Sickness (usually some form of חָלָה, to be worn down; ἀσθενέω). The climate of Palestine and the adjoining countries is, on the whole, conducive to health (Tacitus, Hist. v, 6, 2), and with regularity of habits the natives do not suffer much from maladies (Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 129). When these do occur they are usually of short duration. A list of the more severe diseases occurs in Le 26:16; De 28:22. In summer dysentery prevails (Ac 28:8); in spring and autumn fever (Mt 8:14; Lu 4:39; Joh 4:52; Ac 28:8; comp. Josephus, Life, ii; see Russel, Aleppo, ii, 137; Burckhardt, Arab. p. 615; also the Medic.-hermn. Untersuchungen, p. 348 sq.). The latter is specially designated as דִּלֶּקֶת, dalleketh, πυρετός, or inflammation (De 28:22). A peculiar name is קִדִּחִת, kaddchath ("'burning ague," Le 26:16; "fever," De 28:22), which the Sept. renders ἴκτερος, some acute disease (see Schleusner, Thesaur. iii, 106). Mention is also made of consumption (שִׁחֶפֶת, shachepheth, Leviticus loc. cit.), apoplexy (1 Macc. 9:55 sq.), sunstroke (Judith 8:3. [? 2. Kings 4:19]; comp. Joliffe, Trav. p. 7), hypochondria (1Sa 18:10); but epilepsy, paralysis, and especially cutaneous disorders SEE LEPROSY, as likewise blindness, were very common. The most destructively raging was the plague (q.v.) Mental diseases (madness, שַּׁגָּעוֹן, of a melancholy type; comp. 1Sa 16:23) were prevalent in New-Test. times. SEE POSSESSED. The venereal disease, which prevailed in the Old World, although in a milder type than since the Crusades (Hensler, Gesch. d. Lustseuche [Altona, 1783]; Sickler, in Augusti's Theol. Blitt. i, 193 sq.), has been thought to be indicated in the form of Gonorrhea virulenta in Le 15:3 (see Michaelis, Mos. Recht, 4:282 sq.; Oriental. Biblioth. 22:2 sq.; Hebenstreit, Curce Sanitatis Publ. ap. Vett. Exempla [Lips. 1779], ii, 15 sq.) and in 2Sa 3:29; but this is a strained interpretation. SEE ISSUE. Another disease of the private parts is mentioned in 1 Samuel 5 (see Beyer, De Haemorrhoidibus ex Lege Mos. Inmpur. [Lips. 1792]; Sprenge],Pathol. iii, 29). SEE HAEMORRHOIDS. Jehboram's disease (2Ch 21:12 sq.) probably was a severe chronic dysentery of a bloody character. The Sept. seems to indicate the cholera in Nu 11:10 by the word זָרָא (seeWamruch, Disquis. Med. Cholerce, cujus Mentio in Sacris Bibliis Occurrit [Vienna, 1833]); but the term denotes nausea in general. The Mishna occasionally notices various maladies, e.g. in Yoma, 8:6 the bulimmia (בולמיס), or greediness, which is a frequent concomitant of other diseases. For the bite of a rabid dog '(כלב שוטה), the caul of the liver of the animal seems sometimes to have been used as a remedy (see Cohn, De Medicina Talmud. [Vratislav. 1846]; of no account is Goldmann, Diss. de Rel. Med. V. T. [ibid. 1845]). Ill general, see Wedel, Exercitatt. Med.-philolog. Sacrce: et Profanae (Jen. 1686,.1704);
Schmidt, Bibl. Moedicus (Ziillichau, 1743); Reinhard, Bibelkrankheiten (Frankf. and Leips. 1767, 3 vols. 8vo) Michaelis, Philologmata Medica (Hal. 1758); Mead, Medica Sacra (Lond. 1749); Ackermann, Erldut. d. Krankheiten im N.T. (in Weisse's Material. Gottesgel. u. Relig. [Gera, 1784], ii, 57 sq.; iii, 124 sq.; 4:73 sq.); Shapler, Short Exposition of Diseases in the Sacred Writings (Lond. 1834). SEE DISEASE; SEE MEDICINE.