The Syriac literature is preeminently religious. The oldest monument is the Syrica version of the Bible, called the Peshitha or Peshito, for which SEE SYRIAC VERSIONS. Like the Jews, the Syrians treated their Bible in Maasoretic manner which may be seen from the superscriptions added to some books. Thus we read.at the end of Job, דאיוב צדיקא טביבא איתבה פתגמא מ8ננג8 שלם כתבא, i.e. "Here ends the book of the just and noble Job; it contains 2553 verses." The result of critical care for the Peshito is contained in a- work speaking of the variety of single readings, of the correct reading of difficult words, and in which the pronunciation of proper names according to the Greek mode is taught. The title of this collection is ודחדתא אי ִמשלמניתא קרפיתא כורסא דשמהא ודקריתא דעתיקתא, i.e. "Book of the names and readings of the Old and New Test. according to the Karkaphic recension." The latter expression denotes that the work was prepared in the Jacobitic monastery Karkaph, which by a mistake lent the name and idea of a Karkaphic ora Karkaphensian recension (see Martin, Tradition Karckaphienne, ou la Massore chez les Syriens [Paris, 1870]). After this, all notices concerning a Karkaphensian version, which are found in the introductions to and cyclopedias and dictionaries of the Bible, must disappear once for all. The same French writer also called attention to the fact that, like the Jews, who have an Eastern and Western, a Babylonian and Palestinian, Masorah, so likewise we must distinguish between an Eastern and Western, a Nestorian and Jacobitian, Masorah among the Syrians; and this he laid down in his Syriens Orientaux et Occidentaux (ibid. 1872): "Essai sur les deux principaux dialectes Arameens;" to which we may add a third essay by the same author: Histoire de la Ponctuation ou de la Massore chez les Syriens (ibid. 1875). These three essays are very important for the reading and understanding of the Syriac version. Passing over the other versions, which will be treated in the art. SYRIAC VERSIONS, we must state that the deuterocanonical books, which are not found in Lee's edition of the Peshito, were already translated before the 4th century, for Ephlemn the Syrian already quotes them. Thus under the formula of γέγραπται he cites Ecclus. 3, 6, 7, 9,12, 13 (Opp. Graec. 1, 85); 11:5 (ibid. p. 92); 4:7 (ibid. p. 101); with καθὼς γέγραπται he quotes Wisd. 4:7; 8:1-17 (ibid. p. 241); 3, 1; 4:15 (ibid. p. 256); 7:16 (ibid. 2, 28); Ecclus. 2, 1 he introduces with ὡς ἡ γραφή φησι (ibid. 2, 327), etc. In 861 Lagarde published the apocryphal books of the Old Test. under the title Libri Apocryphi V. T. Syriace a Ceriani, in his Monsumenta Sacra et. Prqofna, tom. 1, published the apocalypse of Baruch and the epistle of Jeremiah; in the 5th vol. the 4th book of Esdras; and in the 7th vol. (Mediol. 1874) he published the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
The apocryphal literature of the New Test., as far as it has been published, is given by Renan, Fragments du Livre Gnostique institut. Apocal. d 'Adam ou Penitence ou Testament d'Adam, publig d'apres deux versions Syr., in the Jour. As. ser. 5, tom. 2, p. 427; by Lagarde, in Didascalia Apostoolarum Syriace. (Lips. 1854); by Cureton, in his Ancient Documents, and Lagarde's Reliquice Jusris Eccles. Antiquissimae Syriace, 1856; by H. Cowper, in, the Apocr. Gospels and other Documents, etc. (2nd ed. Lond. 1867); and by Wright, Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Test., collected and edited from Syriai MSS. in the British Museum (ibid. 1865).
Between the translation of the Scriptures and the classic period of Syriac literature there existed a gap covering about three hundred years, which is now filled through. Curetol's Ancient Syriac Documents relative to the Etarliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa (Lond. 1864). Eusebius, in his Church History, tells us that he translated the correspondence: between Christ arid king Abgar of Edessa, together with the narrative of the healing and conversion of that king by Thaddaeus, one of the seventy disciples, from the archives of Edessa. A part of this report has been found in Nitrian MSS. of the 5th and 6th centuries, under the title The Doctrine. of Addai (lately published, with an English translation by Philipps, Lond. 1876). From this we learn that Addai, one of the seventy, converted not only the king Abgar Ukkama, but also a great many of the people, and built churches in and about Edessa. Addai was succeeded by Aggaeus, who was murdered. Besides Aggaeus, a good many others suffered martyrdom, for which comp. Acta Martyroruns Orient. et Occident. (Rom. 1748, 2 tom, ed. Assemani).
I. Orthodox Writers. — Towards the middle of the 4th century begins the golden cera of, Syriac literature, aid under this head we mention Jacob, bishop: of Nisibis (q.v.). Although later MSS. contain something under his name, yet no genuine works are now extant. Contemporary with Jacob was Aphraat or Farhad, surnamed the "Persian sage," the author of homilies written between 337 and 345, and published by Antonelli in the Arrenian, with a Latin paraphrase, in 1756, but of late in the original Syriac by Wright (Lond. 1869). Prof. Bickell translated eight of these homilies into German (in the Bibliothek der Kirchenvafer [Kempten, 1874], No. 102,103). On Aphraat see Sasse, Prolegomena in Aphraatis Sapientis Perse Seraones Homileticos (Lips. 1878), and Schonfelder, in the Tübingen theolog. Quartalschrift, 1878, p. 195-256.
Of greater renown was Ephrem. (q.v.), who died in A.D. 373, and whose writings were translated not only into Latin and Greek, but also into the Armenian, Coptic, Arabic, Abyssinian, and Slavonic. Besides Ephrem, we mention Gregory, abbot in Cyprus about 390, author of epistles; Baleus, whose hymns are given by Overbeck in his S. Ephremi Syri, BabvuZe, Balcei aliorumgue Opera Selecta (Oxford, 1865); by Wenig, in his Schola Syriaca (Innsbruck, 1866); and in a German translation by Bickell, in Ausgewihlte Gedichte der syrischen Kirchenviter (Kempten, 1872). Balaeus's contemporary was Cyrillonas, whose hymns were also translated by Bickell (loc. cit.).
Towards the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century lived and wrote Marilthas, bishop of Tagrit, author of a martyrology (printed in Assemani's Bibliotheca) and hymns. The canons of the Synod of Seleucia (410) concerning, Church discipline, and bearing his name and that of Isaac, bishop of Seleucia, have been published after a Paris MS. by Lamy: Conciliumn Seleucice et Ctesiphonti-habitum anno 410, ed. vert. illustr. (Louvain, 1869); Rabula, bishop of Edessa (died435), author of epistles, canons, and hymns, for which comp. Overbeck (loc. cit.); and Bickell; In the year 460 died Isaac the Great (q.v.), presbyter of Antioch. His hymns are translated by Zingerle, in the Tübingen theolog. Quartalschriff, 1870, and by Bickell, in the Kemptzner Bibliothek der Kirchenvdfer, 1872, No. 44. The latter has also published S. Isaaci Antiocheni, Doctoris Syrorum, Opera omnia, ex omnibus, quotquot extant, Codicibus Manuscriptis cum varia lectione Syriace Arabiceque primus edidit, Latine vertit, Prolegomenis. et Glossario auxit (Giessen, 1873-77, 2 vols.); see also Zingerle, Monumenta Syriaca ex Ronanlis Codicibus Collecta (Eniponti, 1869), 1, 13-20. Contemporary with Isaac was the monk Dada, who wrote about three hundred works on Biblical, homiliacal, and hagiographical matter. About the same time lived Cosmas, the biographer of Simeon the Stylite (see Biblioth. Orient. and Acta A Martyrorun Oriental.). Towards the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th century lived Joshua the Stylite of Edessa, author of a chronicle covering the years 495-507, which has been edited by Martin, Chronique de Josug le Stylite, ecrite verss l'an 515. Texte et Traduction (Leips. 1876), and Jacob, bishop of Sarug (q.v.). In the work by Abbelfus, De Vita et Scriptis S. Jacobi Batnarum Sarugi in Mesopotamnia Episcopi (Louvain, 1867), three biographies of Sarug are given. More recent is Martin's Eveque-Pobte au Vet au Vie Siecles, ou Jacques de Saroug, sa Vie, son Temps, ses I.uvres, ses Croyances, in the Revue des Sciences Ecclesiastiques, Oct. and Nov. 1876, p. 309-352, 385419. According to Martin, Sarug was a heretic, for he says, "Jacob was born, lived, and died in heresy; he loved everything which the Church condemned, and condemned everything that the Church loved at that time." His hymns Bickell published in a German translation in the Ausgewahlte; Gedichte syrischer Kircheanvter. Of Sarug's writings, some were published in the Monumenta Syiriaca, 1, 21-96; 2, 52-63; 76-166; in Assemani's Acta Martyr. 2, 230; Cureton, Ancient Documents, p. 86 sq.; Wenig, Schola Syr. p. 155; by Zingerle, in the Zeitschrift der, deutsch. morgenl. Gesellsch. 1858, p. 115; 1859, p. 44; 1860, p. 679; 1864, p. 751; 1866, p. 511; by the same author, six homilies were published at Bonn in 1867. Martin published in the Zeitschrift der deutsch. morgenl. Gesellsch. 1875, p. 107-137, Discours de Jacques de Saroug sur la Chute des Idoles; and ibid. 1876, p. 217-275, Lettres de Jacques de Saroug aux moins du Convent de Mar Bassus et a Paul d'Edesse, relevges et traduits; Dr. K. Schrfter, ibid. 1877, p. 360, the Consolatory Epistle to the Hinmyaritic Christians, in the original Syriac, with notes. In the 6th century also lived John Saba, a monk, a native of Nineveh, author of sermons and epistles, published in Greek (Leips. 1770), and Isaac of Nineveh (q.v.) (see Monumenta Syriaca, 1, 97-101), author of an ascetic work in seven books, and known in the Greek translation, made by Fabricius and Abraham, and given under the title Libri de Contemptu Mundi, in the 11th vol. of the Maga Bibliotheca Patrum, where they are erroneously ascribed to Isaac of Antioch. With Isaac of Nineveh the list of orthodox writers is closed, and we come now to:
II. Heterodox Writers. —
1. The Nesforians. — Without entering upon the history of these Christians, we will only remark that the catalogue of Ebedjesu on Nestorian writers was first published by Abraham Ecchellensis (Rome, 1653), but more correctly by Assemani in the 3rd vol. of his Biblioth. Orient.' Besides, we find many literary and historical notices in Assemani's catalogue of the Oriental MSS. of the Vatican Library, or in the Bibliothecae Apoatol. Vatic. Codicum MSS. Catalogus S. E. et J. S. Ass. recensuerunt Tom. II, complectens Libros Chald. sive Syros (ibid. 1758), and in the Appendix by Cardinal Mai, in the Catal. Codd. Bibl. Vatic. Arabb. etc. item ejus paitis Hebrr. et Syriacc. quarn. Assemani in editione praetermiserunt (ibid. 1831). SEE NESTORIANS.
The earliest writers among the Nestorians were Barsuma (q.v.), bishop of Nisibis and author of epistles; Narses (d. 496), surnamed "the Harp of the Spirit," author of commentaries on the Old Test., three hundred and sixty orations, a liturgy, a treatise on the sacrament of baptism, another on evil morals, various interpretations, paracletic sermons, and hymns (see Schonfelder; Hymnen, Proklamationen u. Martyrergesdnge des Nestorian Breviers, in the Tübingen theolog. Quartalschrift, 1866, p. 177 sq.); Mar Abba (d. 552), who wrote a commentary on the Old Test. and a translation of the Old Test. from the Sept., the latter not extant; Abraham of Kashkar, author of epistles and a commentary on the dialectics of Aristotle; Paul of Nisibis, an exegetical writer; Babseus or Babi, surnamed "the Great," archimandrite of Nisibis in 563, a voluminous writer and author of On the Incarnation, an exposition of the ascetical treatise of Evagrius of Pontus, a history of the Nestorians, hymns for worship through the circle of the year, an exposition of the sacred text, monastic rules, etc.; Iba, Kuma, and Proba, doctors of Edessa, who translated in the 5th century the commentaries of Theodore of Mopsuestia and the writings of Aristotle into Syriac; Hanana of Adiabene, an exegetical writer; Joseph the Huzite, a mystic; John Saba, author of epistles; John of Apamea, author of ascetical treatises. Famous as grammarians and lexicographers were Honain Ibn- Ishak (d. 876), Bar-Ali (about 885), Bar-Bahlul (about 963), and Elias bar- Shinaja (d. 1049).
Of the writers whose works were published, at least in parts, we mention Jesujabh of Adiabene, patriarch about 660, and author of Da-Huphok Chusobee, or On the Conversion or Change of Opinions, an exhortation to certain disciples, and a ritual; Thomas Margensis, about the middle of the 9th century, author of a history of the monastery of Beth-Abe, published by Assemani; John bar-Algora, patriarch about 900, and author of, canons, Church questions, and decisions, in part given by Assemanui; George, metropolitan of Arbela and Mossil, author of an explanation of the liturgy, by Assemani; and Timothy II, patriarch about 1318, author of a treatise on the sacraments, also given by Assemani. The ethical work, The Book of the
Bee, by Solomon, bishop of Bassora (about 1222), has lately been published with a Latin translation by Schfelder, Salomonis Ep. Bassorensis Liber Apis, Syriacumn Arabicunmque textum Latine vertit (Bamberg, 1866); George Varda, two of whose hymns are given in an English translation by Badger, in his The Nestorians and their Rituals (Lond. 1852), 2, 51, 83, 95; Chamis bar-Kardache, whose hymn on the incarnation is also given by Badger (loc.cit. p. 39). The latest writer among the Nestorians was Ebedjesu (q.v.), metropolitan of Saba (d. 1318).
After the 16th century, a great part of the Nestorians returned to the Church of Rome. From their midst a number of polemical writings in the Syriac language were published against the errors of their countrymen, as the Three Discourses on Faith, about the year 1600, by the archimandrite Adam (afterwards as bishop of Amida, called Timothy). These discourses are given by P. Strozza, in his De Dogmatibus Chaldceorum Disput. (Rom. 1617), and in Synodalia Chaldceorum (ibid.), where also the synodical letter of the patriarch Elias to Paul V, in a Latin translation, and the hymn of the patriarch Ebedjesu in honor of Pius IV, in the Syriac, is given. About, 1700 the patriarch Joseph II wrote the Clear Mirror, parts of which are given by Assemanii and in our days the Chaldean priest Jos. Guriel published at Rome (1858) his Lectiones Dogmatt. de Divini Incarnatione quas in Perside habebat.
2. The Monophysites. — Of this class of writers we mention John, bishop of Tella, whose canons were published by Lamy in De Syrorum Fide in Re Eucharistie. — p. 62-97 (see also Land, Anecdota Syriaca, 2. 169, and Cod. AMus. Brit. add. 12,174, fol. 152); Paul, bishop, of Callinicum, the first translator of Severus's writings; Xenajas or Philoxenus (q.v.), bishop. of Hieraplis (Mabug), the author of a Bible translation, commentaries De Trinitate et Incaarnatione and De Uno ex: Trinitate Incarnato et Passo (Jacob of Edessa calls Xelajas one of the four classic. writers of Syria); Simeon, bishop of Betharsam (d. 525), author of epistles, given by Assemani in the Bibl. Orient. 1, 346,361; Peter of Callinicuim (578-591), author of polemical works and hymns (see Cod. Mus. Brit. add. 14,591, p. 69); John of Ephesus (q.v.), author of an ecclesiastical history; Jacob of Edessa (q.v.), auth6r of a recension of the Syro-Hexaplaric translation, fragments of which are given by Ceriani in the 2nd and 5th vols. of his Monumenta Eascra; besides, he wrote commentaries and scholia on the Holy Scriptures (published by Philipps, Scholia on Passages of the Old Test. [Lond. 1864]), epistles (given in the Bibl. Orient. 1, 479, and by Wright, in the Jour. of Sac. Lit. Jan. 1867), canons (given by Lagarde, in Religuiae Juris Eccles. Syr. p. 117, and by Lamy, in De Syrorum Fide in Re Eucharistica, p. 98); his essay on the Shekem Hammephorash was published by Nestle in the Zeitschrif, der deutsch. mogenl. Gesellschaft, 1878, 3, ῥ465 sq.; he also introduced a more correct vocalization (see Martin, Jacques d'Edesse et les Voyelles Syriennes [Paris, 1870]); George, bishop of the Arabs, in the beginning of the 8th century (see Lagarde, Analecta, I. 108-134); Dionysius, patriarch of Telmachar, who, perusing the works of Eusebius, Socrates, and Josli of Ephesus, wrote annals from the Creation to A.D. 1775, the-first book of which was published by F. Tullberg, Dionysii Tetahrensis (Upsala, 1850), lib. 1; John of Dara (q.v.), author of four books on the resurrection of the body (extant), two books on the ecclesiastical and celestial hierarchies, four books on the priesthood, and a liturgy (see Zingerle. in the Tübingen theolog. Quartalschritf, 1867, p. 183-205; 1868, p. 267-285; Monumenta Syriaca ex Rom. Collecta, 1, 105 sq., and Overbeck, loc. cit. p. 409); Moses bar-Cephas (q.v.), author of a commentary on the Paradise (published by'Masius in a Latin translation at Antwerp ini1569); besides, he wrote on the hexaemeron, an exposition of the Old and New Test., tracts on the liturgy, and seven homilies: Masius's Mosis Barceph. 3. Libri Comment. de Paradiso ad Igsnat. Lat. redd. is also found in the Bibl. Patr. Lugdun. 17:456; Dionysius bar-Calib (d. 1171), commentator; of his commentaries only those on the four gospels are extant: he also wrote on the incarnation and sacraments (not extant), against certain heresies (not extant), and an oration and tracts on ordination, schism, and confession (extant); John of Mardin (d. 1165) (see the Bibl. Orient. 2, 217 sq.); Jacob of Maiperkin, author of a dogmatical work, The Book of Treasures, mentioned by Assemani, and an address to such as are to be ordained (given in part in a Latin translation by Denzinger in his Ritus Orientalium in Administrfiidis Sacram. [Würzburg. 1863], 2, 106 sq.). The series of monophysitic writers is closed by a man who surpassed all his predecessors, namely, Gregory Abulfaraj bar-Hebraeus. As the literature given under the art. ABULFARAJ SEE ABULFARAJ (q.v.) is very deficient, and has of late greatly increased, we give it here by way of supplement. As a historian, Bar-Hebrmeus proved himself in his chronicle, which is now complete in the edition by Abbelus and Lamy, Gregorii bar-Hebrai Chronicon Ecclesiasticum quod e Codiae Musei Britannici Descriptum Conjuncta Opera Ediderunt, Latinitate Donarunt Annotationibusque Theologicis, Historicis, Geographicis et Archcologicis Illustrarunt (Louvain, 1872, 1874, 1877, 3 vols.); that part of the chronicle which traits of the crusade of king Richard I of England is given in the original with an English translation in the Syritac Reading Lessons, published by Bagster and Sons (Lond.). Of his dogmatical works, we mention, Menoorath Kudsai, i.e. "the lamp of the sanctuary," a body of theology extant in Arabic written in the Syrian character; Kotholt Dazelfie, i e., "the, book of rays," a compendium of theology, extensively described by Assemani. He also wrote Kothobo da-Dubori. i.e. "the book of morals," a compendium of ethics, chiefly deduced from the fathers and ascetical writers, and Kothobo da-Tunoye Maphreg'isi, "the book of pleasant narratives," a collection of anecdotes, stories, and sentiments from Persian, Indian, Hebrew, Mohammedan, and Christian writers, in twenty chapters (see Adler, Brevis Linguae Syriarc Institutio [Altona, 1784]). The ecclesiastical and civil law he treats in his Kothobo da-Hudoye i.e. "the book of directions," published in a Latin translation by Mai in the 10th vol. of his Scriptorum Veteruzm Nova Collectio (Rom. 1838). His Autsar Rozi, or "treasury of mysteries" his greatest exegetical work is a commentary on the Holy Scriptures, and has elicited many monographs. Larsow's intention to publish a new edition has not been realized. Of monographs, we mention the general Paroanion and the Scholia on Job, in Kirsch Chrestoma. Syr. (Leips. 1832, ed. Bernstein), p. 143, 186; Rhode, Abulpharagii Scholia in Psalm 5 et 18 (Breslaui, 1832); Winkler, Carmen Deborce cur Scholiis Barhebreaanis (ibid. 1839); Tullberg, Scholia in Jesajam et in Psalmos Scholiorum Specimen (Proaem. et Scholia in Ps 1; Ps 2; Ps 22 [Upsala, 1842]); Knobloch, Greg. B. 1. Scholia in. Psalm 68 primums ed. eti. (Breslarr, 1 852; Korsenarid Wellberg, Greg. B.H. Scholia in Jerem. (Upsala, 1852); id.,Geq. Scholia in Ps 8:9,9,9 (Breslau. 1857. ed. R.S.F. Schrster); id. Scholia in Ge 49:33; —Ex 32-34; Jg 5, in Zeitschrift der deutsch. moygenl. Gesellsch. 24:495 sq.; id. Scholia on Psalm 3, in 6:7, 9-15. 23:53 (together with bar-Hebraeus's preface to the New Test. in the same review, 29:247303); id. Greg. B.H. B Scholia in Jobi (Breslau, 1858, B4 Bernstein) Schwarz, Gregorii bar-Ebhraya in vangelium Johannis Commentarins. E Thesauro Mysteriorum Desumptum, edidit (Gött. 1878); Klamroth, Gregorii Abulal agii bar- Ebhraya in Actus Apostolorum et Epistulcas Catholicas Adnotationes, Syricae (ibid. 1878). He was also not only distinguished as a poet and grammarian, but combined also both qualities in that of a grammatical poet. His short grammar in meter was published by Bertheau, Greg BH. Granamm. Linguae Syr. in Metro Ephrcemeo (Gött. 1843), while Martin published the (Etuves Grammticales d'Abou faradj dit bar-Hebraeus (Paris, 1872, 2 vols.). Of his poems, Wolff published a Specimen Carminumor. ed. vert. in. (Lips. 1834), and Lengerke, Ab. Carmns. Syrr. aliquot. adhuc inedita ed. ert. in. (Konigsberg, 1836-38); but lately they have been published by. A. Scebabi, Gregorii bar-Hebräer Carmina Corrsecta, ac ab eodem Lexicon Adjunctum (Rom. 1877). SEE MONOPHYSITES.
3. Monothelitic Writers. —The only writer who certainly belonged to this sect was homas of Haran, bishop of Kapharlab, who in 1089 sent an apology of the monothelitic doctrine to the patriarch John of Antioch. But there is a controversy where the patriarch of Antioch, John Maro, was a Catholic, monothelite, or a mystical person, and whether the Maronites were already orthodox before the crusades. The writings, which go under his name, the Metul Kohunotha, a treatise on the priesthood, and, a commentary on the liturgy, are not his — the former belongs to John of Dara, the latter to Dionysius bar-Calib. But there is no reason to deny him the authorship of the treatise on the faith of the Church against the Monophysites and Nestorians, which is preserved in a MS. dated 1392, and written in Syriac with an Arabic translation.
III. Translations. — The translations made from the Greek into Syriac are very numerous, especially of the writings of the apostolic fathers. The Syrians had both epistles of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians (see Lagarde, Clementis Romani Recognitiones Syriace [Lips. 1861]; id. Clementina [ibid. 1865]; Funk, Die yrische Uebersetzung der Clemensbrieft, in the Theolog. (Quartalschrift, 1877, p. 477; and Hilgenfeld, Die Brief des romischen Clemens undihre syrische Uebersetzung, in the Zeitschrift für wissensch. Theol. 1877, 20 pt. 4). On the seven epistles of Ignatius of Antioch, see, as for the controversy, the art. SEE IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH , and add Lipsius, Ueber das Verhiltniss der 3 syr. Briefj des Ignatius zu den übrisqen Recenss. der ignat. Literatur (ibid. 1859), and Merx, Meletemata Ignatiana (Breslau, 1861).
A somewhat peculiar work is the Gnonmology mentioned by Origen, and ascribed to Sixtus I (in the beginning of the 2nd century), published in Latin by Hillesemius in 1574 and by Siber in 1725. Lagarde has published it in the Syriac according to Nitrial MSS. in his Analecta. Very important also are the contributions of the Syrian Church to the apologetic literature of the 2nd century. In Cureton's Spicilegium we find an oration of Melito of Sardes, written about A.D. 160 to Iarc Aurel, in which he tries to show the folly of polytheism and seeks to gain him for the Christian faith. A German translation of this oration was made by Wette, in the Tübingen Quarfalschrift, 1862. Besides this oration, Cureton also gives some fragments from Melito's writings on the body and soul, on the cross and faith. In the same Spicilegium we find another apologetic work, which is otherwise mentioned as the "oration to the Greeks" by Justin. The Syrian text ascribes it to Ambrose, a Greek. Fragments of a Syrian translation of Irenaeus are given by Pitra in the Spicilegium Solesnmense (Paris, 1852), 1, 3, 6.
The Nitrian MSS. also contain much material pertaining to the works of Hippolytus, the author of the Philosophumena. Lagarde, who published a Greek edition of Hippolytus (ilippolyti Romanoi quae feruntur tannia Greece [Lips. 1858]), has collected the Syriani fragments in his Analecta, 1). 79-91; and in his Appendix ad Analecta sua Syriaca (ibid. 1858), he gives Arabic fragments of Hippolytus's commentary on the Apocalypse. As for the Syriac fragments, they contain in extract of Hippolytus's commentary on Da 8; Da 11 he refers to Persia, Alexaunder, and Antiochus Epiphanes; the four kingdoms (ch. 2 and 7) are the Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Ronan; the ten horns (ch. 7) he refers to ten kingdoms growing out of the Roman empire, three of which Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya-will be annihilated by the antichrist. Besides the commentary on Daniel, these fragments also contain a scholium on the authors division, collection, and order of the Psalms, fragments of a commentary on the Song of Songs, also fragments of a treatise on the resurrection (in which the deacon Nicolaus is designated as the author of the Nicolaitans) addressed to the empress Mammaea, on the Passover, the Jur animals by Ezekiel, and the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
In Lagarde's Reliquie Juris Eccles. Antiquissimae Syriace (Lips. 1856), we also have the minutes of the Carthagenian Synod of 256, together with Cyprian's epistles and the Epistola Canonica of Peter of Alexandria in the Syrian version, while the Analecta by the same author contain Syriac writings and fragments of Gregory Thaumaturgus. A fragment of an epistle of pope Felix I to Maximus of Alexandria is contained in Zingerle's Monumenta Syriaca. This much for the ante-Nicene period. As to the post- Nicene period, we mention two works of Harris' Cowper, Analecta Nicana ( Lond. 1857), fragments relating to the Council of Nice, and
Syriac Miscellanies (ibid. 1861), or extracts relating to the first and second general councils, and various quotations. In these two works we have Constantiae's inmvitatory address to the bishops of the Nicene Council, his decree against Arius, and the episcopal signatures to councils of the 4th century.
A great favorite with the Syrian translators was Eusebius of Caesarea, whose ecclesiastical history is preserved for the greatest part in London and St. Petersburg MSS. of the 5th and 6th centuries. Specimens of the Syriac translation were given by Cureton in the Corpus Ignatianum, in the Spicilegium and Ancient Documents, while Wright is preparing a Syriac edition, who also edited and translated in the Jour. of Sac. Lit. July, Oct., 1866, a treatise On the Star, ascribed to Eusebius, and which is found in a MS. of the 6th century. The Theophany (θεοφανεία), long lost, was discovered by Tattam in a Nitrian monastery, and was edited, under the title Eusebius on the Theophania or Divine Manifestation of Jesus Christ, by Lee (Lond. 1842), who also translated the same into English (ibid. 1843). The MS. is now in the British Muselum, and Lee assigns it to A.D. 411. The Theophania has the same object in view as the ἀπόδειξις εὐαγγελική, the Demontstratio Evangelica. It speaks in the first book of the Logos, the mediator between God and the world, and the prototype of the divine ideas expressed in the Creation, refuting at the same time atheism, polytheism, pantheism, and materialism. The second book treats of the fall and sin, and of the necessity of a divine intervention for the conversion and sanctification of mankind; the third speaks of the incarnation of the divine Logos, his redeeming death, resurrection, etc., the fourth speaks of the fulfillment of the prophecies of Christ concerning the extension of his kingdom, the destruction of Jerusalem, the Temple, etc.; the fifth book refutes the objections made to Christ's miracles as being magical humbug or invented by his disciples.
Of greater import are the Festal Letters of Athanasillus, long lost in the Greek original, but found in a Nitrian MS., from which they were edited by Cureton in 1846, who also published an English translation in 1848; another English a translation is given by Burgess and Williams in the Library of the Fathers (Oxform, 1854); they were translated into German and annotated by Larsow (Leips. 1852), while the original, with a Latin translation, is given by Mai in the Nova Patrum Bibliotheca (Rom. 1853), 6:1-168.
Besides the writers already mentioned, we must name Titus, bishop of Bostra, who wrote four books against the Manihieans, imperfect in the Greek, but complete in the Syriac translation, and edited by Lagarde, Tifi Bostreni contra Manichceos Libri IV Syriace (Berl. 1859); Cyril of Alexandria, whose commentary on Luke has been edited by Payne Smith, S. Cyrilli Alex. Archiep. Commentarii in Lucce Evangelium (Oxford, 1858). Of the translations of Gregory of Nyssa and Chrysostom only a few fragments have been published (see Zingerle, Monumenta Syriaca, 1, 111, 117). The Physiologus, erronieously ascribed to Basil, was published (1795) by Tyschen, Physiologus Syrus, seu Hist. Animalium 32 in Sacra Scriptura Memoratorum. A part of the Paradise, an account of the acts and discourses of the most eminent Egyptian monks, erroneously ascribed to Palladius and Jerome, has been published by Dietrich, Codd. Syriacorum Specimina, quae ad Illustrandam Dogmatis de Cesna Sacra, nee non Scripturae Syr. Historiam facerent (Marburg, 1855).
After the 5th century, the translations — from Greek Church fathers gradually cease, because the Syrians from that time on either belong to the Nestorians or Monophysites. The Nestorians translated the writings of Diodorus and Theodore of Mopsuestia for excerpts from their writings (see Lagarde, Analecta), while Theodore's commentary on Genesis has lately been published by Sachau, Theodori thopsuesteni Fragmenta Syriaca, edidit aftgue in Latf. seran. vertit (Lips. 1869); the Monophysites translated Severus's writings, whose homilies were translated at the same time by Paul of Callinicum, and later by Jacob of Edessa. Four visitation discourses of Severus are translated into Latin from the Syriac by Mai in Script. Veterum, Nova Coll. 9:742 sq. Some fragments from Jacob's translation of Severus's homilies are published by Martin, who also published Jacob's epistle to George, bishop of Sarug, concerning Syriac orthography (see Jacobi Episc. Edesseni Epistola ad Georgium Episc. Sarugensem de Orthographia Syriaca; subsequntur ejusdem Jacobi necnon Thomsa Diaconi Tractatus de Punctis aliaque Documenta in eandem materiam (Paris, 1869), to which must be added Phillips, A Letter by Mar Jacob on Syriac Orthography, also a Tract by the same author, and a Discourse by Gregorius bar-Hebr. on Syriac Accents (Lond. 1869), to which are added appendices. In fine, we mention the translation of the epistles of pope Julius I, which is given by Lagarde in his Analecta, p. 67- 79, while the original Greek is contained in Mai's SS. Vett. Nova Coll. 7:165, and in the Appendix to Lagarde's Titi Bostreni. Of translations from other languages besides the Greek, little is to be said, unless we mention the-works into modern Syriac issued from the press at Urumiah, as the translation of the Bible, of Baxter's Rest of the Saints, Bunvan's Pilgrim's Progress, etc.
IV. Liturgies. — The Syrian churches are rich in sacramental liturgies. The Eastern Syrians use a liturgical form, which has been transmitted to them by the apostles of Edessa and Seleucia, Addai and Maris, while the Western Syrians use the liturgy of James, which has become the basis for the liturgical service throughout the Orient. The works which treat on the Oriental liturgies are Assemani's Codex Liturg. (Rom. 1749-66); Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientt. Collectio (Par. 1716); Daniel, Cod. Lit. (Lips. 1853), tom. 4; Neale, History of the Holy Eastern Church (Lond. 1850); Neale and Littledale, The Liturgies of SS. Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom, and Basil, and the Church of Malabar (2nd ed. ibid. 1869), translated with introduction and appendices.
The liturgical service (Kurbono, "the oblation or access;" also Kudsho, "the holy ritual") of all the Syrian churches consists of two principal parts, the first being performed in the public congregation, composed alike of the faithful and the general hearers, but the second available only to the baptized, or believers. This latter part is called anaphora, or "the uplifting," a term referring both to the presentation of the eucharistic materials on the altar and to the devotional elevation of the mind in the communicants. Of these anaphoras, a few are the productions of Syrian fathers; the rest are versions or adaptations from the Greek. The oldest anaphora is that of James, which is the basis of that great number of anaphoras which are used among the Jacobites and Maronites. The lesser liturgy of James is an abridgment of the former by Gregory bar-Hebraeus. This is used on comparatively private occasions, as baptisms and matrimony. To Peter, chief of the apostles, are ascribed the Jacobitic anaphoras, found by Retaudot and by Howard in his Christians of St. Thomas and their Liturgies from Syriac MSS. (Oxf. and Load. 1864). The Liturgy of the Twelve Apostles, compiled by Luke, is found by Renaudot, Howard, Neale, and Littledale. There are also liturgies ascribed to John, Mark, Clement of Rome, Dionysius of Athens, Ignatius of Antioch, Matthew the pastor, Xystus and Julius (bishops of Rome), and Celestine, whose liturgy Wright published (The Liturgy of St. Celestine, Bishop of Rome) in the Jour. of Sac. Lit. April, 1867, p. 332. To orthodox Greek fathers are ascribed the anaphoras of Eustathius of Antioch, Basil; Gregory of Nazianzum, Chrysostom, and Cyril of Alexandria. To orthodox Syrians are ascribed the anaphoras of Maruthas, Jacob of Sarug, and Simeon the Persian. To Greek heretics belong the anaphoras of Severus of Antioch and Dioscurus of Alexandria.
All these anaphoras are either spurious or very dubious, while those prepared by the bishops, especially the patriarchs of the Syrian Jacobites, have more historical foundation in their favor. Of such we mention Philoxenus, Jacob Bardaeus, Thomas of Charchel, John of Bassora, Jacob of Edessa, Eleazar bar-Sabetha of Babylon (also called "Philoxenus of Bagdad" in the 9th century), Moses Barcepha, John bar-Shushan (d. 1073), John of Haran and Mardin (d. 1165; in Catholic missals erroneously called "Chrysostom"), Dionysius bar-Calib, the patriarchs Michael the Elder, John Scriba or the Lesser (towards the beginning of the 13th century), John Ibn- Maadani (d. 1263), Gregory bar-Hebraeus, Dioscorls of Kardu (at the end of the 13th century), and Ignatius Ibi-Wahib (d. 1332).
All the anaphoras which we have mentioned are published either in the original or in a translation, but there are some which are extant only in MS. or known from incidental quotations. Altogether there are about sixty anaphoras belonging to the family of Syro-Jacobitic liturgies.
From the West-Syrian liturgies we come now to East-Syrians, who, as we have already stated, used a liturgical form transmitted to them from Addai and Maris, which is the Norma normans, while sometimes the anaphoras of Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius is used. The latter was, according to Ebedjesu, translated by Thomas of Edessa and Marabbau.The anaphoras of Narses, Barsumas, and Diodore of Tarsus, mentioned by Ebedjesu, are lost. The liturgy of the apostles, together with the Gospels and Epistles, is found in Syriac in the Missale Cherldaicum ex Decreto S. Congreg. de Propaganda Fide editum (Rom. 1767); Ordo Chaldaicus Missal 'Beatorum app. juxta Ritum Eccles. Malabar. (ibid. 1774) Ordo Chaldaicus Rituum et Lectionum juxta Moremn Eccl. Malachi (ibid. 1775); Tukhse we Kejane da Chedata wa de Attiketha akh Tekhsa Kaldaja de Malabar (ibid. 1844) (comp. also Renaudot, Neale, and Littledale [loc. cit.]).
V. Ritual — the main work on this subject is Denzinger's Ritus Orientaliun Copo, Copm, Syrorum et Armenorum in Administrandis
Sacramentis (Würzburg 1863-64, 2 vols.), who collected his material from Assemani, Codex Liturg. Ecclesice Universae in XV libr. distributus (Rom. 1749-66), and perused that left by the late Renaudot, as well as the documents copied for that purpose by Zingerle from MSS. at Rome. The ritual for "baptism" among the Nestorians, said to be used by the apostles Addai and Maris, and fixed by Jesaujab of Adiabene in the 7th century, is found in the Cod. Lit., by Badger in his Nestorians, and Denzinger. The Jacobites have many baptismal rituals, one of which is ascribed to James, the brother of the Lord; while another, transmitted by Christ to the apostles, and instituted by Severus, is, according to a Florentine MS., said to have been translated into Syriac by Jacob of Edessa (comp. Assemani, Bibliothecae Medicece, Laurentiance et Palatinc Codicum Manuscript. Orient. Catalogus [Flor. 1742], p. 83). The same Severus is said to have prepared two other baptismal rituals; besides, there is one by Philoxenus for cases of emergency. In three forms (for a boy, a girl, and many candidates) we have an order of baptism ascribed to Jacob of Edessa; another, called after St. Basil, is said to be of Melchitic origin, although the Jacobites use it. All these orders are found by Assemani and Denzinger. The Maronites also use the formulas of the apostles James and Jacob of Edessa; besides, they have one by Jacob of Sarug, an anonymous one, and one named after St. Basil. The latter two are only found by Deenzinger, tie first also by Assemani. The distribution of the "eucharist" is described in the liturgies. The "penitential rite" as prescribed by the Nestorian Jesljab of Adiabene, together with that of the Jacobite Dionysius bar-Calib and other Jacobitic documents, are given by Denzinger, who also gives the Nestorian and Maronitic rite of "ordination," on which also see Lee, The Validity of the Holy Orders of the Church of England (Lond. 1869). The order for "matrimony" according to the Nestorian and Jacobitic rite is also given by Denzinger. The sacrament of "extreme unction" has gradually disappeared among the Nestorians, although there is no doubt that it existed at an early time, as may be seen from several allusions made to it by Ephrem (see also Codl. Vat. Syr. 119, p. 127-128). The Jacobitic Ordo Lamnpadis (as this sacrament is called by the Western Syrians), Denzinger gives after Trombellii Tractatus III de Extrema Unctione (Bologna, 1776). In conclusion, we only add that the extensive Nestorian ritual for the burial of a priest is given, in English by Badger (loc. cit. 2, p. 282 sq.), and in the Officium Defunctorum, ad Usum Maronitarumn Gregorii XIII Impensa Chaldaicis Characteribus Impressum (Rom. 1585), we find the ritual for the dead, both clerical and lay.
VI. The Breviary. — On this subject see, besides the breviaries, Badger (loc. cit. 2, 16-25), Dietrich (Commentatio de-Psalterii Usu Publico et Divisione in Ecclesia Syriaca [ Marburg, 1862]), and the art SEE BREVITARY in this Cyclopaedia. The Nestorian office in its present form may be traced back to the 5th century. As early as the 5th century Theodul wrote on the mode of the recitation of the psalms in the office (q.v.). Narses wrote proclamations and hymns for the same, and Micha and Abraham of Bethrabban treat of the Kathismatal (q.v.) of the nocturn. In the 6th century, Marabba instituted antiphons (canons) for all psalms, while Babeus arranged the hymns for the days of the saints and other festivals. In the 7th century, according to the testimony of Thomas Margensis, the Proprium de Tempore (chudra) was arranged by Jesujab of Adiabene, which occasionally was altered by the insertion of new prayers and hymns, until it received its final revision about 1250 in the monastery of Deir Ellaitha at Miosul.
For better understanding, it is necessary to know the division of the Psalter among the Nestorians, which almost corresponds to that of the Greek Church. The book of Psalms is divided into twenty hullalas, to which is added as the twenty-first the song of Exodus 16 and Deuteronomy 32. The hullalas are again subdivided into fifty-seven (inclusive of Exodus 16 and De 32:52) marmithas. Each marmitha is preceded by a prayer and succeeded by the Gloria Patri. Each psalm has an antiphon (canon) after the first verse, which serves very often to impress the whole with a specific Christian character. The psalms thus arranged were printed at Mosul in 1866 and twice at Rome, Psalterium Chaldaicum in Usum Nationis Chald. editum (1842), and Breviarium G. Chald. in Usum Nat. Chald. a Jos. Guriel, secundo editumn (1865). As it is not the object of this article to give a description of the breviary, we here mention only, for such as are interested, Dietrich, Morgengebete der alten Kirche des Orients für die Festzeiten (Leips. 1864); Tatkhsa de teshmeshatha itainjatha de jaumatha shechine ve da star ve methida Kethaba dakdam vadebathar (Mosutl, 1866); Schinfelder, in the Tübingen Quartalschrift, 1866, p. 179 sq.
The Western Syriac or Jacobitic office, with which the Maronitic corresponds for the greater part, is distinguished not only from the Eastern Syriac but also from all others, in not having the psalms as its main substance. The Jacobitic office is found in Breviariumn Feriale Syriacum ,
SS. Ephraemi et. Jacobi Syrorum juxta Ritum ejusdem Nationis, quod incipit a Feria II usaue ad Sabbatum inclusive; addifis variis Hymnis ac Benedictionibus. Ab Athan. Saphar Episcopo Mardin (Rom. 1696). The Sunday office may be found in Officium Feriale juxta Ritlum Ecclesiae Syrorum (ibid. 1851). The office for the Passion week was published by Clodius from a Leipsic MS. in 1720, Liturgice Syriacae Septimanae Passionis Dom. N. I. Chr. excerptume Cod. MS. Biblioth. Lips. ed. ac notis illustr.
The Maronitic festival office is found in Officia Sanctorum juxta Ritum Ecclesice Macaronitarum (Rom. 1666, 2 vols. fol.), and in Breviarium Syriacum, Officium Feriale jurt. Rit. Eccl. Syr. Maron. Innocentii X Pont. Max. Jussu Editum, Denuo Typis Excusum (5th ed. ibid. 1863), with an appendix containing the Officium Defunctorum and other prayers. An edition of the office was published on Mount Lebanon in 1855, Be shem abba va bera va ructia de Kudsha alaha sharira tabeinan shechimeth akh ejada de ifa de Maronaje.
It may not be out of order to speak here of the Syrian Church lectionary. The MSS. of the Syriac New Test., are strangers to the modern division of the books into chapters and verses, instead of which they divide the several books (except the Apocalypse) into reading lessons of different lengths, but averaging about fifteen of our verses. Thus the first lesson (Mt 1:1-17) is for the Sunday before Christmas; the second (ver. 1825) is entitled the revelation to Joseph; the third (Mt 2:1-12), vespers of Christmas; the fourth (Mt 2:13-18), matins of slaughter of the infants, etc. The four Gospels contain 248 lessons, of which seven are unappropriated or serve for any day, and the remaining 241 serve for 252 different occasions. The Acts and the Epistles (which are collectively called the Apostles) contain 242 lessons, of which twenty are unappropriated, and the remaining 222 serve for 241 occasions. On most of the occasions there was one lesson appointed from the Gospels, and one also from the Apostles. A tabular view of these lessons is given in the first appendix to Murdock's New Test. from the Syriac Peshito version (N.Y. 1869).
VII. Hymnology. — According to Hahn, the first hymnologist of the Syrians was the celebrated Gnostic Bardesanes, who flourished in the second half of the 2nd century. In this he is in some degree supported by Ephrem in his Fifty-third Homily against Heretics (2, 553), where, although he does not actually assert that Bardesanes was the inventor of measures, yet he speaks of him in terms which show that he not only wrote hymns, but also imply that at least he revived and brought into fashion a taste for hymnology:
"For these things Bardesanes Uttered in his writings. He composed odes, And mingled them with music. He harmonized psalms And introduced measures By-measures and balances He divided words. He has concealed for the simple The bitter with the sweet; For the sickly do not prefer Food which is wholesome. He sought to imitate David, To adorn himself with his beauty So that he might be praised by the likeness. He therefore set in order Psalms one hundred and fifty, But he deserted the truth of David, And only imitated his numbers." It is to be regretted that of the hymns of Bardesanes which, it appears, in consequence, of their high poetic merit, exercised an extensive influence over the religions opinions of the age in which he lived, and gave so much strength and popularity to his Gnostic errors a very few fragments only remain. These fragments are to be found scattered through the works of Ephrem. For Bardesanes, see the excellent monograph by Hahn, Bardesanus Gnosticus Syrorum Primus Hymnologus (Lips. 1819), who makes the following beautiful remark: "Gnosticism itself is poetry; it is not therefore wonderful that among its votaries true poets should have been found. Tertullian mentions the psalms of Valentinus; and Marcus, his disciple, a contemporary of Bardesanes, inculcated his Gnosticism in a song, in which he introduced the Eons conversing" (loc. cit. p. 28). Harmonins, the son of Bardesanes, stands next in the history of this subject, both chronologically and for his successful cultivation of sacred poetry. He was educated in the language and wisdom of Greece, and there can be no question that he would make his knowledge of the exquisite metrical compositions of that literature bear on the improvement of his own. This is said on the presumption that the accounts of the ecclesiastical historians Sozomen and Theodoret are credible. The former states, in his Life of Ephrem, lib. 3 c. 16, that "Harmonius, the son of Bardesanes, having been well educated in Grecian literature was the first who subjected his native language to meters and musical laws (πρῶτον μέτροις καὶ νόμοις μουσικοῖς τὴν πάτριον φωνὴν ὑπαγαγεῖν) and adapted it to choirs of singers, as the Syrians now commonly chant not, indeed, using the Writings of Harmonius, but his numbers (τοῖς μέλεσι); for, not being altogether free from his father's heresy and the things which the Grecian philosophers boasted of concerning the soul, the body, and regeneration (παλιγγενεσίας), having set these to music he mixed them with his own writings." The notice of Theodoret is yet more brief. He says (lib. 4 c. 29): "And since Harmonius, the son of Bardesanes, had formerly composed certain songs, and, mingling his impiety with the sweetness of music, enticed his hearers and allured them to destruction, having taken from him metrical harmony (τὴν ἁρμονίαν τοῦ μέλους), Ephrem mixed godliness with it," etc. This statement is not confirmed by Ephrem, who attributes to the father what the Greek historians ascribe to the son. Hahn admits, without any expressed hesitation, the testimony of the Greek historians, their mistake as to the invention of the meters excepted, and ingeniously traces to Harmonius certain features of the Syriac poetry (Ueber den Gesansge in der syrischen Kirche, p. 61). Assemani, in his Bibliotheca Orientalis, 1, 61, makes an incidental allusion to Harmonius, intimating that in the later transcriptions of Syriac literature his name and influence were acknowledged, since both he and his father, Bardesanes, are mentioned in MSS. as the inventors of meters.
Until we come to Ephrem, there is one more name which has historical or traditionary importance in Syriac metrical literature — that is Balseus, or more properly Balai, who, as Hahn says (Bardesanus, p. 47), "gave his name to the pentasyllabic meter, because the orthodox Syriais entertained a horror of Bardesanes." Before Ephrem, according to the catalogue of Ebedjesu, lived Simeon, bishop of Seleucia, who suffered martyrdom about the year 296. Two of his hymns are, according to Assemaui, to be found in the sacred offices of the Chaldaeans. The greatest of all hymn-writers whose works are extant, and whose hymns have been translated into.German as well as into English (see Burgess, Aetrical Hymns and Homilies [Lond. 1853]), was Ephrem Syrus (q.v.). Besides these writers, the following are mentioned by Ebedjesu Paulona, a disciple of Ephrem; Marutha, bishop of Maiphercata; Narses of Edessa, surnamed "the harp of the spirit," who used the hexasyllabic meter; Jacob of Edessa; Babi bar- Nisibone about A.D. 720; Jacob, bishop of Chalatia, about A.D. 740; Shalita, bishop of Rashana, about A.D. 740; Saliba of Mesopotamia, about A.D. 781; Chabib-Jesu bar-Nun of Bethabara, about A.D. 820; Jesujahab bar-Malkun of Nisibis, about A.D. 1222; Chamisius bar-Kardachi; George Varda, about 1538; Simeon, bishop of Amiola, about 1616; and Gabriel Hesna.
VIII. Literature. —Assemani, Bibliotheca Orient. Clementino-Vatic. (Rom. 1719-28, 3 vols.; abridged by Pfeiffer, Erlangen, 1776, 2 vols.); Assemani [S. E. and J. S.], Bibliothecae Apostol. Vatic. Codic. MSS. Castal. (Rom. 1785 sq.); Mai, Catal. Codd. Bibl. Vatic. Arab. etc., item ejus partis. Hebr. et Syriaci quam Assemani in editione sua protermiserunt (ibid. 1831); Rosen, Catal. Codd. MSS. Orientalium qui in Museo Britannico asservantur (Lond. 1838 sq.); Wiseman, Hore Syriace (Rom. 1829); Wenrich, De Auctorum Graec. Versionibus et Commentariis Syriscis (Lips. 1842). Besides the works already mentioned in this article, see the article "Syrische Sprache u. Literatur" in the Regensburger Allgemeine Real-Encyklop.; Etheridge, The Syrian Churches and Gospels (Lond.,1846); Bickell, "Syrisches fur deutsche Theolbgen" in the Liter. Band weiser, No. 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 86, 88, 91, 92; id. Conspectus Rei Syrorum Literarice Additis Notis Bibliographicis et Excerptis Anecdotis (Milner, 1871); Hermann, Bibliotheca Orientalis et Linguistica (Halle, 1870); and Friederici, Bibliotheca Orientalis (Lond. 1876, 1877, 1878). (B.P.).