D. Theclce (Antv. 1608), p. 222-238; Hournejus, Hist. Eccl. (Brunsvicii, 1649), 1, 40-42; Vetustius Occidentalis Ecclesiae Martyrologium, etc. (ed. Franc. M. Florentinus [Lucae, 1668]), notar ad 12 et 23 Sept.; Conbetis, Bibliothecae Graecorum Patrumos Auctarium, Novissitnum (Par. 1672), pt. 1; Not. ad Nicetae Paphl. Orat. in Theclam, p. 506-509; Tillemont, Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire Ecclesiastique, etc. (ibid. 1694), 2, 65-70, 528-530; Ittig, De Jeresiarchis (Lips. 1690); Appendix Dissertationum de Hewesiarchis (ibid. 1696); De Pseudepigraphis, 1, 128, 129; De Bibliothecis et Catenis Patrum (ibid. 1707), p. 700-705; Grabe, Spicilegium SS. Patrum (Oxonice, ed. 2, 1700; ed. 1, 1698), 1, 87-94, resp. 128, 330-335; Des heiligen Clementis Historie von deunen Reisen und Leben des Apostels Petri, miuit einoem Vorberichte S. Anolds (Berlin, 1702); Acta Sanctorum. (Antv. 1717), mens. Jun. 7:552, 553 (auctore Joh. Bapt. Sollerio); — Hiieronymi Catalogun Scriptorum Ecclesias ficorum, cum notis Erasmi Roterdatni, Mariani Victorii, H. Gravii, A. Miraei, et Jo. Alb. Fabricii-Erulestus Salomo Cyprianus recensuit et annotatiomnibus illustravit (Francof. et Lips. 1722); Dom. Georgius, in an annotation to the Martyrology of Alo of Vienne, in his edition of the same (Romans 1745 fol.), p. 493; Lardner, The Credibility of the Gospel History (2nd ed. Lond. 1748), II, 2, 697-703; Acta Sanctorum (Amntv. 1757), ad 23 Sept. 6:546 sq. (auctore Jo. Stittingo); Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (Hamb. 1807), ed. Harles. 10:331; Thilo, Acta S. Thomae Apostoli (Lips. 1823), prol. p. 59, 60; Schwegler, Der Montanismus (Tub. 1841), p. 262-266; Tischendorf, Act Apostolorum Apocrypha (Lips. 1851), prol. p. 21-26; Kostlin, Die pseudonyume Literatur der Iltesten Kirche, in the Theol. Jahrbücher (Tub. 1851), p. 175, 177; Ewald, Uebersicht der 1851-52 erschienenen Schrifte zür bibl. Wissenschaft, in the Jahrbücher zür bibl. Wissenschaft, 1852, p. 127; Ritschl, Die Entstehusng der altkatholischen Kirche (2nd ed. Bonn, 1857), p. 292-294; Neudecker, art. "Thekla" in Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 15,'704,705; Gutschmid, Die Konigsnamen der appocryph. Apostelgeschichte (Rhein. Mus. 1864), new series, 19:176-179, 396, 397; Reuss, Gesch. d. heil. Schriften (Brunswick, 1864), § 267, p. 264, note; Hilgenfeld, Novum Testamentum extra (Canonem Receptum (Lips. 1866), 4:69; Renan. SaintPaul (Par. 1869), 1,40; Miller, Erklarung des BarnabasBriefes (Leips. 1869), p. 4; Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (Lond. 1871, 2 vols.); Hausrath, Neutestament. Zeifgeschichte (1872), 2, 547; Lipsius, Ueber den Ursprung und altesten Gebrauch des Christennamens (Jena, 1873), p. 8; Mossman, A History of the Catholic
Church. of Jesus Christfromn the Death of St. John to the Middle of the Second Century (Lond. 1873), p. 351-400; Der Kaiholik, Nov. 1875, p. 461; but more especially Schlau, Die Acten des Paulus und der Thecla und die iltere Thecla-Legende (Leips. 1877); and the review by Lipsius in Schtirer, Theol. Literaturzeitung (ibid. 1877), p.543. (B. P.)