Standing as a posture of worship, was the general observance of the whole Church on the Lord's day, and the fifty days between Easter and Pentecost, in memory of our Savior's resurrection. Justin Martyr (Quoest. et Respons. ad Orthodox. qu. 115) says, "Forasmuch as we ought to remember both our fall by sin, and the grace of Christ, by which we rise again from our fall, therefore we pray kneeling six days, as a symbol of our fall by sin; but our not kneeling on the Lord's day is a symbol of the resurrection, whereby through the grace of Christ we are delivered from our sins, and from death, which is mortified thereby." Psalmody, being esteemed a considerable part of devotion, was usually, if not always, performed standing. An exception was made in the monasteries of Egypt, the monks, by reason of fasting, being unable to stand all the time while twelve psalms were read. Each one stood while reading, and at the last psalm they all stood up and repeated it alternately, adding the Gloria Patri at the end. At the reading of the Gospel it was ordered by pope Anastasius that all the people should stand up; and some of the Middle-age ritualists take notice of their saying, "Glory be to thee, O Lord," at the naming of it. Formerly those who had staves laid them down as a sign of submission to the Gospel; and the military orders, after the example of the Polish king Miecislas (968), drew their swords. It was usual for the people also to listen to the preaching in this posture, although this was not universal. The eucharist was generally received standing, sometimes kneeling, but never sitting. See Bingham, Christ. Antiq. (see Index). SEE ATTITUDE.

Definition of standing

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

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