Syllabus (Gr. συλλαβός, a collection,i., e. catalogue), PAPAL, is the title given to the appendix to the encyclical letter issued by pope Pius IX, Dec. 8, 1864. It was "a list of the principal errors of the day pointed out in the consistorial allocutions, encyclical and other apostolical letters of pope Pius IX," and enumerating, under ten general heads or sections, eighty of these errors. These ten sections of errors are entitled, "
I. Pantheism, Naturalism, and Absolute Rationalism;" "II. Moderate Rationalism;" "III. Indifferentism, Toleration;" "IV. Socialism, Communism, Secret Societies, Bible Societies, Clerico-liberal Societies;" "V. Errors respecting the Church and her Rights;" "VI. Errors of Civil Society, as much in themselves as considered in their relations to the Church;" "VII. Errors in Natural and Christian Morals;" "VIII. Errors as to Christian Marriage;" "IX. Errors regarding the Civil Power of the Sovereign Pontiff;" "X. Errors referring to Modern Liberalism." Some of the specifications under these general heads have respect to religious freedom, the separation of Church and State, the civil contract of marriage, education outside of the control of the Roman Catholic Church, the conflict between the civil law and the spiritual authority of the Church, the immunities of the clergy, the cessation of the pope's temporal power, etc. Much excitement was created by the appearance of this bull and syllabus, especially in France; Jules Baroche, minister of public worship, forbidding the bishops to publish the syllabus and the doctrinal part of the bull. Elsewhere the civil governments did not interfere.
For literature, see Schulte, The Power of the Romans over Princes, Countries, etc. (1871); Fessler, True and False Infallibility of the Popes (Vienna, 1871; Lond. and N.Y. 1875); Gladstone, The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance (1874), with replies by Newman, Manning, and others.