Surname Names were at first expressive, as those of Scripture. According to Du Cange, surnames were originally written, not after the Christian-name, but above it, and so were "supernomina" over names. The first or Christian name is usually given at baptism. Hereditary surnames did not exist in England till after the Norman Conquest. They are taken from locality, as Field or Forest from occupation, as Fisher or Miller, Pilgrim or Palmer; from personal qualities, as Black or Brown; from natural objects, as. Lemon or Lamb, Peel or Hog, Steel or Jewel, etc. As distinct from the surname, the sirname or sire's name is a natural addition, with son, Mac, or Fitz, O, ap, wich, or sky (all signifying son); as Donaldson or Macdonald, Fitzgerald, O'Connell, Alexandrowich, Petrousky ap Howel becoming Powel, and ap Richard becoming Prichard.